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Insect insulin

Jiayi Huang, Ka H Wong, Stephanie V Tay, Aida Serra, Siu Kuan Sze, James P Tam
Astragalus membranaceus root, Huang Qi in Chinese, is a popular medicinal herb traditionally used to regulate blood glucose. Herein, the identification and characterization of two families of cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs), designated α- and β-astratides, from A. membranaceus roots are reported. Proteomic analysis showed that α-astratide aM1 and β-astratide bM1 belong to two distinct CRP families. The six-cysteine-containing and proline-rich α-astratide aM1 displayed high sequence identity to Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b (PA1b), while the eight-cysteine-containing β-astratide bM1 showed sequence similarity to plant defensins...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Natural Products
Babar Hussain Chang, Boyang Cui, Hidayat Ullah, Shuang Li, Kun Hao, Xiongbing Tu, Guangjun Wang, Xiangqun Nong, Mark Richard McNeill, Xunbing Huang, Zehua Zhang
Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPs) and protein tyrosine kinase (PTKs) genes are responsible for the regulation of insect insulin-like pathway (ILP), cells growth, metabolism initiation, gene transcription and observing immune response. Signal transduction in insect cell is also associated with PTPs and PTKs. The grasshopper (Oedaleus asiaticus) 'Bey-Bienko' were treated with dsRNA of protein tyrosine non-receptor type 4 (PTPN4) and protein tyrosine kinase 5 (PTK5) along with control (water). Applying dsPTK5 treatments in 5th instar of Oedaleus asiaticus, significant reduction was recorded in body dry mass, growth rate and overall performance except survival rate...
January 31, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Aldana Trabucchi, Silvina S Bombicino, Alexandra M Targovnik, Juan I Marfía, Adriana V Sabljic, Natalia I Faccinetti, Luciano L Guerra, Ruben F Iacono, María V Miranda, Silvina N Valdez
Autoimmune Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease caused by the selective destruction of insulin producing beta cells in human pancreas. DM is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies that bind a variety of islet-cell antigens. The 65 kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65) is a major autoantigen recognized by these autoantibodies. Autoantibodies to GAD65 (GADA) are considered predictive markers of the disease when tested in combination with other specific autoantibodies. In order to produce reliable immunochemical tests for large scale screening of autoimmune DM, large amounts of properly folded GAD65 are needed...
January 29, 2019: Scientific Reports
Cynthia Lenaerts, Elisabeth Marchal, Paulien Peeters, Jozef Vanden Broeck
Ecdysteroid hormones influence the development and reproduction of arthropods by binding a heterodimeric complex of nuclear receptors, the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and the retinoid-X-receptor/ultraspiracle (RXR/USP). Here, we report on the in vivo role(s) of the ecdysone receptor complex, SchgrEcR/SchgrRXR, in the female reproductive physiology of a major phytophagous pest insect, i.e. the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. Tissue and temporal distribution profiles were analysed during the first gonadotrophic cycle of adult female locusts...
January 9, 2019: Scientific Reports
Szymon Chowański, Joanna Pacholska-Bogalska, Grzegorz Rosiński
Synthetic insecticides are still widely used in plant protection. The main target for their action is the nervous system, in which the cholinergic system plays a vital role. Currently available insecticides have low selectivity and act on the cholinergic systems of invertebrates and vertebrates. Acetylcholine, a cholinergic system neurotransmitter, acts on cells by two types of receptors: nicotinic and muscarinic. In mammals, the role of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) is quite well-known but in insects, is still not enough...
December 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Marina S Defferrari, Sara R Da Silva, Ian Orchard, Angela B Lange
The insulin signaling pathway is a modulator of metabolism in insects and can regulate functions associated with growth and development, as well as lipid and carbohydrate balance. We have previously reported the presence of an insulin-like peptide and an insulin-like growth factor in Rhodnius prolixus , which are involved in the homeostasis of lipids and carbohydrates in post-feeding and non-feeding periods. In the present study, we have characterized the first insulin receptor (IR) to be discovered in R. prolixus , Rhopr-IR, and investigated its intracellular signaling cascade and its role in nutrient control...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Md Abdullah Al Baki, Dae-Weon Lee, Jin Kyo Jung, Yonggyun Kim
Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) of insects mediate various physiological processes including hemolymph sugar level, immature growth, female reproduction, and lifespan. In target cells of ILPs, insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) is highly conserved in animals. IIS in the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is known to be involved in maintaining hemolymph trehalose levels and promoting larval growth. However, ILPs in M. vitrata have not been reported yet. This study predicted two ILP genes of Mv-ILP1 and Mv-ILP2 from transcriptome of M...
