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“Connectome psychiatry”

Sheldon H Preskorn
Based extensively on tables and figures, this chapter reviews drug development in psychiatry with an emphasis on antidepressants from 1950s to the present and then looks forward to the future. It begins with the chance discovery drugs and then moves to through their rational refinement using structure activity relationships to narrow the pharmacological actions of the drugs to those mediating their antidepressant effects and eliminating the effects on targets that mediate adverse effects. This approach yielded newer antidepressants which compared to older antidepressants are safer and better tolerated but nevertheless do still not treat the approximately 40% of patients with major depression (MD) which is unresponsive to biogenic amine mechanisms of action...
December 21, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Charles E Dean
Given the failure of psychiatry to develop clinically useful biomarkers for psychiatric disorders, and the concomitant failure to develop significant advances in diagnosis and treatment, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) in 2010 launched the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), a framework for research based on the assumption that mental disorders are disorders of identifiable brain neural circuits, with neural circuitry at the center of units of analysis ranging from genes, molecules, and cells to behavior, self-reports, and paradigms...
January 2019: Psychological Medicine
Lianne H Scholtens, Martijn P van den Heuvel
The human brain is a highly complex system, with a large variety of microscale cellular morphologies and macroscale global properties. Working at multiple scales, it forms an efficient system for processing and integration of multimodal information. Studies have repeatedly demonstrated strong associations between modalities of both microscales and macroscales of brain organization. These consistent observations point toward potential common organization principles where regions with a microscale architecture supportive of a larger computational load have more and stronger connections in the brain network on the macroscale...
September 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Tushar Das, Stefan Borgwardt, Daniel J Hauke, Fabienne Harrisberger, Undine E Lang, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Lena Palaniyappan, André Schmidt
Importance: There is urgent need to improve the limited prognostic accuracy of clinical instruments to predict psychosis onset in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. As yet, no reliable biological marker has been established to delineate CHR individuals who will develop psychosis from those who will not. Objectives: To investigate abnormalities in a graph-based gyrification connectome in the early stages of psychosis and to test the accuracy of this systems-based approach to predict a transition to psychosis among CHR individuals...
June 1, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Charles E Dean
BACKGROUND: Despite five decades of increasingly elegant studies aimed at advancing the pathophysiology and treatment of mental illness, the results have not met expectations. Diagnoses are still based on observation, the clinical history, and an outmoded diagnostic system that stresses the historic goal of disease specificity. Psychotropic drugs are still based on molecular targets developed decades ago, with no increase in efficacy. Numerous biomarkers have been proposed, but none have the requisite degree of sensitivity and specificity, and therefore have no usefulness in the clinic...
December 19, 2017: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
R Magalhães, D A Barrière, A Novais, F Marques, P Marques, J Cerqueira, J C Sousa, A Cachia, F Boumezbeur, M Bottlaender, T M Jay, S Mériaux, N Sousa
Stress is a well-established trigger for a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, as it alters both structure and function of several brain regions and its networks. Herein, we conduct a longitudinal neuroimaging study to assess how a chronic unpredictable stress protocol impacts the structure of the rat brain and its functional connectome in both high and low responders to stress. Our results reveal the changes that stress triggers in the brain, with structural atrophy affecting key regions such as the prelimbic, cingulate, insular and retrosplenial, somatosensory, motor, auditory and perirhinal/entorhinal cortices, the hippocampus, the dorsomedial striatum, nucleus accumbens, the septum, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the thalamus and several brain stem nuclei...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
D A Moser, G E Doucet, A Ing, D Dima, G Schumann, R M Bilder, S Frangou
Working memory (WM) is a central construct in cognitive neuroscience because it comprises mechanisms of active information maintenance and cognitive control that underpin most complex cognitive behavior. Individual variation in WM has been associated with multiple behavioral and health features including demographic characteristics, cognitive and physical traits and lifestyle choices. In this context, we used sparse canonical correlation analyses (sCCAs) to determine the covariation between brain imaging metrics of WM-network activation and connectivity and nonimaging measures relating to sensorimotor processing, affective and nonaffective cognition, mental health and personality, physical health and lifestyle choices derived from 823 healthy participants derived from the Human Connectome Project...
