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Membrane contact

Taihei Fujimori, Akihiko Nakajima, Nao Shimada, Satoshi Sawai
Despite their central role in multicellular organization, navigation rules that dictate cell rearrangement remain largely undefined. Contact between neighboring cells and diffusive attractant molecules are two of the major determinants of tissue-level patterning; however, in most cases, molecular and developmental complexity hinders one from decoding the exact governing rules of individual cell movement. A primordial example of tissue patterning by cell rearrangement is found in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum where the organizing center or the "tip" self-organizes as a result of sorting of differentiating prestalk and prespore cells...
February 19, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nashwa S Abdalla, Maha A Youssef, H Algarni, Nasser S Awwad, Ayman H Kamel
All-solid-state potentiometric sensors were prepared by using polyaniline (PANI) as the solid contact material. A film of PANI (thickness approximately being 0.25 µm) was deposited on a solid substrate (carbon screen printed platform). The PANI layer was subsequently coated with an ion-selective membrane (ISM) containing uniform-sized molecularly imprinted nanoparticles to produce a solid-contact ion-selective electrode (SC/ISE) for bispyribac herbicide (sensor I). In addition, aliquat 336 was also used as an ion exchanger in plasticized PVC membrane (sensor II)...
February 16, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yehia Manawi, Viktor Kochkodan, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Abdul Wahab Mohammad, Muataz Ali Atieh
Novel thin film composite (TFC) polyamide (PA) membranes blended with 0.01⁻0.2 wt.% of Acacia gum (AG) have been prepared using the interfacial polymerization technique. The properties of the prepared membranes were evaluated using contact angle, zeta potential measurements, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and surface profilometer. It was found that the use of AG as an additive to TFC PA membranes increased the membrane's hydrophilicity (by 45%), surface charge (by 16%) as well as water flux (by 1...
February 15, 2019: Membranes
Liguo Shen, Yicheng Zhang, Weiming Yu, Renjie Li, Minglei Wang, Qianhong Gao, Jianxi Li, Hongjun Lin
This study proposed a novel strategy to improve performance of inherently hydrophobic poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane. The proposed strategy combined radiation grafting of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and electroless nickel plating. After a 5 min plating by using this modification strategy, the water contact angle of the modified membrane decreased from 75.5° to 47.1°, and water content ratio increased from 61.4% to 109.9%. The modified PVDF-g-PAA-Ag@Ni membrane presented 100% flux recovery and reduced fouling propensity when filtrating 0...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Sunghwa Han, Yongheng Huang, Zong Liu
Novel and efficient animal wastewater treatment technologies of bacteria reduction are needed for preventing disease outbreak in animal herds and safeguarding environmental health. Zero-valent iron (ZVI) has been used to treat bacteria contaminated water for the past decades, but its passivation issue has been a major challenge. In this study, batch tests were performed to evaluate the effect of a hybrid zero-valent iron (h-ZVI) or a mixed ZVI/Fe3 O4 media system on reduction of Escherichia coli (E. coli) levels...
February 18, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
J Jiang, K Garikipati, S Rudraraju
We present a model for cell growth, division and packing under soft constraints that arise from the deformability of the cells as well as of a membrane that encloses them. Our treatment falls within the framework of diffuse interface methods, under which each cell is represented by a scalar phase field and the zero level set of the phase field represents the cell membrane. One crucial element in the treatment is the definition of a free energy density function that penalizes cell overlap, thus giving rise to a simple model of cell-cell contact...
