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Nano immune

Peng Zhao, Han-Xia Li, Da-Wei Li, Ya-Jun Hou, Leilei Mao, Mingfeng Yang, Ying Wang
Assay technologies capable of detecting biomarker concentrations in unprocessed whole blood samples are fundamental for applications in medical diagnostics. SERS nano-tags integrated magnetic-separation biosensor (MSB) was realized for the first time for immunoassay in whole blood. The reliability and sensitivity of this method rely, in a large extent, on the quality and properties of the SERS nano-tags. The constructed silicacoated Ag SERS nano-tags as labels were used in a rapid and specific MSB immune sensor to detect Matrix Metalloproteinases 9 (MMP-9) in unprocessed blood samples...
June 1, 2019: Talanta
Marta Truffi, Serena Mazzucchelli, Arianna Bonizzi, Luca Sorrentino, Raffaele Allevi, Renzo Vanna, Carlo Morasso, Fabio Corsi
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are the most abundant cells of the tumor stroma and they critically influence cancer growth through control of the surrounding tumor microenvironment (TME). CAF-orchestrated reactive stroma, composed of pro-tumorigenic cytokines and growth factors, matrix components, neovessels, and deregulated immune cells, is associated with poor prognosis in multiple carcinomas, including breast cancer. Therefore, beyond cancer cells killing, researchers are currently focusing on TME as strategy to fight breast cancer...
March 13, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rosanne E Veerman, Gözde Güçlüler Akpinar, Maria Eldh, Susanne Gabrielsson
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-sized vesicles with the capacity to transfer nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, and are released by all cells. EV is an umbrella term for exosomes originating from the endosomal compartment, microvesicles from the cell membrane, and apoptotic bodies released during apoptosis. EVs are being investigated for their role in health and disease, and as potential biomarkers, with newly developed FDA-approved assays reaching the market. Currently, both academic institutions and industrial ventures are developing clinical trials to use EVs in diseases such as cancer, graft-versus-host disease, and neurodegenerative diseases...
March 7, 2019: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Eliran Moshe Reuven, Shani Leviatan Ben-Arye, Hai Yu, Roberto Duchi, Andrea Perota, Sophie Conchon, Shirley Bachar Abramovitch, Jean-Paul Soulillou, Cesare Galli, Xi Chen, Vered Padler-Karavani
Cancer immunotherapy aims to harness the immune system to combat malignant processes. Transformed cells harbor diverse modifications that lead to formation of neoantigens, including aberrantly expressed cell surface carbohydrates. Targeting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACA) holds great potential for cancer immunotherapy. N-Glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) is a dietary non-human immunogenic carbohydrate that accumulates on human cancer cells, thereby generating neoantigens. In mice, passive immunotherapy with anti-Neu5Gc antibodies inhibits growth of Neu5Gc-positive tumors...
March 6, 2019: ACS Nano
Claudia Demarta-Gatsi, Anna Rivkin, Vincenzo Di Bartolo, Roger Peronet, Shuai Ding, Pierre-Henri Commere, François Guillonneau, Jacques Bellalou, Sébastien Brûlé, Paula Abou Karam, Sidney R Cohen, Thibault Lagache, Chris J Janse, Neta Regev-Rudzki, Salaheddine Mécheri
Protozoan pathogens secrete nano-sized particles called extracellular vesicles (EVs) to facilitate their survival and chronic infection. Here, we show the inhibition by Plasmodium berghei NK65 blood stage-derived EVs of the proliferative response of CD4+ T cells in response to antigen presentation. Importantly, these results were confirmed in vivo by the capacity of EVs to diminish the OVA-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. We identified two proteins associated with EVs, the histamine releasing factor (HRF) and the elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) which were found to have immunosuppressive activities...
March 5, 2019: Cellular Microbiology
Xiaofang Zhong, Yunting Zhang, Lu Tan, Tao Zheng, Yingying Hou, Xiaoyu Hong, Guangsheng Du, Xiaoyan Chen, Yuandong Zhang, Xun Sun
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have high surface area, tunable pore size, and high loading capacity, making them promising for drug delivery. However, their synthesis requires organic solvents, high temperature and high pressure that are incompatible with biomacromolecules. Zeolitic imidazole frameworks (ZIF-8) which forms through coordination between zinc ions and 2-methylimidazole (MeIM) have emerged as an advanced functional material for drug delivery due to its unique features such as high loading and pH-sensitive degradation...