December 10, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Seogang Hyun
The mechanism that determines the specific body size of an animal is a fundamental biological question that remains largely unanswered. This aspect is now beginning to be understood in insect models, particularly in Drosophila melanogaster , with studies highlighting the importance of nutrient-responsive growth signaling pathways involving insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and target of rapamycin (TOR) (IIS/TOR). These pathways operate in animals, from insects to mammals, adjusting the growth rate in response to the nutritional condition of the organism...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Ding Ding, Guangjian Liu, Li Hou, Wanying Gui, Bing Chen, Le Kang
Animal and human highlanders have evolved distinct traits to enhance tissue oxygen delivery and utilization. Unlike vertebrates, insects use their tracheal system for efficient oxygen delivery. However, the genetic basis of insect adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia remains unexplored. Here, we report a potential mechanism of metabolic adaptation of migratory locusts in the Tibetan Plateau, through whole-genome resequencing and functional investigation. A genome-wide scan revealed that the positively selected genes in Tibetan locusts are predominantly involved in carbon and energy metabolism...
November 26, 2018: Nature Communications
Zachary A Batz, Peter A Armbruster
Diapause is an alternative life-history strategy that allows organisms to enter developmental arrest in anticipation of unfavorable conditions. Diapause is widespread among insects and plays a key role in enhancing overwinter survival as well as defining the seasonal and geographic distributions of populations. Next generation sequencing has greatly advanced our understanding of the transcriptional basis for this crucial adaptation but less is known about regulation of embryonic diapause physiology at the metabolite level...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jie Zhang, Weike Yang, Junfeng Xu, Wanying Yang, Qingrong Li, Yangjin Zhong, Yang Cao, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Xiaojuan Deng
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important effector molecules of insect humoral immunity, and expression of AMPs is mainly regulated by the Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) pathways. FoxO, a key downstream regulator of the insulin-like signaling (ILS) pathway, has been recently reported to be involved in the regulation of AMPs in Drosophila melanogaster. In the present study, we investigated AMP gene expression and the regulation pathway controlled by the starvation in the silkworm Bombyx mori. We discovered that antibacterial activity in the hemolymph of B...
December 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Chuan-Xi Zhang, Jennifer A Brisson, Hai-Jun Xu
Many insects are capable of developing into either long-winged or shortwinged (or wingless) morphs, which enables them to rapidly match heterogeneous environments. Thus, the wing polymorphism is an adaptation at the root of their ecological success. Wing polymorphism is orchestrated at various levels, starting with the insect's perception of environmental cues, then signal transduction and signal execution, and ultimately the transmitting of signals into physiological adaption in accordance with the particular morph produced...
October 12, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Jing Pan, Yu-Qin Di, Yong-Bo Li, Cai-Hua Chen, Jin-Xing Wang, Xiao-Fan Zhao
Insulin promotes larval growth of insects by stimulating the synthesis of the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), which induces pupation and apoptosis. However, the mechanism underlying the coordinate regulation of insect pupation and apoptosis by these two functionally opposing hormones is still unclear. Here, using the lepidopteran insect and serious agricultural pest Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm) as a model, we report that phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) and forkhead box O (FoxO) play key roles in these processes...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Pan Deng, Qing-Yu Xu, Kai-Yun Fu, Wen-Chao Guo, Guo-Qing Li
It is noted that insect insulin/insulin-like growth factor/target of rapamycin signaling is critical for the regulation of metamorphosis in holometabolous insects. However, the molecular mechanism remains undetermined. Our previous findings reveal that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of an insulin gene (LdILP2) in Leptinotarsa decemlineata disturbs both 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH) signaling, and impairs pupation. In the present paper, we further observed that the expression of the insulin receptor substrate gene chico (Ldchico) and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase gene pi3k (Ldpi3k92E) was repressed in LdILP2 depleted larvae...