February 18, 2019: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Maria Fernandes, Maria L Vieira, Teresa Carreira, Rosa Teodósio
Leptospires are spirochetes of Leptospira genus. Infection in humans occurs by penetration into the mucous membranes, or into the skin (small wounds or abrasions). Humans are infected when they contact with urine of rodents, the main reservoirs. We aimed to evaluate the presence of anti-Leptospira spp antibodies and leptospiral DNA in sanitation workers (occupational group with increased risk) from Lisbon and Tagus Valley Region (Portugal). Blood samples were collected from 347 sanitation workers, being applied a questionnaire to analyze exposure to rodents and preventive measures...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Sanooj Soni, Kieran P O'Dea, Ying Ying Tan, Kahori Cho, Eiko Abe, Rosalba Romano, Jiang Cui, Daqing Ma, Padmini Sarathchandra, Michael R Wilson, Masao Takata
Cellular stress or injury induces release of endogenous danger signals such as ATP, which plays a central role in activating immune cells. ATP is essential for the release of nonclassically secreted cytokines such as IL-1β but, paradoxically, has been reported to inhibit the release of classically secreted cytokines such as TNF. Here, we reveal that ATP does switch off soluble TNF (17 kDa) release from LPS-treated macrophages, but rather than inhibiting the entire TNF secretion, ATP packages membrane TNF (26 kDa) within microvesicles (MVs)...
February 18, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Zixin Cheng, Kazunori Yoshizawa
Although the great genital diversity of the barklouse genus Trichadenotecnum has been described in previous studies, the specific function of the genital structures during the copulation process has received less investigative attention. We reconstructed 3D-models of each structure of the male and female genitalia of Trichadenotecnum incognitum in copula and those of uncopulated male and female of Trichadenotecnum pseudomedium. By comparing the changes in male and female genital structures and related muscles in copulated and uncopulated states, the function of each genital structure can be described...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Morphology
Yu-Hsien Lien, Dhani Ram Mahato, Felix Hoppe-Seyler, Wolfgang B Fischer
Coarse grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulation technique (Martini force field) is applied to monitor the aggregation of helical rods representing the transmembrane sequence and its extension of bone marrow stromal-cell antigen 2 (BST-2). One of the peptides is coupled with a protein transducing domain (PTD) of nine arginine residues (R9) at its N-terminal side as well as a peptide, pep11**, which has been shown to bind to human papilloma virus 16 (HPV16) E6 oncoprotein. A short hydrophobic stretch of the transmembrane domain (TMD) of BST-2 aggregates the fastest and inserts into a lipid membrane...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Yi Xiang, Jing Liang, Lili Liu, Fei Wang, Lianfu Deng, Wenguo Cui
Electrospun fibers are excellent drug carriers and tissue engineering scaffolds. However, approaches to promote drug permeation in tissues with such carriers remain of great interest. Here, we propose a Quality-by-Design strategy to enhance drug permeation with self-nanoemulsifying electrospun fibers. Owing to the nanoemulsion which formed spontaneously when the polymer contacts aqueous solution such as body fluid, the resulting drug-laden fibrous membrane exhibits an outstanding drug permeation and therapeutic enhancement effect in a Franz cell experiment with ex vivo abdomen skin of rats, an artificial connective tissue model, and an in vivo rheumatoid arthritis model in rats...
February 18, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sivaramakrishnan Ramadurai, Ananiy Kohut, Nirod Kumar Sarangi, Oksana Zholobko, Vladimir A Baulin, Andriy Voronov, Tia E Keyes
Macromolecules of amphiphilic invertible polymers (AIPs) are capable of self-assembly into micellar assemblies of various morphologies in solvents of different polarities. The micellar assemblies in aqueous media are capable of encapsulating poorly aqueous soluble cargo and can undergo inverse conformational change and cargo release in contact with non-polar media, including potentially, cell membranes. Thus, invertible micellar assemblies have significant potential in drug delivery and related domains. However, to date there have been few investigations into their interactions with lipid membranes...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Adelaide Tousley, Maria Iuliano, Elizabeth Weisman, Ellen Sapp, Heather Richardson, Petr Vodicka, Jonathan Alexander, Neil Aronin, Marian DiFiglia, Kimberly B Kegel-Gleason
One response of cells to growth factor stimulus involves changes in morphology driven by the actin cytoskeleton and actin associated proteins which regulate functions such as cell adhesion, motility and in neurons, synaptic plasticity. Previous studies suggest that Huntingtin may be involved in regulating morphology however, there has been limited evidence linking endogenous Huntingtin localization or function with cytoplasmic actin in cells. We found that depletion of Huntingtin in human fibroblasts reduced adhesion and altered morphology and these phenotypes were made worse with growth factor stimulation, whereas the presence of the Huntington's Disease mutation inhibited growth factor induced changes in morphology and increased numbers of vinculin-positive focal adhesions...