February 28, 2019: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Batoul Saqafi, Fatemeh Rahbarizadeh
The present research seeks to investigate the process of mixing targeted gene delivery and transcriptional targeting. We have conjugated Polyethylenimine polymers (PEI) and molecules of poly (ethylene glycol). The next step was covalent attachment of anti-HER2 variables domains of camelid heavy chains antibodies (VHHs) or nanobodies (Nbs) to the distal terminals of NHS-PEG3500 in PEI-PEG nanoparticles. The whole procedure yielded PEI-PEG-Nb immunoconjugates. Having determined the properties of polyplexes, steps were taken to investigate the most efficient ratio of PEI polymers to pDNA molecules (N/P) so that the greatest rate of transfection may be obtained...
December 2019: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Nermeen M Abu-Elala, Ahmed Samir, Momtaz Wasfy, Magdy Elsayed
A vaccine against streptococcosis, lactococcosis and enterococcosis in tilapia was formulated, ME-VAC Aqua Strept, as a polyvalent inactivated vaccine containing Streptococcus agalactiae, S. iniae, Lactococcus garvieae and Enterococcus faecalis along with a nano-particulate adjuvant. Use of ME-VAC Aqua Strept by injection or immersion resulted in an improved non-specific and adaptive immunity of broodstock and offspring. Intra-peritoneal vaccination of tilapia broodstock increased the total leukocyte count, phagocytosis, lysozyme activity, antibody titer, number of seeds/vaccinated broodstock, seeds quality and survival rates...
February 23, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Vida Nazemian, Somayeh Kalanaky, Homa Manaheji, Etrat Houshmandi, Mola Mohammadi, Jalal Zaringhalam, Somayeh Mirjafai
OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder accompanied with hyperalgesia, edema and pain. At least 30% of the patients failed to respond to the available treatments and medications, which yet have a lot of serious adverse effects on patients. So, using novel technologies to produce more efficient medications is needed. According to the role of iron manipulation in inflammatory process, we have synthetized RAc1 nano particle, which contains zinc and has iron chelating property...
February 15, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
Hathaichanok Phuengkham, Long Ren, Il Woo Shin, Yong Taik Lim
Cancer immunotherapies that harness the body's immune system to combat tumors have received extensive attention and become mainstream strategies for treating cancer. Despite promising results, some problems remain, such as the limited patient response rate and the emergence of severe immune-related adverse effects. For most patients, the therapeutic efficacy of cancer immunotherapy is mainly limited by the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). To overcome such obstacles in the TME, the immunomodulation of immunosuppressive factors and therapeutic immune cells (e...
February 18, 2019: Advanced Materials
Anna Kurpińska, Joanna Suraj, Emilia Bonar, Agnieszka Zakrzewska, Marta Stojak, Magdalena Sternak, Agnieszka Jasztal, Maria Walczak
INTRODUCTION: The tumor-promoting rearrangement of the lungs facilitates the process of cancer cell survival in a foreign microenvironment and enables their protection against immune defense. The study aimed to define the fingerprint of the early rearrangement of the lungs via the proteomic profiling of the lung tissue in the experimental model of tumor metastasis in a murine 4 T1 mammary adenocarcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The studies were performed on 7-8-week-old BALB/c female mice...
February 11, 2019: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Stephen J Evans, Martin J D Clift, Neenu Singh, John W Wills, Nicole Hondow, Thomas S Wilkinson, Michael J Burgum, Andy P Brown, Gareth J Jenkins, Shareen H Doak
BACKGROUND: It is well established that toxicological evaluation of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) is vital to ensure the health and safety of those exposed to them. Further, there is a distinct need for the development of advanced physiologically relevant in vitro techniques for NM hazard prediction due to the limited predictive power of current in vitro models and the unsustainability of conducting nano-safety evaluations in vivo. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop alternative in vitro approaches to assess the potential of NMs to induce genotoxicity by secondary mechanisms...
February 13, 2019: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Juan Manuel Garcia-Arcos, Renaud Chabrier, Mathieu Deygas, Guilherme Nader, Lucie Barbier, Pablo José Sáez, Aastha Mathur, Pablo Vargas, Matthieu Piel
Single cells migrate in a myriad of physiological contexts, such as tissue patrolling by immune cells, and during neurogenesis and tissue remodeling, as well as in metastasis, the spread of cancer cells. To understand the basic principles of single-cell migration, a reductionist approach can be taken. This aims to control and deconstruct the complexity of different cellular microenvironments into simpler elementary constrains that can be recombined together. This approach is the cell microenvironment equivalent of in vitro reconstituted systems that combine elementary molecular players to understand cellular functions...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Cell Science
Hossein Nejadnik, Jessica Tseng, Heike Daldrup-Link
"Off the shelf" allogeneic stem cell transplants and stem cell nano-composites are being used for the treatment of degenerative bone diseases. However, major and minor histocompatibility antigens of therapeutic cell transplants can be recognized as foreign and lead to their rejection by the host immune system. If a host immune response is identified within the first week post-transplant, immune modulating therapies could be applied to prevent graft failure and support engraftment. Ferumoxytol (Feraheme™) is an FDA approved iron oxide nanoparticle preparation for the treatment of anemia in patients...
