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development psychology

Krystal Khoo, Ryan E K Man, Gwyn Rees, Preeti Gupta, Ecosse L Lamoureux, Eva K Fenwick
IMPORTANCE: Previous work has reported a link between diabetic retinopathy/diabetic macular edema (DR/DME) and psychosocial functioning, although the extent and direction of the association remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between DR/DME and psychosocial functioning, the latter an umbrella term used to capture the emotional and social aspects of functioning which may include, for example, depression; depressive disorder; anxiety; vision-specific distress; diabetes-specific distress and emotional and social well-being...
March 16, 2019: Quality of Life Research
Nicolás Alessandroni, Ana Moreno-Núñez, Cintia Rodríguez, María Jesús Del Olmo
Research of the last 30 years showed the importance of music for psychological development. Communicative musicality studies described musical organisations in dyadic interactions (adult-baby). However, other perspectives proposed that, from the beginning of life, there are early triadic interactions (adult-object-baby) that should also be analysed. Following previous research, we hypothesised that early triadic interactions have a structured musical organisation. We recorded a 2-month-old child interacting with his mother and an object in their home and performed a microgenetic quantitative-qualitative analysis...
March 16, 2019: Psychological Research
Mi Jung Rho, Jihwan Park, Euihyeon Na, Jo-Eun Jeong, Jae Kwon Kim, Dai-Jin Kim, In Young Choi
To provide appropriate solutions for problematic smartphone use, we need to first understand its types. This study aimed to identify types of problematic smartphone use based on psychiatric symptoms, using the decision tree method. We recruited 5,372 smartphone users from online surveys conducted between February 3 and February 22, 2016. Based on scores on the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale for Adults (S-Scale), 974 smartphone users were assigned to the smartphone-dependent group and 4398 users were assigned to the normal group...
February 28, 2019: Psychiatry Research
Tracye Proffitt, Victoria Menzies
BACKGROUND: The number of adults who survive a critical illness involving admission to an intensive care unit is increasing. These survivors have an increased risk of developing impairments in cognition, physical function and psychological health. OBJECTIVE: This integrative literature review examined the literature for studies exploring the relationships among two or more of the variables of interest, i.e. cognitive, physical, and psychological symptoms (depressive, anxiety, or posttraumatic stress) in intensive care unit survivors post-hospital discharge...
March 13, 2019: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
Nandita Chaudhary, Punya Pillai
The philosophy of Bruner transcends traditional boundaries in the study of the human mind with a new kind of psychology, one that frees the thinking mind from its opposition to feelings and also from the limitations of being considered an 'inside-the-head' phenomenon. It is with active engagement with the outside world that a child develops its understanding. In this engagement with the outside world, the developmental construction of thought is actively created through the use of symbols. The cultural context, images, and languages a person experiences are thus considered to be formative in thinking...
March 15, 2019: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
Naina Levitan, Claus Barkmann, Hertha Richter-Appelt, Michael Schulte-Markwort, Inga Becker-Hebly
Adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD) often face various associated social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties. In such a marginalized group, it is crucial to identify factors that may impact psychological functioning to better accommodate their needs. Therefore, the present study investigated the impact of two specific risk factors, poor peer relations and general family functioning, on the development of psychological problems in adolescents with GD, and their possible interaction effect. The Youth Self-Report, a Peer Relations Scale, and a General Family Functioning scale were assessed in a sample of n = 180 clinically referred adolescents (mean age 15...