October 6, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Irene Miguel-Aliaga, Heinrich Jasper, Bruno Lemaitre
The gastrointestinal tract has recently come to the forefront of multiple research fields. It is now recognized as a major source of signals modulating food intake, insulin secretion and energy balance. It is also a key player in immunity and, through its interaction with microbiota, can shape our physiology and behavior in complex and sometimes unexpected ways. The insect intestine had remained, by comparison, relatively unexplored until the identification of adult somatic stem cells in the Drosophila intestine over a decade ago...
October 2018: Genetics
Md Abdullah Al Baki, Jin Kyo Jung, Rameswor Maharjan, Hwijong Yi, Jeong Joon Ahn, Xiaojun Gu, Yonggyun Kim
Insect growth is influenced by two major environmental factors: temperature and nutrient. These environmental factors are internally mediated by insulin/insulin-like growth factor signal (IIS) to coordinate tissue or organ growth. Maruca vitrata, a subtropical lepidopteran insect, migrates to different climate regions and feeds on various crops. The objective of this study was to determine molecular tools to predict growth rate of M. vitrata using IIS components. Four genes [insulin receptor (InR), Forkhead Box O (FOXO), Target of Rapamycin (TOR), and serine-threonine protein kinase (Akt)] were used to correlate their expression levels with larval growth rates under different environmental conditions...
2018: PloS One
Huizhen Guo, Chunlin Huang, Liang Jiang, Tingcai Cheng, Tieshan Feng, Qingyou Xia
Bombyx mori is a poikilothermic insect and is economically important for silk production. Drastic changes in the ambient temperature have a negative impact on sericulture. However, the reason as to why high temperature is associated with the occurrence of diseases in silkworm and the response of silkworm to low temperature remain unclear and were the focus of the present study. Dazao silkworm exposed to 13 °C (DZ-13), 25 °C (DZ-25), and 37 °C (DZ-37) were used for RNA-seq analysis. There were 478 and 194 upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in DZ-13 and DZ-37 while 49 and 273 downregulated DEGs in DZ-13 and DZ-37, respectively...
October 1, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Lin Ling, Alexander S Raikhel
Disease-transmitting female mosquitoes require a vertebrate blood meal to produce their eggs. An obligatory hematophagous lifestyle, rapid reproduction, and existence of a large number of transmittable diseases make mosquitoes the world's deadliest animals. Attaining optimal body size and nutritional status is critical for mosquitoes to become reproductively competent and effective disease vectors. We report that blood feeding boosts serotonin concentration and elevates the serotonin receptor Aa5HT2B ( Aedes aegypti 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor, type 2B) transcript level in the fat-body, an insect analog of the vertebrate liver and adipose tissue...
October 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Samaneh Mafakheri, Ralf R Flörke, Sibylle Kanngießer, Sonja Hartwig, Lena Espelage, Christian De Wendt, Tina Schönberger, Nele Hamker, Stefan Lehr, Alexandra Chadt, Hadi Al-Hasani
In skeletal muscle, the Rab GTPase-activating (GAP) protein TBC1D1 is phosphorylated by AKT and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in response to insulin and muscle contraction. Genetic ablation of Tbc1d1 or mutation of distinct phosphorylation sites impairs intracellular GLUT4 retention and GLUT4 traffic, presumably through alterations of the activation state of downstream Rab GTPases. Previous studies have focused on characterizing the C-terminal GAP domain of TBC1D1 that lacks the known phosphorylation sites, as well as putative regulatory domains...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Nikolaj Kulahin Roed, Cristina M Viola, Ole Kristensen, Gerd Schluckebier, Mathias Norrman, Waseem Sajid, John D Wade, Asser Sloth Andersen, Claus Kristensen, Timothy R Ganderton, Johan P Turkenburg, Pierre De Meyts, Andrzej M Brzozowski
The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling axis is an evolutionary ancient and highly conserved hormonal system involved in the regulation of metabolism, growth and lifespan in animals. Human insulin is stored in the pancreas, while insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is maintained in blood in complexes with IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP1-6). Insect insulin-like polypeptide binding proteins (IBPs) have been considered as IGFBP-like structural and functional homologues. Here, we report structures of the Drosophila IBP Imp-L2 in its free form and bound to Drosophila insulin-like peptide 5 and human IGF-1...
September 21, 2018: Nature Communications
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