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Osamu Takyu, Keiichiro Shirai, Mai Ohta, Takeo Fujii
As the applications of the internet of things are becoming widely diversified, wireless sensor networks require real-time data reception, accommodation of access from several sensors, and low power consumption. In physical wireless parameter conversion sensor networks (PhyC-SN), all the sensors use frequency shift keying as the modulation scheme and then access the channel to the fusion center, simultaneously. As a result, the fusion center can recognize the statistical tendency of all the sensing results at a time from the frequency spectrum of the received signal...
February 13, 2019: Sensors
Madhumita Dey, Madhurima Das, Anindita Chowhan, Tapan Kumar Giri
Oral chemotherapy is the most preferred drug administration method due to noninvasive administration, more convenient, low healthcare cost, and patient compliance in comparison to intravenous chemotherapy. However, oral chemotherapy poses numerous hurdles to drug absorption through the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, nanocarriers have been extensively used for delivering anticancer drugs orally. Nanocarriers present distinctive advantages that comprise aiding drug dissolution owing to high surface to volume ratio, surface modifiability, protecting drugs from the harsh gastrointestinal environments and other features, all of which contribute to enhanced drugs bioavailability...
February 16, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Duo Liu, Hong Liu, Hao Qi, Xue-Jiao Guo, Bin Jia, Jin-Lai Zhang, Ying-Jin Yuan
Synthetic chimeric biological system offers opportunities to illuminate principles of designing life and a primary step is constructing synthetic chimeric pathways. Here, we constructed yeast chimeric pathways by transferring the genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae pathways into another budding yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for in vivo assembly. We efficiently diversified gene option, combination, localization order and copy number as expected. Convergence of two yeast pathways, especially mevalonic acid (MVA) pathways, remarkably enhanced synthesis of a lipophilic terpene, lycopene...
February 19, 2019: ACS Synthetic Biology
Adam Fekete, Yukihiro Nakamura, Yi-Mei Yang, Stefan Herlitze, Melanie D Mark, David A DiGregorio, Lu-Yang Wang
Synaptic heterogeneity is widely observed but its underpinnings remain elusive. We addressed this issue using mature calyx of Held synapses whose numbers of bouton-like swellings on stalks of the nerve terminals inversely correlate with release probability (Pr). We examined presynaptic Ca2+ currents and transients, topology of fluorescently tagged knock-in Ca2+ channels, and Ca2+ channel-synaptic vesicle (SV) coupling distance using Ca2+ chelator and inhibitor of septin cytomatrix in morphologically diverse synapses...
February 18, 2019: Nature Communications
María Del Mar Contreras, Antonio Lama-Muñoz, José Manuel Gutiérrez-Pérez, Francisco Espínola, Manuel Moya, Eulogio Castro
The biorefinery concept is attracting scientific and policy attention as a promising option for enhancing the benefits of agri-food biomass along with a reduction of the environmental impact. Obtaining bioproducts based on proteins from agri-food residues could help to diversify the revenue stream in a biorefinery. In fact, the extracted proteins can be applied as such or in the form of hydrolyzates due to their nutritional, bioactive and techno-functional properties. In this context, the present review summarizes, exemplifies and discusses conventional extraction methods and current trends to extract proteins from residues of the harvesting, post-harvesting and/or processing of important crops worldwide...
February 8, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Thomas Reid, Ian G Droppo, Subba Rao Chaganti, Christopher G Weisener
The success and sustainability of aquatic ecosystems are driven by the complex, cooperative metabolism of microbes. Ecological engineering strategies often strive to harness this syntrophic synergy of microbial metabolism for the reclamation of contaminated environments worldwide. Currently, there is a significant knowledge gap in our understanding of how the natural microbial ecology overcomes thermodynamic limitations in recovering contaminated environments. Here, we used in-situ metatranscriptomics and associated metataxonomic analyses on sediments collected from naturalized freshwater man-made reservoirs within the Athabasca Oil Sands region of Alberta, Canada...
February 8, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Anand Kumar Sharma, Radhika Khandelwal, Yogendra Sharma
Secretagogin (SCGN) is a calcium sensor protein enriched in neuroendocrine cells in general and pancreatic β-cells in particular. SCGN regulates insulin secretion through several Ca2+ -dependent interactions. Recent studies implicate SCGN in the β-cell physiology and extracellular insulin function, making it an intriguing candidate in diabetes research. Here, we propose a conjoining theme of diversified SCGN function in diabetes pathology. In our opinion, SCGN is an attractive therapeutic candidate ascribed by its role in β-cell maintenance and neuronal functions and in the efficacy of insulin...