October 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Pierre Bourdillon, Caroline Apra, Marc Lévêque, Fabien Vinckier
Contrary to common psychosurgical practice in the 1950s, Dr. Jean Talairach had the intuition, based on clinical experience, that the brain connectome and neuroplasticity had a role to play in psychosurgery. Due to the remarkable progress of pharmacology at that time and to the technical limits of neurosurgery, these concepts were not put into practice. Currently, these concepts are being confirmed by modern techniques such as neuroimaging and computational neurosciences, and could pave the way for therapeutic innovation in psychiatry...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
Deanna M Barch
A key tenet of modern psychiatry is that psychiatric disorders arise from abnormalities in brain circuits that support human behavior. Our ability to examine hypotheses around circuit-level abnormalities in psychiatric disorders has been made possible by advances in human neuroimaging technologies. These advances have provided the basis for recent efforts to develop a more complex understanding of the function of brain circuits in health and of their relationship to behavior-providing, in turn, a foundation for our understanding of how disruptions in such circuits contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders...
September 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Lea Waller, Henrik Walter, Johann D Kruschwitz, Lucia Reuter, Sabine Müller, Susanne Erk, Ilya M Veer
Establishing reliable, robust, and unique brain signatures from neuroimaging data is a prerequisite for precision psychiatry, and therefore a highly sought-after goal in contemporary neuroscience. Recently, the procedure of connectome fingerprinting, using brain functional connectivity profiles as such signatures, was shown to be able to accurately identify individuals from a group of 126 subjects from the Human Connectome Project (HCP). However, the specificity and generalizability of this procedure were not tested...
September 2017: NeuroImage
Karl Friston, Harriet R Brown, Jakob Siemerkus, Klaas E Stephan
Twenty years have passed since the dysconnection hypothesis was first proposed (Friston and Frith, 1995; Weinberger, 1993). In that time, neuroscience has witnessed tremendous advances: we now live in a world of non-invasive neuroanatomy, computational neuroimaging and the Bayesian brain. The genomics era has come and gone. Connectomics and large-scale neuroinformatics initiatives are emerging everywhere. So where is the dysconnection hypothesis now? This article considers how the notion of schizophrenia as a dysconnection syndrome has developed - and how it has been enriched by recent advances in clinical neuroscience...
October 2016: Schizophrenia Research
López-Ibor Aliño Juan José
Psychiatry is going through a deep crisis, both as a scientific discipline as a medical specialty. In the present paper we consider in length what we consider to be the two aspects that could explain the situation: the recurring disappointment with classification systems and the persistence of a localizacionism inadequate to explain normal and pathological behavior. Psychiatry lacks a definition of mental disorder that covers all situations, there are difficulties in drawing a precise distinction between normality and psychopathology, and the majority of these "diagnostic" categories are not validated by biological criteria...
2014: Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Medicina
Cheolmin Shin, Changsu Han, Chi-Un Pae, Ashwin A Patkar
INTRODUCTION: Precision medicine is an emerging medical model that can provide accurate diagnoses and tailored therapeutic strategies for patients based on data pertaining to genes, microbiomes, environment, family history and lifestyle. AREAS COVERED: Here, we provide basic information about precision medicine and newly introduced concepts, such as the precision medicine ecosystem and big data processing, and omics technologies including pharmacogenomics, pharamacometabolomics, pharmacoproteomics, pharmacoepigenomics, connectomics and exposomics...
July 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Hugues Duffau
Despite advances in the new science of connectomics, which aims to comprehensively map neural connections at both structural and functional levels, techniques to directly study the function of white matter tracts in vivo in humans have proved elusive. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) mapping of the subcortical fibres offers a unique opportunity to investigate the functional connectivity of the brain. This original method permits real-time anatomo-functional correlations, especially with regard to neural pathways, in awake patients undergoing brain surgery...