March 15, 2019: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Cheryl Dissanayake, Amanda Richdale, Natasha Kolivas, Lindsay Pamment
The study examined the association between autism traits and parenting when raising a typically developing (TD) child, and differences in parenting needs between parents with high and low traits. Fifty-eight parents with a blood relative with Autism (who happened to be an offspring with ASD in all cases) and a TD child completed the Autism Quotient, demographic and psychological information, as well as reporting on Parenting Sense of Competence, the Parent-Child Relationship, and Parenting Needs. Autism traits did not uniquely contribute to parenting self-esteem, but were associated with parenting difficulties for their TD child, and some aspects of this parent-child relationship...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Su Li Heng, Winston T L Chow
Urban green spaces offer vital ecosystem services such as regulating elevated temperatures in cities. Less information exists, however, on how urban green spaces influence outdoor thermal comfort (OTC), which is dependent on people's perceptions of the complex interactions amongst ambient humidity, wind and both air and radiant temperatures. In this study, we analysed an existing OTC dataset compiled within a large Singapore urban park and calibrated OTC thresholds for physiological equivalent temperatures (PET) by analysing PET against thermal perception survey responses from the park visitors (n = 1508)...
March 15, 2019: International Journal of Biometeorology
Pavinee Harutaichun, Praneet Pensri, Sujitra Boonyong
BACKGROUND: Plantar fasciitis is commonly found among the physically active population, including conscripts. Some studies have reported that being overweight and having psychological symptoms contribute to pain from plantar fasciitis. However, there is a lack of information regarding the physical predictors, and more research is needed to determine the relationship between such predictors and pain intensity from plantar fasciitis in conscripts. OBJECTIVE: To determine which physical and psychological variables act as predictors of pain intensity among Thai novice conscripts with plantar fasciitis...
March 11, 2019: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
Mohammad Tanvi Newaz, Peter Davis, Marcus Jefferies, Manikam Pillay
INTRODUCTION: The fact that safety climate impacts safety behavior and delivers better safety outcomes is well established in construction. However, the way workers safety perception is inclined and developed is still unclear. METHOD: In this research, the influence of supervisors' developing safety climate and its impact on workers' safety behavior and their conceptualization of safety is explored through the lens of the 'Psychological Contract' (PC). More specifically, it is argued that 'Psychological Contract of Safety' (PCS) is a vital factor in explaining how workers attach meaning to a supervisor behavior...
February 2019: Journal of Safety Research
Eszter Tisljár-Szabó, Roland Tisljár
Nowadays, the number of bariatric surgery for treating morbid obesity is significant. There is strong evidence about the influence of mental state (depression, anxiety, eating disorder, etc.) on patient's cooperation with the medical team and the outcome, and on the short or long-term effectiveness of surgery. However, no protocol or recommendation exist for screening patients before bariatric procedures in Hungary. Thus, even if the surgeon or the hospital requires psychological expertise, neither doctors are familiar with the expectable results of such an expertise, nor psychologists know exactly what the most important areas are to talk through with patients...
March 2019: Orvosi Hetilap
Louisa G Sylvia, Samantha L Pegg, Steven C Dufour, Jessica A Janos, Emily E Bernstein, Weilynn C Chang, Nathan E Hall, Kristen K Ellard, Andrew A Nierenberg, Thilo Deckersbach
BACKGROUND: Individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) are more likely than the general population to develop risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in this clinical population. To address this disproportionate medical burden, we developed Nutrition Exercise and Wellness Treatment (NEW Tx), a lifestyle intervention for individuals with BD. METHODS: In this study, participants were randomized to NEW Tx (n = 19) or a treatment as usual waitlist (n = 19)...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Cindy Hui-Ping Sit, Jane Jie Yu, Stephen Heung-Sang Wong, Catherine M Capio, Richard Masters
BACKGROUND: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have lower physical activity (PA) than children with typical development (TD). PA and fundamental movement skills (FMS) are positively associated so interventions that promote FMS of children with DCD are recommended. AIM: To examine the effects of a school-based FMS training program on motor functions, PA and other psychological outcomes. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A total of 131 primary children were allocated to FMS training groups (DCD-FMS n = 35, TD-FMS n = 29), which received FMS training (eight weekly 40-min sessions), or to control groups (DCD-C n = 34, TD-C n = 33), which received conventional physical education lessons...
March 12, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Michelle H Lim, John F M Gleeson, Thomas L Rodebaugh, Robert Eres, Katrina M Long, Kit Casey, Jo-Anne M Abbott, Neil Thomas, David L Penn
PURPOSE: Loneliness has been identified as a significant challenge for people with psychosis. Interventions targeting loneliness are lacking but adopting a positive psychology approach may reduce loneliness, promote well-being, and support meaningful social interactions. Together with youth mental health consumers, we developed a digital smartphone application (app) called +Connect, which delivers positive psychology content daily for 6 weeks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve participants diagnosed with a psychotic disorder were recruited from early psychosis services...
March 14, 2019: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Kimberly Zoberi, Jane Tucker
With declining mortality rates, the number of breast cancer survivors is increasing. Ongoing care after breast cancer treatment is often provided by primary care physicians. This care includes surveillance for cancer recurrence with a history and physical examination every three to six months for the first three years after treatment, every six to 12 months for two more years, and annually thereafter. Mammography is performed annually. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast is not indicated unless patients are at high risk of recurrence, such as having a hereditary cancer syndrome...
March 15, 2019: American Family Physician
Francisco Ayala, Alejandro López-Valenciano, Jose Antonio Gámez Martín, Mark De Ste Croix, Francisco J Vera-Garcia, Maria Del Pilar García-Vaquero, Iñaki Ruiz-Pérez, Gregory D Myer
Hamstring strain injury (HSI) is one of the most prevalent and severe injury in professional soccer. The purpose was to analyze and compare the predictive ability of a range of machine learning techniques to select the best performing injury risk factor model to identify professional soccer players at high risk of HSIs. A total of 96 male professional soccer players underwent a pre-season screening evaluation that included a large number of individual, psychological and neuromuscular measurements. Injury surveillance was prospectively employed to capture all the HSI occurring in the 2013/2014 season...
March 14, 2019: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Luz M Garcini, Michelle A Chen, Ryan L Brown, Thania Galvan, Levi Saucedo, Jodi A Berger Cardoso, Christopher P Fagundes
Objective: This study aimed to assess for the prevalence of interpersonal discrimination among undocumented Mexican immigrants residing in high-risk neighborhoods near the CaliforniaMexico border, identify relevant vulnerabilities, and determine its association with clinically significant psychological distress after controlling for socio-demographics, immigration characteristics, and history of trauma. Method: Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) was used in this cross-sectional study to collect and analyze data from clinical interviews with 246 undocumented Mexican immigrants...
November 2018: Psychology of Violence
Silvia Ivani
What are the relevant values to the appraisal of research programs? This question remains hotly debated, as philosophers have recently proposed many lists of values potentially relevant to scientific appraisal. Surprisingly, despite being mentioned in many lists, little attention has been paid to fruitfulness. It is unclear how fruitfulness should be explicated, and whether it has any substantial role in scientific appraisal. In this paper, I argue we should explicate fruitfulness as the capacity to develop of research programs...
2019: European Journal for Philosophy of Science
Karin G Coifman, Christopher B Summers
Emotion-related disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety, stress, eating, substance and some personality disorders) include some of the most common, burdensome, and costly diseases worldwide. Central to many, if not all of these disorders, may be patterns of rigid or inflexible emotion responses. Indeed, theorists point to emotion in-flexibility as a potential cause or maintaining factor in emotion-related diseases. Despite the increasing prominence of emotion inflexibility in theories of affective disease, a comprehensive review of the developing empirical literature has not yet been conducted...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Seval Gündemir, Ashley E Martin, Astrid C Homan
We present a review of the diversity ideologies literature from the target's perspective. In particular, we focus on how diversity ideologies-beliefs or organizational practices with regards to how to approach diversity-affect racial minorities' and women's self-perceptions and experiences at work. This review suggests that a diversity aware ideology (i.e., multiculturalism) is more beneficial than a diversity blind ideology (i.e., colorblindness) for racial-ethnic minorities (e.g., better performance outcomes; more psychological engagement, inclusion, and workplace satisfaction; more positive leadership self-perceptions; and reduced perceptions of bias and turnover intentions)...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
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