February 13, 2019: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Chengwei Wang, Yu Wang, Qi Pan, Shoukun Chen, Cuizhu Feng, Jiangbo Hai, Haifeng Li
BACKGROUND: Plant Trihelix transcription factors, specifically bind to GT elements and play important roles in plant physiology and development. Wheat is a main cereal crop. Brachypodium distachyon is a close relative of wheat and has been described as a new model species for studying of grass functional genomics. Presently, little is known about wheat and B. distachyon Trihelix genes. RESULTS: In 51 species, 2387 Trihelix genes were identified, including 80 wheat Trihelix genes and 27 B...
February 15, 2019: BMC Genomics
Ren-Fang Zeng, Jing-Jing Zhou, Sheng-Rui Liu, Zhi-Meng Gan, Jin-Zhi Zhang, Chun-Gen Hu
SQUAMOSA-promoter binding protein (SBP)-box genes encode a family of plant-specific transcription factors that play vital roles in plant growth and development. In this study, 15 SBP-box genes were identified and isolated from Citrus clementina ( CclSBPs ), where 10 of these genes were predicted to be putative targets of Citrus clementina microRNA156 (CclmiR156). The 15 CclSBP genes could be classified into six groups based on phylogenetic analysis, diverse intron⁻exon structure, and motif prediction, similar to the SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SPL) gene family of Populus trichocarpa and Arabidopsis thaliana ...
February 14, 2019: Biomolecules
Yamama Naciri, Camille Christe, Sébastien Bétrisey, Yi-Gang Song, Min Deng, Giuseppe Garfì, Gregor Kozlowski
Zelkova species, trees of the elm family (Ulmaceae), are part of the Cenozoic relict flora. In western Eurasia, the genus comprises three species that are restricted to disjunct areas (Z. sicula on Sicily, Z. abelicea on Crete and Z. carpinifolia in Transcaucasia). The situation is different in East Asia, where three species (Z. serrata, Z. schneideriana and Z. sinica) have at least partly overlapping distributions. The phylogenetic and phylogeographic status of these East Asian species is still not well understood, mainly since all previous studies used almost exclusively plant material collected in botanical gardens and were based on very small numbers of individuals...
February 12, 2019: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Doris M Rubio, Megan E Hamm, Colleen A Mayowski, Seyed Mehdi Nouraie, Alexander Quarshie, Todd Seto, Magda Shaheen, Lourdes E Soto de Laurido, Marie K Norman
The National Institutes of Health has made considerable investments to diversify the biomedical research workforce. Towards this goal, the authors partnered with representatives from several minority serving institutions (MSIs) to develop training for the next generation of researchers. To ensure the most effective training program, the authors conducted a needs assessment with junior and senior investigators from the partnering MSIs. In 2016, the authors conducted focus groups and interviews with 23 junior investigators as well as in-depth interviews with 6 senior investigators from the partnering institutions with the goal of identifying specific areas of training and support that would help junior investigators at MSIs develop and sustain research careers...
February 12, 2019: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Ying-Chieh Liu, Chien-Hung Chen, Ya-Chi Tsou, Yu-Sheng Lin, Hsin-Yun Chen, Jou-Yin Yeh, Sherry Yueh-Hsia Chiu
BACKGROUND: The role of individual-tailored dietary recording in mobile phone health apps has become increasingly important in management of self-health care and population-based preventive service. The development of such mobile apps for user-centered designing is still challengeable and requires further scientific evidence. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to conduct a randomized trial to assess the accuracy and time efficiency of two prototypes for dietary recoding utilization related to the input method of food intake...
February 15, 2019: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Longlong Ma, Haiyong Wang, Changhui Zhu, Qiying Liu, Jin Tan, Chenguang Wang, Zheng Liang
Hydroxyacetone (HA) and 1-hydroxy-2-butanone (HB), both of which contain carbonyl and hydroxyl groups, are becoming increasingly important as intermediates,due to their diversified applications in fine chemicals production such as medicine and food additives. We developed astrategyto obtain these two products from direct cellulose conversion over Sn-Ni intermetallic compound (IMC) catalysts. It was confirmed that the Sn-Ni IMC and SnOx acted as the active sitesfor HA and HB production via selectively cleaving the target C-C and C-O bonds...
