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behavioural neurology

Katherine Osborne-Crowley, Sophie C Andrews, Izelle Labuschagne, Akshay Nair, Rachael Scahill, David Craufurd, Sarah J Tabrizi, Julie C Stout
OBJECTIVES: Previous research has demonstrated an association between emotion recognition and apathy in several neurological conditions involving fronto-striatal pathology, including Parkinson's disease and brain injury. In line with these findings, we aimed to determine whether apathetic participants with early Huntington's disease (HD) were more impaired on an emotion recognition task compared to non-apathetic participants and healthy controls. METHODS: We included 43 participants from the TRACK-HD study who reported apathy on the Problem Behaviours Assessment - short version (PBA-S), 67 participants who reported no apathy, and 107 controls matched for age, sex, and level of education...
February 15, 2019: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Elise R Facer-Childs, Brunno M Campos, Benita Middleton, Debra J Skene, Andrew P Bagshaw
INTRODUCTION: Functional connectivity (FC) of the human brain's intrinsically connected networks underpins cognitive functioning and disruptions of FC are associated with sleep and neurological disorders. However, there is limited research on the impact of circadian phenotype and time of day on FC. STUDY OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate resting state FC of the default mode network (DMN) in Early and Late circadian phenotypes over a socially constrained day...
February 15, 2019: Sleep
Alaa Eldin H Youssef, Abeer E Dief, Nesrine M El Azhary, Doaa A Abdelmonsif, Ola S El-Fetiany
Multiple sclerosis is among the most common causes of neurological disabilities in young adults. Over the past decade, several therapeutic strategies have emerged as having potential neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties. We investigated the effect of intranasal administration of LINGO-1-directed siRNA-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on demyelination and remyelination processes in a rat model of demyelination. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of 6 groups (n = 10 each) and subjected to intrapontine stereotaxic injection of ethidium bromide (EB) to induce demyelination...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Alexandra Fluck, Dirk Enderlein, Anne Piepenbring, Ursula Heffels-Redmann, Sybille Herzog, Kay Pieper, Christiane Herden, Michael Lierz
Parrot bornaviruses (PaBV) are the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease in psittacine birds, but have also been linked to other clinical signs, including behavioural disorders and neurological signs. The aim of this study was to correlate PaBV infection in birds showing feather-damaging behaviour or neurological signs for which no other cause of disease could be identified. Psittacine birds presented to a private practice were divided into three groups: birds with neurological signs (n=28), birds showing feather-damaging behaviour (n=42) and birds presented for routine examinations (n=56)...
February 12, 2019: Veterinary Record
Christopher Till
The use of self-tracking devices has increased dramatically in recent years with enthusiasm from the public as well as public health officers, healthcare providers and workplaces seeking to instigate behaviour change in populations. Analysis of the ontological principles informing the design and implementation of the Apple Watch and corporate wellness programmes using self-tracking technologies shows that their primary focus is on the capture and control of attention rather than material health outcomes. Health, wellness and happiness have been conflated with productivity, which is now deemed to be dependent on the harnessing of libidinal as well as physical energy...
February 13, 2019: Health (London)
Brian P Johnson, Steven M Scharf, Avelino C Verceles, Kelly P Westlake
Sleep is an important component of motor memory consolidation and learning, providing a critical tool to enhance training and rehabilitation. Following initial skill acquisition, memory consolidation is largely a result of non-rapid eye movement sleep over either a full night or a nap. Targeted memory reactivation is one method used to enhance this critical process, which involves the pairing of an external cue with task performance at the time of initial motor skill acquisition, followed by replay of the same cue during sleep...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Sleep Research
Andreas Nørgaard Glud, Steen Jakobsen, Anne M Landau, Aage Kristian Olsen Alstrup, Jens Christian Hedemann Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Intrathecal (IT) delivery is useful in both basic research and clinical treatments. Here we aim to test a new minimally invasive distribution route to the subarachnoid space (SAS) and the flow of IT administrations. We placed a radioligand into SAS during positron emission tomography (PET) scanning as a proof of concept. NEW METHOD: We injected a 11 C-labeled PET-tracer using a surgically placed catheter in the cisterna magna of anesthetized female pigs...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Gerard M Moloney, Wesley E P A van Oeffelen, Feargal J Ryan, Marcel van de Wouw, Caitlin Cowan, Marcus J Claesson, Harriet Schellekens, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Impulsivity is an important component of many psychiatric illnesses and has been associated with a number of psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder and attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Exploring the different aspects of impulsive behaviour and assigning these to specific neurobiological pathways would advance our interpretation of disorders for which impulsivity is key. Pharmacological studies have implicated a number of neurotransmitters in impulsivity, which in turn have been shown to be affected by several genes in both rodent and human studies of impulsivity...
February 6, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
V A Fetisov, D V Bogomolov, P G Dzhuvalyakov, Yu V Zbrueva, S S Kabakova
The frequency of suicides is an indirect indicator of the social welfare without distinction as to the social and political system. This problem is of special importance as regards the well-being of elderly people whose numbers grow steadily all over the world. The extending life expectancy at older ages in the combination with the resulting demographic disproportions have widespread repercussions on the older generation because they are associated with the increase of the negative social trends as exemplified by a case of suicide of the 89 year-old man A who had for a long time suffered from an oncological disease and was entirely dependent upon the assistance from other people...
2019: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Haiyan Yang, Rui Zhang, Chen Jia, Mengyu Chen, Wen Yin, Liming Wei, Haisheng Jiao
CONTEXT: Epilepsy is a common life-threatening neurological disorder that is often drug-resistant and associated with cognitive impairment. The traditional Chinese patent medicine Songling Xuemaikang capsules (SXC) is clinically used for epilepsy therapy and alleviation of cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the neuronal protective effect of SXC combined with carbamazepine (CBZ) on epilepsy and cognitive impairment in kainic acid-kindled SD rats...
December 2019: Pharmaceutical Biology
Marie-Christine Rousseau, Karine Baumstarck, Sherezad Khaldi-Cherif, Catherine Brisse, Agnès Felce, Benjamin Moheng, Anderson Loundou, Thierry Billette de Villemeur, Pascal Auquier
BACKGROUND: Polyhandicap (PLH) is a condition of severe and complex disabilities and is defined by a combination of profound intellectual impairment and serious motor deficits. Parents of PLH individuals are chronically confronted with stressful situations. The aims of this study are i) to assess and compare the quality of life (QoL) of a large panel of parents of PLH individuals with age- and gender-matched controls and ii) to identify potential determinants of parents' QoL. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional study...
2019: PloS One
J Tomas-Roig, M Torrente, M Cabré, E Vilella, M T Colomina
Destruction of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system (CNS) is prominent in many clinico-pathologic conditions. Among animal models that reproduce the pathological features of de- and remyelination processes, the mouse model of cuprizone administration is widely used. Both hyperactivity and motor impairment have been reported upon cuprizone exposure. The aim of the present study was to assess behaviour in mice after CPZ withdrawal.To summarize, animals showed hypo-activity and deficits in motor coordination when they were subjected to acute demyelinating insult while minor exploratory activity, impairment in motor coordination and lower anxiety levels emerged when remyelination was reached following cuprizone withdrawal...
January 28, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Carlotta Detotto, Sarah Isler, Martin Wehrle, Alexei L Vyssotski, Regula Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Thomas C Gent
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the most commonly used gas euthanasia agents in mice, despite reports of aversion and nociception. Inert gases such as nitrogen (N2) may be a viable alternative to carbon dioxide. Here we compared behavioural and electrophysiological reactions to CO2 or N2 at either slow fill or rapid fill in C57Bl/6 mice undergoing gas euthanasia. We found that mice euthanised with CO2 increased locomotor activity compared to baseline, whereas mice exposed to N2 decreased locomotion. Furthermore, mice exposed to CO2 showed significantly more vertical jumps and freezing episodes than mice exposed to N2...
2019: PloS One
Kristina M Haebich, Catherine Willmott, Shannon E Scratch, Leona Pascoe, Katherine J Lee, Megan M Spencer-Smith, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Terrie E Inder, Lex W Doyle, Deanne K Thompson, Peter J Anderson
Executive dysfunction including impaired goal setting (i.e., planning, organization skills, strategic reasoning) is documented in children born very preterm (VP; <30 weeks/<1250 g), however the neurological basis for this impairment is unknown. This study sought to examine the relationship between brain abnormalities and brain volumes on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and goal setting abilities of VP 13-year-olds. Participants were 159 children born VP in a prospective longitudinal study...
January 25, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Patrick Hill
Introduction: Pain is considered to be one of a number of idiosyncratic, context-dependent 'protective actions' projected into the conscious domain by the central nervous system (CNS), as a result of a series of complex interactions in response to perceived threat. A model is described which proposes chronic pain and a variety of long-term, systemic functional neurological conditions to be a consequence of significant dysregulation of these protection systems. The Model: Previous research has demonstrated that a cognitive-behavioural model, first described in 1995 by Surawy et al...
February 2019: British Journal of Pain
Richard Stephen Mpango, Godfrey Zari Rukundo, Sylvia Kiwuwa Muyingo, Kenneth D Gadow, Vikram Patel, Eugene Kinyanda
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of neurological disorders and their associated correlates and relations with clinical and behavioural problems among children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS (CA-HIV). METHODS: This study involved a sample of 1070 CA-HIV/caregiver dyads who were evaluated at their 6-month follow-up visit as part of their participation in the longitudinal study, 'Mental health among HIV infected CHildren and Adolescents in KAmpala and Masaka, Uganda (the CHAKA study)'...
January 21, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Alexandre Lädermann, Jérome Tirefort, Davide Zanchi, Sven Haller, Caecilia Charbonnier, Pierre Hoffmeyer, Gregory Cunningham
Shoulder apprehension is related to changes in functional cerebral networks induced by dislocations, peripheral neuromuscular lesions and persistent mechanical glenohumeral instability consisting of micro-motion.All the damage to the osseous and soft-tissue stabilizers of the shoulder, as well as neurologic impairment persisting even after stabilization, must be properly identified in order to offer the best possible treatment to the patient.There is growing evidence supporting the use of a global multimodal approach, involving, on the one hand, shoulder 'reafferentation', including proprioception, mirror therapy and even cognitive behavioural approaches, and, on the other hand, surgical stabilization techniques and traditional physical therapy in order to minimize persistent micro-motion, which may help brain healing...
October 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
J Schildermans
A craniopharyngioma is a rare, slow-growing tumour in the pituitary gland. Brain tumours usually present with obvious neurological or other physical symptoms, whereas psychiatric symptoms as primary signs are rare. The presented case, in which psychosis and behavioural problems predominated, concerned a 42-year-old patient. Although the tumour was very large when diagnosed, there were no prior neurological signs or signs in the blood sample. Final imaging and histology confirmed the diagnosis of a craniopharyngioma...
2019: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Ji Liu, Guanen Zhou, Bradley J Kolls, Yanli Tan, Chuan Fang, Haichen Wang, Daniel T Laskowitz
Objective: Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) accounts for 3% of all strokes, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There is growing evidence implicating apolipoprotein E (apoE) in mediating adaptive anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective responses following ischaemic and traumatic brain injury. In the current study, we test the efficacy of a small apoE mimetic peptide, CN-105 in a murine model of SAH. Methods: Mice subjected to SAH received repeated intravenous injections of CN-105 every 12 hours for 3 days, with the first dose given 2 hours after injury...
December 2018: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
Wai Hang Cheng, Kris M Martens, Asma Bashir, Honor Cheung, Sophie Stukas, Ebrima Gibbs, Dhananjay R Namjoshi, Emily B Button, Anna Wilkinson, Carlos J Barron, Neil R Cashman, Peter A Cripton, Cheryl L Wellington
BACKGROUND: The annual incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the United States is over 2.5 million, with approximately 3-5 million people living with chronic sequelae. Compared with moderate-severe TBI, the long-term effects of mild TBI (mTBI) are less understood but important to address, particularly for contact sport athletes and military personnel who have high mTBI exposure. The purpose of this study was to determine the behavioural and neuropathological phenotypes induced by the Closed-Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration (CHIMERA) model of mTBI in both wild-type (WT) and APP/PS1 mice up to 8 months post-injury...
January 12, 2019: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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