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Yan-Feng Huang, Qiao-Ping Li, Yao-Xing Dou, Tong-Tong Wang, Chang Qu, Jia-Li Liang, Zhi-Xiu Lin, Xiao-Qi Huang, Zi-Ren Su, Jian-Nan Chen, You-Liang Xie
Brucea javanica is an important Chinese folk medicine traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery (also known as inflammatory bowel diseases). Brucea javanica oil emulsion (BJOE), the most common preparation of Brucea javanica, has a variety of pharmacological activities. In this follow-up investigation, we endeavored to illuminate the potential benefit of BJOE on 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced Crohn's disease (CD) in rats and decipher the mechanism of action. The result illustrated that BJOE treatment significantly reduced the body weight loss, disease activity index and macroscopic scores, ameliorated shortening of colon length, arrested colonic histopathological deteriorations, lowered the histological scores in parallel to the model group...
March 19, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Jiayin Ruan, Yunxian Zhou
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease is a chronic condition causing inflammation of the lining of the digestive system. Individuals suffering from this illness encounter various challenges and problems, but studies investigating the illness experiences of patients with Crohn's disease in East Asian countries are scarce. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the illness experiences of patients with Crohn's disease in China and construct an interpretive understanding of these experiences from the perspective of the patients...
March 5, 2019: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Che-Yung Chao, Carolyne Lemieux, Sophie Restellini, Waqqas Afif, Alain Bitton, Peter L Lakatos, Gary Wild, Talat Bessissow
Background/Aims: Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) are key aspects in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aims to evaluate factors associated with adverse PRO, including modifiable social constructs of maladaptive coping and self-efficacy as well as physician-patient concordance on PRO. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) from September 2015 to March 2016...
March 18, 2019: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
Anthony Mark Dalzell, Muhammad Eyad Ba'Ath
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) should be considered in any child with a persistently altered bowel habit. Growth failure may be a consequence and there may also be extra-intestinal manifestations. Oesophago-gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy and conventional histopathology are the diagnostic tools of choice in IBD. The identification and management of children with IBD in resource-poor settings is difficult and there are few data on its prevalence in low- and middle-income countries. The main challenges are a lack of resources and infrastructure including trained personnel in settings where there are other priorities for maintaining the health and wellbeing of children...
February 2019: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Xu Teng, Lingfen Xu, Mei Sun, Jing Guo
A retrospective analysis of the phenotypic characteristics, clinical manifestations, investigations and interleukin-10 receptor (IL-10R) status of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in infants and children under 2 years of age in Liaoning Province, China between January 2015 and October 2016 is described. Six patients without a family history of IBD were diagnosed with Crohn disease, and IL-10R mutations were detected in five of them. Compound heterozygous patients with IL-10R mutations had severe clinical manifestations, were resistant to standard medication for IBD and had a poor prognosis as haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was not undertaken...
February 2019: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Steven D Miller, Carmelo Cuffari, Eboselume Akhuemonkhan, Anthony L Guerrerio, Harold Lehmann, Susan Hutfless
Purpose: We examined the prevalence of anemia, annual screening for anemia, and treatment of anemia with iron among children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: A retrospective study of U.S. pediatric patients with IBD was performed in the MarketScan commercial claims database from 2010-2014. Children (ages 1-21) with at least two inpatient or outpatient encounters for IBD who had available lab and pharmacy data were included in the cohort. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization criteria...
