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staphylococcus aureus carriage transmission acquisition infection

Kevin T Kavanagh, Said Abusalem, Lindsay E Calderon
The authors advocate the addition of two preventative strategies to the current United State's guidelines for the prevention of surgical site infections. It is known that Staphylococcus aureus , including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), carriers are at a higher risk for the development of infections and they can easily transmit the organism. The carriage rate of Staph. aureus in the general population approximates 33%. The CDC estimates the carriage rate of MRSA in the United States is approximately 2%...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Allard Willem de Smalen, Hatem Ghorab, Moataz Abd El Ghany, Grant A Hill-Cawthorne
BACKGROUND: There is a large increase in the numbers of refugees and asylum seekers worldwide and a lack of data on the carriage of antimicrobial resistance in refugee/asylum seeking groups. METHODS: This article aims to identify the impact of refugees and asylum seekers on the acquisition and transmission of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) through a literature search. The databases Embase, Medline, Pubmed, and Web of Science Core Collection were utilised and covered all articles before the 1st of October 2016...
January 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Ewan M Harrison, Catherine Ludden, Hayley J Brodrick, Beth Blane, Gráinne Brennan, Dearbháile Morris, