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Bayram Hashemzadeh, Esmaeil Idani, Gholamreza Goudarzi, Kambiz Ahmadi Ankali, Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi, Ali Akbar Babaei, Hassan Hashemzadeh, Mehdi Vosoughi, Mohammad Javad Mohammadi, Abdolkazem Neisi
The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between PM2.5 and NO2 pollutants and oxidative stress marker (8-isoprostane) and lung function tests (FVC and FEV1 ) in healthy children who were living and studying in three different areas of Ahvaz city including A1 : Naderi site with high traffic, A2 : Alavi Alley site with average traffic, and A3 : Ein 2 site with low traffic (a rural area on the suburb of Ahvaz). 30 students in the 12-13 year-old range were selected from each studied zone (1, 2 and 3 sites) during three months of year...
March 2019: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Roy T M Sprooten, Gernot G U Rohde, Glenn Lawyer, Wouter T Leijte, Emiel F M Wouters, Frits M E Franssen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ECOPD) are associated with increased in-hospital and short-term mortality. Developing an easy-to-use model to predict adverse outcomes will be useful in daily clinical practice and will facilitate management decisions. We aimed to assess mortality rates and potential predictors for short-term mortality after severe ECOPD. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) model was used to identify predictors of adverse outcome...
March 21, 2019: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
H Bouloussa, R Pietton, C Vergari, T X Haen, W Skalli, R Vialle
PURPOSE: Various spinal and rib cage parameters measured from complex examinations were found to be correlated with preoperative pulmonary function tests (PFT). The aim was to investigate the relationship between preoperative rib cage parameters and PFT using biplanar stereoradiography in patients with severe adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. METHODS: Fifty-four patients, 45 girls and nine boys, aged 13.8 ± 1.2 years, with Lenke 1 or 2 thoracic scoliosis (> 50°) requiring surgical correction were prospectively included...
March 20, 2019: European Spine Journal
Ryan Lian, Vinicius Cavalheri, Jamie Wood, Sue Jenkins, Leon M Straker, Kylie Hill
BACKGROUND: This study sought to explore factors in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) that predicted whether (i) someone was engaged in full-time paid work, and (ii) those engaged in paid work reported problems with absenteeism and/or presenteeism. METHODS: Adults with cystic fibrosis who live in Western Australia completed absenteeism and presenteeism questions from the World Health Organization's Health Performance Questionnaire. The participants were grouped by work status (full time vs part time or unemployed) and by self-reported absenteeism and presenteeism (evidence of vs no evidence of)...
March 19, 2019: Respiratory Care
Wolfgang Bernhard, Robert Lange, Ute Graepler-Mainka, Corinna Engel, Jürgen Machann, Verena Hund, Anna Shunova, Andreas Hector, Joachim Riethmüller
BACKGROUND: Choline is essential for the synthesis of liver phosphatidylcholine (PC), parenchymal maintenance, bile formation, and lipoprotein assembly to secrete triglycerides. In choline deficiency, the liver accretes choline/PC at the expense of lung tissue, thereby impairing pulmonary PC homoeostasis. In cystic fibrosis (CF), exocrine pancreas insufficiency results in impaired cleavage of bile PC and subsequent fecal choline loss. In these patients, the plasma choline concentration is low and correlates with lung function...
March 18, 2019: Nutrients
Ceyda Oksel, Raquel Granell, Sadia Haider, Sara Fontanella, Angela Simpson, Steve Turner, Graham Devereux, Syed Hasan Arshad, Clare S Murray, Graham Roberts, John W Holloway, Paul Cullinan, John Henderson, Adnan Custovic
RATIONALE: Pooling data from multiple cohorts and extending the time-frame across childhood should minimize study-specific effects, enabling better characterization of the childhood wheezing. OBJECTIVE: To analyze wheezing patterns from early childhood to adolescence using combined data from five birth cohorts. METHODS: We used latent class analysis to derive wheeze phenotypes among 7719 participants from five birth cohorts with complete report of wheeze at five time-periods...
March 19, 2019: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Jason K Tan, Georgia Banton, Corrado Minutillo, Graham L Hall, Andrew Wilson, Conor Murray, Elizabeth A Nathan, Maureen Verheggen, James Ramsay, Naeem Samnakay, Jan Dickinson
OBJECTIVE: Survival rates for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) are increasing. The long-term outcomes of CDH survivors were compared with a healthy control group to assess the morbidity for guidance of antenatal counselling and long-term follow-up programmes. PARTICIPANTS AND DESIGN: Participants born with CDH in Western Australia 1993-2008 were eligible with matched controls from the general population. Participants had comprehensive lung function tests, echocardiogram, low-dose chest CT scan and completed a Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and quality of life (QOL) questionnaire...
March 15, 2019: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Jakob Usemann, Fabienne Decrue, Insa Korten, Elena Proietti, Olga Gorlanova, Danielle Vienneau, Oliver Fuchs, Philipp Latzin, Martin Röösli, Urs Frey
BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of higher air pollution levels before and after birth on subsequent lung function are often reported in the literature. We assessed whether low-to-moderate levels of air pollution during preschool-age impact upon lung function at school-age. METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort of 304 healthy term-born infants, 232 (79%) completed lung function at follow-up at six years. Using spatial-temporal models, levels of individual air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and ozone (O3 ), particulate matter with a diameter <10 μm (PM10 )) were estimated for the time windows pregnancy, first up to the sixth year of life separately, and birth until follow-up at six years...
March 11, 2019: Environment International
Renata Rubinsztajn, Tadeusz Przybyłowski, Marta Maskey-Warzęchowska, Krzysztof Karwat, Ryszarda Chazan
BACKGROUND: Testosterone has been recognized for its anabolic properties. It has been documented that in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic hypoxia, disease severity, smoking, and corticosteroid treatment may contribute to low testosterone levels. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of decreased serum testosterone concentration in male COPD patients and its influence on their condition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 90 male patients, aged 67...
March 6, 2019: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Usman Maqsood, Terence N Ho, Karen Palmer, Fiona Jr Eccles, Mohammed Munavvar, Ran Wang, Iain Crossingham, David Jw Evans
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory condition causing accumulation of mucus in the airways, cough, and breathlessness; the disease is progressive and is the fourth most common cause of death worldwide. Current treatment strategies for COPD are multi-modal and aim to reduce morbidity and mortality and increase patients' quality of life by slowing disease progression and preventing exacerbations. Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of a long-acting beta2 -agonist (LABA) plus a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) delivered via a single inhaler are approved by regulatory authorities in the USA, Europe, and Japan for the treatment of COPD...
March 6, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Justyna Pollok, Joep Em van Agteren, Adrian J Esterman, Kristin V Carson-Chahhoud
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been recognised as a global health concern, and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Projections of the World Health Organization (WHO) indicate that prevalence rates of COPD continue to increase, and by 2030, it will become the world's third leading cause of death. Depression is a major comorbidity amongst patients with COPD, with an estimate prevalence of up to 80% in severe stages of COPD. Prevalence studies show that patients who have COPD are four times as likely to develop depression compared to those without COPD...
March 6, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Terence Ho, Ruth P Cusack, Nagendra Chaudhary, Imran Satia, Om P Kurmi
Globally, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth major cause of mortality and morbidity and projected to rise to third within a decade as our efforts to prevent, identify, diagnose and treat patients at a global population level have been insufficient. The European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society, along with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) strategy document, have highlighted key pathological risk factors and suggested clinical treatment strategies in order to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with COPD...
March 2019: Breathe
Jill M Stulce, Clarence Biddle, Charles Vacchiano
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress occurs when imbalances exist between the production of oxygen free radicals and endogenous antioxidants that neutralize their harmful effects, causing irreversible tissue damage. Oxygen free radicals readily interact with DNA, proteins, and lipids, instigating conformational changes to cellular structures and leading to derangement and dysfunction. Oxidative stress is a key feature in the pathology of COPD. As disease progression occurs, supplemental oxygen is often warranted to ameliorate dyspnea...
March 5, 2019: Respiratory Care
Emma Handley, Caroline H Nicolson, Mark Hew, Annemarie L Lee
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an extrapulmonary manifestation in some individuals with bronchiectasis, but the prevalence of CRS in this population and its clinical impact has not been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the prevalence of CRS in bronchiectasis and identify its clinical implications. METHODS: Four databases were searched from inception to August 2018 for studies reporting prevalence and/or clinical impact of CRS in individuals with bronchiectasis...
March 2, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Jan Olofson, Björn Bake, Bengt Bergman, Anders Ullman, Kurt Svärdsudd
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) develops in small airways. Severity of small airway pathology relates to progression and mortality. The present study evaluated the prediction of COPD of a validated test for small airway disease, i.e. a slope of the alveolar plateau of the single breath nitrogen test (N2 -slope). The N2 -slope, spirometry, age, smoking habits, and anthropometric variables at baseline were obtained in a population-based sample (n = 592). The cohort was followed for first COPD events (first hospital admission of COPD or related conditions or death from COPD) during 38 years...
October 2018: COPD
Francesca Pennati, Caterina Salito, Irene Borzani, Giulia Cervellin, Simone Gambazza, Riccardo Guarise, Maria Chiara Russo, Carla Colombo, Andrea Aliverti
OBJECTIVES: The present cross-sectional study aims to verify the relationship between quantitative multivolume magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical indicators of ventilatory abnormalities in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. METHODS: 28 patients (10-27 years) with CF lung disease performed non-enhanced chest MRI, spirometry and multiple breath washout (MBW). Images acquired at end-inspiration and end-expiration were registered by optical flow to estimate expiratory-inspiratory proton density change (Δ1 H-MRI) as a measure of regional ventilation...
February 28, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Toluwanimi Mobolade Oni, Godson R E E Ana
Background There is an increasing range of adverse health effects associated with air pollution at very low concentrations. Few studies have assessed respiratory parameters among filling station attendants. Objectives This study assessed air pollutants; particulate matter (PM10) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) concentrations at filling stations as well as determined forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) levels among filling station attendants. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess PM10 and TVOC concentrations at 20 systematically selected filling stations in Ibadan North Local Government Area, Ibadan for 2 months using a Thermo Scientific pDR 1500 PM10 monitor and SF2000-TVOC meter...
February 28, 2019: Reviews on Environmental Health
Robert M Burkes, Jacquie Astemborski, Allison A Lambert, Todd T Brown, Robert A Wise, Gregory D Kirk, M Bradley Drummond
INTRODUCTION: Cathelicidin (also known as LL-37 in humans) is an antimicrobial peptide secreted by epithelial and immune cells and regulated by vitamin D. The immunological roles of cathelicidin make it a putative biomarker to identify individuals at risk for reduced lung function. The objective of this study is to determine potential independent associations between low plasma cathelicidin and longitudinal lung function in current or former smokers without COPD. METHODS: In a nested analysis of 308 participants from an observational cohort study, plasma cathelicidin and serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D measurements were obtained at baseline, years three and five...
2019: PloS One
Yujie Cao, Haiyu Hong, Yueqi Sun, Yinyan Lai, Rui Xu, Jianbo Shi, Fenghong Chen
PURPOSE: Evidences showed improvements in clinical asthma outcomes following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients with asthma. However, pulmonary function benefits have remained controversial up to date. The goal of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effects of ESS on pulmonary function tests in CRS patients with asthma. METHODS: Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched up to March 2018 to obtain relevant studies...
February 25, 2019: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Dirk-Jan Slebos, Joseph Cicenia, Frank C Sciurba, Gerard J Criner, Jorine E Hartman, Justin Garner, Gaëtan Deslée, Antoine Delage, Michael Jantz, Charles-Hugo Marquette, Charlie Strange, Umur Hatipoglu, Atul C Mehta, Adam S LaPrad, Gerald Schmid-Bindert, Felix Jf Herth, Pallav L Shah
BACKGROUND: The RENEW trial demonstrated improvements in quality of life, pulmonary function, and exercise performance after endobronchial coil treatment. The aim of this study was to identify parameters associated with superior clinical outcomes. METHODS: Quantitative computerized analysis by an independent radiology laboratory and a qualitative evaluation by five blinded experts of the baseline thoracic computed tomograms (CT) were performed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to elucidate characteristics associated with clinical response...
February 21, 2019: Chest
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