February 14, 2019: ChemSusChem
Majda K Suleiman, Kingsley Dixon, Lucy Commander, Paul Nevill, Ali M Quoreshi, Narayana R Bhat, Anitha J Manuvel, Mini T Sivadasan
This research examined the general soil fungi and AM fungal communities associated with a Lonely Tree species ( Vachellia pachyceras ) existing in the Sabah Al-Ahmad Natural Reserve located at the Kuwait desert. The goals of the study were to describe the general fungal and AM fungal communities present in the rhizospheric, non-rhizospheric soils and roots of V. pachyceras , respectively, as well as local and non-local V. pachyceras seedlings when grown under standard nursery growing environments. Soil and root samples were analyzed for an array of characteristics including soil physicochemical composition, and culture-independent method termed PCR-cloning, intermediate variable region of rDNA, the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequence identifications...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Medini K Annavajhala, Angela Gomez-Simmonds, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann
The Enterobacter cloacae complex (ECC) includes common nosocomial pathogens capable of producing a wide variety of infections. Broad-spectrum antibiotic resistance, including the recent emergence of resistance to last-resort carbapenems, has led to increased interest in this group of organisms and carbapenem-resistant E. cloacae complex (CREC) in particular. Molecular typing methods based on heat-shock protein sequence, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, comparative genomic hybridization, and, most recently, multilocus sequence typing have led to the identification of over 1069 ECC sequence types in 18 phylogenetic clusters across the globe...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Magne Friberg, Christopher Schwind, Paulo R Guimarães, Robert A Raguso, John N Thompson
A major challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand how complex traits of multiple functions have diversified and codiversified across interacting lineages and geographic ranges. We evaluate intra- and interspecific variation in floral scent, which is a complex trait of documented importance for mutualistic and antagonistic interactions between plants, pollinators, and herbivores. We performed a large-scale, phylogenetically structured study of an entire plant genus ( Lithophragma , Saxifragaceae), of which several species are coevolving with specialized pollinating floral parasites of the moth genus Greya (Prodoxidae)...
February 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
S L Jat, C M Parihar, A K Singh, B Kumar, M Choudhary, H S Nayak, M D Parihar, N Parihar, B R Meena
A greater energy grant in diesel-fed machinery driven farming substantiate the higher GHGs emission along with improper input (fertilizer, pesticide and irrigation) use and intensive soil management. Practicing conservation tillage, residue retention and diversified crop rotations were advocated because of their multiple benefits. Hence we explored the energy requirement and carbon footprint of conservation agriculture (CA) based maize production systems. Coated N fertilizer [sulphur coated urea (SCU) and neem coated urea (NCU)] were compared with unfertilized and uncoated prilled urea (PU) in the scenario of with and without residue retention on permanent beds (PB) under diversified maize systems [MMuMb, maize-mustard-mungbean and MWMb, maize-wheat-mungbean] in search of a sustainable and energy efficient production system with lesser C-footprint...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Yingna Wang, Renana Nerwen, Carla Gabris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the current literature on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with particular focus on racial and ethnic factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Limited research exists with respect to ACEs and certain racial and ethnic groups. In this article, we highlight the unique challenges specific populations may face in their lives. Further research on ACEs in these and other racial and ethnic groups is needed to help clinicians contextualize their cases in the clinical setting...
February 11, 2019: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Melissa Dipp-Álvarez, Alfredo Cruz-Ramírez
Comparative genomics has revealed that members of early divergent lineages of land plants share a set of highly conserved transcription factors (TFs) with flowering plants. While gene copy numbers have expanded through time, it has been predicted that diversification, co-option, and reassembly of gene regulatory networks implicated in development are directly related to morphological innovations that led to more complex land plant bodies. Examples of key networks have been deeply studied in Arabidopsis thaliana , such as those involving the AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) gene family that encodes AP2-type TFs...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Halimatou Alaofè, Ibitola Asaolu
BACKGROUND: Double burden of malnutrition (DBM) is an emerging public health concern in urban Benin. However, an understanding of the phenomena in rural areas of the country is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of DBM and to investigate the sociodemographic and dietary characteristics that differentiate DBM from undernourished children only, overweight/obese mothers only, and normal households in Kalalé district. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 426 mother-child pairs: nonpregnant women aged 15 to 49 years and children aged 6 to 59 months...
February 13, 2019: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
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