March 2019: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Ana Vitlic, Sohaib Sadiq, Hafiz I Ahmed, Elisa C Ale, Ana G Binetti, Andrew Collett, Paul N Humpreys, Andrew P Laws
When grown in a semi-defined medium, L. fermentum Lf2 synthesizes significant quantities (∼2 g/L) of two exopolysaccharides (EPS). The two EPS were separated by preparative size exclusion chromatography to give a high molecular mass β-glucan (1.23 × 106  Da) and a medium molecular mass heteroglycan (8.8 × 104  Da). The structure of the high molecular mass β-glucan was determined using a combination of NMR spectroscopy, monomer and linkage analysis. The EPS has the following structure: The immunomodulatory activity of the high molecular mass EPS was studied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
March 9, 2019: Carbohydrate Research
Alexandre Merlini l'Héritier, Laurent Siproudhis, Grégoire Bessi, Eric Le Balc'h, Timothée Wallenhorst, Guillaume Bouguen, Charlène Brochard
AIM: To compare the rate of failure of radiofrequency-thermo-coagulation for anal fistula to that of rectal advancement flap in a case-matched study. METHOD: Patients who underwent radiofrequency treatment were compared with Crohn's disease, age and sex-matched patients who underwent a rectal-flap procedure. Fistula features, general characteristics, and main clinical events were recorded in a prospective database. Failure was defined by at least one of following: abscess, purulent discharge, visible external opening, or further drainage procedure...
March 21, 2019: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Robert Battat, Parambir S Dulai, Vipul Jairath, Niels Vande Casteele
Vedolizumab is a monoclonal antibody to the α4β7 integrin that selectively reduces intestinal lymphocyte trafficking, thereby providing a safe and effective treatment option for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This product review outlines the unique mechanism of vedolizumab in addition to efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data from clinical trials, observational studies and meta-analyses. Vedolizumab has been shown to be effective as a first- or second-line induction and maintenance therapy in both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD)...
March 21, 2019: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Yu Qi Qiao, Chen Wen Cai, Jun Shen, Qing Zheng, Zhi Hua Ran
Genetic factors are crucial in the development of Crohn's disease (CD). Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are known to function as microRNA (miRNA) sponges and regulate a number of signalling pathways via circRNA‑miRNA interactions. As competing endogenous RNAs, the functions of circRNAs in CD should be investigated. In the present study, colon biopsy tissues were collected from ileocolon (L3)‑active CD patients and healthy controls. circRNA microarrays were performed with colon tissues from 3 CD patients and 3 controls...
March 21, 2019: Molecular Medicine Reports
Amanda Vestito, Giovanni Marasco, Giovanni Maconi, Davide Festi, Franco Bazzoli, Rocco Maurizio Zagari
PURPOSE:  To perform a systematic review with meta-analysis to assess whether ultrasound elastography can have a diagnostic role in detecting fibrotic bowel strictures in patients with Crohn's disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  MEDLINE via the PubMed, Ovid Embase, Scopus and Cochrane Library databases, and abstracts of international conference proceedings were searched up to March 31, 2018. Studies were included if they assessed the performance of abdominal ultrasound elastography in detecting fibrotic bowel strictures in patients with Crohn's disease using histology or the need for surgery after medical treatment as a reference standard...
March 20, 2019: Ultraschall in der Medizin
Hui-Chieh Yu, Tsung-Po Chen, Yu-Chao Chang
Background/purpose: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprised Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is a mucosal immune response that affects gastroenterological tract. The association between IBD and periodontitis was inconclusive. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between IBD and periodontitis by using a register-based dataset. Materials and methods: The dataset conducting in this retrospective cohort study was obtained from the National Health Insurance Research database (NHIRD) in Taiwan...
September 2018: Journal of Dental Sciences
Marjorie Argollo, Paulo Gustavo Kotze, Laura Lamonaca, Daniela Gilardi, Federica Furfaro, Takayuki Yamamoto, Silvio Danese
Crohn's disease (CD) is an immune mediated condition characterized by transmural inflammation of the gut tissue, associated with progressive bowel damage often leading to surgical intervention. As operative resection of the damaged segment is not curative, a majority of patients undergoing intestinal resections for complicated CD present with disease recurrence within 3 years after intervention. Postoperative recurrence can be defined as endoscopic, clinical, radiological or surgical. Endoscopic recurrence rates within 1 year exceed 60% and the severity, according to the Rutgeerts' score, is associated with worse prognosis and can predict clinical recurrence (in up to 1/3 of the patients)...
March 19, 2019: Current Drug Targets
Anne Dumay, Olivier Gergaud, Maryline Roy, Jean-Pierre Hugot
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nucleotide Oligomerisation Domain 2 (NOD2) is a key gene of innate immunity which participates to the host defence toward pathogens. Several loss-of-function NOD2 mutations are associated with Crohn Disease (CD). Their high frequencies in populations of European ancestry suggest a model of balancing selection. Because NOD2 deficiency has been associated with a resistance to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in mice we hypothesized that NOD2 mutations have been selected during past plague outbreaks due to the closely related bacteria Yersinia pestis...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Kristian Bolin, Erik Hertervig, Edouard Louis
OBJECTIVES: to examine the cost-effectiveness of continued treatment for patients with moderate-severe Crohn's disease in clinical remission, with a combination of anti-TNFα (infliximab) and immunomodulator therapy compared to two different withdrawal strategies (1) withdrawal of the anti-TNFα therapy, and (2) withdrawal of the immunomodulator therapy, respectively. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A decision-tree model was constructed mimicking three treatment arms: (1) continued combination therapy with infliximab and immunomodulator, (2) withdrawal of infliximab, or (3) withdrawal of the immunomodulator...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Margien L Seinen, Nanne K de Boer, Adriaan A van Bodegraven
The incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease are increasing causing a significant disease burden. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is advocated as a promising tool for personalized or individual-tailored therapy strategies and has been welcomed as a new means to improve current therapy strategies. Nevertheless, pharmacokinetic-based TDM has limitations, and straightforward target concentrations for most therapies are lacking. Areas covered: In the following concise review of literature, key insights of TDM in thiopurine, methotrexate, anti-TNF, vedoluzimab and ustekinumab therapy for Crohn's disease are being described...
March 20, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Siddharth Singh, Larry W Stitt, Guangyong Zou, Reena Khanna, Parambir S Dulai, William J Sandborn, Brian G Feagan, Vipul Jairath
BACKGROUND: Physicians may be reluctant to prescribe combined immunosuppression in older patients with Crohn's disease due to perceived risk of treatment-related complications. AIM: To evaluate the impact of age on risk of Crohn's disease-related complications in patients treated with early combined immunosuppression vs conventional management in a post hoc analysis of the randomised evaluation of an algorithm for Crohn's treatment (REACT), a cluster-randomised trial...
March 19, 2019: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Raquel Rocha, Uli H Sousa, Thamiris L M Reis, Genoile O Santana
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) presents an inflammatory picture that in the long run can lead to complications and consequently more hospitalizations compared to other diseases. AIM: To evaluate the influence of nutritional status on the occurrence of IBD-related hospitalization. METHODS: This integrative review was conducted in the online databases PubMed and MEDLINE, using the terms "obesity" and "malnutrition" accompanied by "hospitalization", each combined with "Crohn's disease" or "ulcerative colitis"...
March 7, 2019: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Andréa Maia Pimentel, Raquel Rocha, Genoile Oliveira Santana
Crohn's disease with involvement of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum has a prevalence of 0.5% to 4% in symptomatic adult patients, but some studies have shown that these results may be underestimated, since upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is not performed routinely in the initial evaluation of the disease in adult patients, as it is in the pediatric population. In general, involvement of the upper gastrointestinal tract in Crohn's disease occurs concomitantly with involvement of the lower gastrointestinal tract...
March 7, 2019: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Chathyan Pararasa, Na Zhang, Thomas J Tull, Ming H A Chong, Jacqueline H Y Siu, William Guesdon, Konstantia Maria Chavele, Jeremy D Sanderson, Louise Langmead, Klaartje Kok, Jo Spencer, Anna Vossenkamper
The intestinal mucosa in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) contains increased frequencies of lymphocytes and a disproportionate increase in plasma cells secreting immunoglobulin (Ig)G relative to other isotypes compared to healthy controls. Despite consistent evidence of B lineage cells in the mucosa in IBD, little is known of B cell recruitment to the gut in IBD. Here we analyzed B cells in blood of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) with a range of disease activities. We analyzed the frequencies of known B cell subsets in blood and observed a consistent reduction in the proportion of CD27- IgD- B cells expressing all Ig isotypes in the blood in IBD (independent of severity of disease and treatment) compared to healthy controls...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
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