May 2015: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Marianne Oldehinkel, Winke Francx, Christian F Beckmann, Jan K Buitelaar, Maarten Mennes
Concurring with the shift from linking functions to specific brain areas towards studying network integration, resting state FMRI (R-FMRI) has become an important tool for delineating the functional network architecture of the brain. Fueled by straightforward data collection, R-FMRI analysis methods as well as studies reporting on R-FMRI have flourished, and already impact research on child- and adolescent psychiatric disorders. Here, we review R-FMRI analysis techniques and outline current methodological debates...
December 2013: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Shan Yang, Zhengyi Yang, Karin Fischer, Kai Zhong, Jörg Stadler, Frank Godenschweger, Johann Steiner, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Hans-Gert Bernstein, Bernhard Bogerts, Christian Mawrin, David C Reutens, Oliver Speck, Martin Walter
Ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) became increasingly relevant for in vivo neuroscientific research because of improved spatial resolutions. However, this is still the unchallenged domain of histological studies, which long played an important role in the investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders. While the field of biological psychiatry strongly advanced on macroscopic levels, current developments are rediscovering the richness of immunohistological information when attempting a multi-level systematic approach to brain function and dysfunction...
2013: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
A Di Martino, C-G Yan, Q Li, E Denio, F X Castellanos, K Alaerts, J S Anderson, M Assaf, S Y Bookheimer, M Dapretto, B Deen, S Delmonte, I Dinstein, B Ertl-Wagner, D A Fair, L Gallagher, D P Kennedy, C L Keown, C Keysers, J E Lainhart, C Lord, B Luna, V Menon, N J Minshew, C S Monk, S Mueller, R-A Müller, M B Nebel, J T Nigg, K O'Hearn, K A Pelphrey, S J Peltier, J D Rudie, S Sunaert, M Thioux, J M Tyszka, L Q Uddin, J S Verhoeven, N Wenderoth, J L Wiggins, S H Mostofsky, M P Milham
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) represent a formidable challenge for psychiatry and neuroscience because of their high prevalence, lifelong nature, complexity and substantial heterogeneity. Facing these obstacles requires large-scale multidisciplinary efforts. Although the field of genetics has pioneered data sharing for these reasons, neuroimaging had not kept pace. In response, we introduce the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE)-a grassroots consortium aggregating and openly sharing 1112 existing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) data sets with corresponding structural MRI and phenotypic information from 539 individuals with ASDs and 573 age-matched typical controls (TCs; 7-64 years) (http://fcon_1000...
June 2014: Molecular Psychiatry
Martijn P van den Heuvel, Olaf Sporns, Guusje Collin, Thomas Scheewe, René C W Mandl, Wiepke Cahn, Joaquín Goñi, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, René S Kahn
IMPORTANCE: The human brain forms a large-scale structural network of regions and interregional pathways. Recent studies have reported the existence of a selective set of highly central and interconnected hub regions that may play a crucial role in the brain's integrative processes, together forming a central backbone for global brain communication. Abnormal brain connectivity may have a key role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE: To examine the structure of the rich club in schizophrenia and its role in global functional brain dynamics...
August 2013: JAMA Psychiatry
F Xavier Castellanos, Adriana Di Martino, R Cameron Craddock, Ashesh D Mehta, Michael P Milham
Central to the development of clinical applications of functional connectomics for neurology and psychiatry is the discovery and validation of biomarkers. Resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) is emerging as a mainstream approach for imaging-based biomarker identification, detecting variations in the functional connectome that can be attributed to clinical variables (e.g., diagnostic status). Despite growing enthusiasm, many challenges remain. Here, we assess evidence of the readiness of R-fMRI based functional connectomics to lead to clinically meaningful biomarker identification through the lens of the criteria used to evaluate clinical tests (i...
October 15, 2013: NeuroImage
Juan J López-Ibor, María-Inés López-Ibor
Following we consider strategies to overcome the situation described in a previous article (López-Ibor JJ, López-Ibor MI. Paving the Way for New Research Strategies in Mental Disorders. First part: the recurring crisis of psychiatry. Actas Esp Psiquiat. 2013;41(1):33-43), by putting emphasis on psychopathology instead than in classification, in functions rather than in diagnostic criteria, to be aware in the progress in neuroscientific monistic perspectives and by importing the methods of the emerging connectomics...
March 2013: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
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