2019: PloS One
N Hamzah, M Nagarajah, C P Leo
Fat, oil and grease in wastewater generated from household kitchens, restaurants and food processing plants affect sewer systems, water resources and environment adversely. Hence, membrane distillation of saline and oily water was studied using a nearly superhydrophobic membrane developed in this work. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane incorporated SiO2 nanoparticles was synthesized via phase inversion with dual baths and modified using hexadecyltrimethoxy silane. The volume ratio of silane to ethanol was varied between 1:200 to 1:25...
December 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Mark J McBride
Members of the phylum Bacteroidetes have many unique features, including gliding motility and the type IX protein secretion system (T9SS). Bacteroidetes gliding and T9SSs are common in, but apparently confined to, this phylum. Most, but not all, members of the phylum secrete proteins using the T9SS, and most also exhibit gliding motility. T9SSs secrete cell surface components of the gliding motility machinery and also secrete many extracellular or cell surface enzymes, adhesins, and virulence factors. The components of the T9SS are novel and are unrelated to those of other bacterial secretion systems...
January 2019: Microbiology Spectrum
Jonathan Lin, Salima Hassanaly, Robert A Hyde, Jennifer Brown, Dan Yoon, Charles Q Yu
Purpose: we report a case of late spontaneous large detachment of Descemet's membrane in recurrent pellucid marginal degeneration after penetrating keratoplasty. Observations: a 73-year-old man presented to clinic with spontaneous detachment of his Descemet's membrane 30 years after penetrating keratoplasty for pellucid marginal degeneration. Efforts were made to bubble the membrane back into place without success. The patient then underwent endothelial keratoplasty with successful restoration of cornea clarity...
March 2019: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Priyanka Prakash, John F Hancock, Alemayehu A Gorfe
Raf kinases are downstream effectors of small GTPase Ras. Mutations in Ras and Raf are associated with a variety of cancers and genetic disorders. Of the three Raf isoforms, cRaf is most frequently involved in tumor initiation by Ras. Cytosolic Raf is auto-inhibited and becomes active upon recruitment to the plasma membrane. Since the catalytic domain of Raf is its kinase domain, we ask the following: does the kinase domain of Raf has potential to interact with membrane and if yes, what role does the membrane interaction play? We present a model of cRaf kinase domain in complex with a heterogeneous membrane bilayer using atomistic molecular dynamics simulation...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Nélio Drumond, Sven Stegemann
Oral drug delivery technology is mainly provided in the form of solid oral dosage forms (SODF) that have to be swallowed intact and move throughout the oro-esophageal system to release the drug content in the stomach or intestine. As there is growing evidence for an increasing prevalence of impaired swallowing functions in certain diseases, multimorbidity and advanced age, predictive in vitro methods for the oro-esophageal gliding behavior of SODF would be very useful. The gliding performance of different SODF polymer films was investigated across an artificial mucous layer using a versatile in vitro gliding system...
February 6, 2019: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Kumar Tekwani Movellan, Eszter E Najbauer, Supriya Pratihar, Michele Salvi, Karin Giller, Stefan Becker, Loren B Andreas
We describe a new labeling method that allows for full protonation at the backbone Hα position, maintaining protein side chains with a high level of deuteration. We refer to the method as alpha proton exchange by transamination (α-PET) since it relies on transaminase activity demonstrated here using Escherichia coli expression. We show that α-PET labeling is particularly useful in improving structural characterization of solid proteins by introduction of an additional proton reporter, while eliminating many strong dipolar couplings...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
Sebastián Vejar, Juan E Oyarzún, Mauricio A Retamal, Fernando C Ortiz, Juan A Orellana
Oligodendrocytes are the myelin forming cells in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition to this main physiological function, these cells play key roles by providing energy substrates to neurons as well as information required to sustain proper synaptic transmission and plasticity at the CNS. The latter requires a fine coordinated intercellular communication with neurons and other glial cell types, including astrocytes. In mammals, tissue synchronization is mainly mediated by connexins and pannexins, two protein families that underpin the communication among neighboring cells through the formation of different plasma membrane channels...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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