February 7, 2019: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Alexander U Ernst, Daniel T Bowers, Long-Hai Wang, Kaavian Shariati, Mitchell D Plesser, Natalie K Brown, Tigran Mehrabyan, Minglin Ma
Islet transplantation is a promising long-term, compliance-free, complication-preventing treatment for type 1 diabetes. However, islet transplantation is currently limited to a narrow set of patients due to the shortage of donor islets and side effects from immunosuppression. Encapsulating cells in an immunoisolating membrane can allow for their transplantation without the need for immunosuppression. Alternatively, "open" systems may improve islet health and function by allowing vascular ingrowth at clinically attractive sites...
February 1, 2019: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Azza Hafez, Eldsokey Nassef, Mohamed Fahmy, Mabrouk Elsabagh, Abdelnasser Bakr, Elsayed Hegazi
This study aimed to elucidate the response of broiler chickens to the dietary nano-zinc supplementation in terms of immune response and antioxidant activity. Ninety-one-day-old chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments in three replicates, in a feeding trial that lasted for 5 weeks. Birds were fed a basal diet supplemented with inorganic zinc oxide at 40 mg/kg diet (control), zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) at 40 mg/kg diet (ZN1), or ZnONPs at 80 mg/kg diet (ZN2). Birds were injected with DNP-KLH at the 7th and 21st days from the beginning of the experiment, and blood samples were collected on days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 to determine the levels of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) and malondialdehyde as well as the antioxidant enzyme activities...
February 4, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
M van Pomeren, W J G M Peijnenburg, R C Vlieg, S J T van Noort, M G Vijver
Important questions raised in (nano)ecotoxicology are whether biodistribution of nanoparticles (NPs) is affected by particle shape and to what extent local adverse responses are subsequently initiated. For nanomedicine, these same questions become important when the labeled NPs lose the labeling. In this study, we investigated the biodistribution patterns of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as well as immune-related local and systemic sublethal markers of exposure and behavioral assessment. Hatched zebrafish embryos were exposed to four differently shaped non-coated AuNPs with comparable sizes: nanospheres, nanorods, nano-urchins, and nano-bipyramids...
February 4, 2019: Nanotoxicology
Manyuan Bai, Hu Dong, Xin Su, Ye Jin, Shiqi Sun, Yingpeng Zhang, Yunshang Yang, Huichen Guo
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute and febrile infectious disease, which can cause great economic losses. Virus-like particles (VLPs) as an advantageous antigen can induce significant specific immune response. In order to improve immunity of VLPs, especially, make it induce persistent immune response, the hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) as a potential nano-adjuvant were synthesized and loaded the FMDV VLPs. They were injected into guinea pigs and the specific immune response was detected...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
Emerson B Lee, Hyeong-Min Jeon, Chang-Ung Kim, Sang M Park, Geunyoung Cho, Hyun-Jin Kim, Youngjin Kim, Doo-Jin Kim, Young S Kim, Hayyoung Lee, Jie-Oh Lee
Hemagglutinin (HA) displayed on a ferritin nano-cage has been shown to be effective in generating a potent immune response against a broad range of influenza infections. Here, we showed that conjugation of flagellin together with HA to the exterior surface of the ferritin cage greatly enhanced not only the humoral immune response in mice but also antigen-specific T cell responses that include Th1 cytokine secretion. The effect of flagellin remained essentially unchanged when the molar ratio of flagellin to HA was reduced from 1:1 to 1:3...
January 26, 2019: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Massimiliano Magro, Davide Baratella, Emanuela Bonaiuto, Jessica De Almeida Roger, Giulia Chemello, Sonia Pasquaroli, Leonardo Mancini, Ike Olivotto, Giorgio Zoppellaro, Juri Ugolotti, Claudia Aparicio, Anna P Fifi, Giorgio Cozza, Giovanni Miotto, Giuseppe Radaelli, Daniela Bertotto, Radek Zbořil, Fabio Vianello
The ability of peculiar iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) to evade the immune system was demonstrated in vivo. The nanomaterial was provided directly into the farming water of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the distribution of IONPs and the delivery of oxytetracycline (OTC) was studied evidencing the successful overcoming of the intestinal barrier and the specific and prolonged (28 days) organotropic delivery of OTC to the fish ovary. Noteworthy, no sign of adverse effects was observed. In fish blood, IONPs were able to specifically bind apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1) and molecular modelling showed the structural analogy between the IONP@Apo A1 nano-conjugate and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)...
January 29, 2019: Biomacromolecules
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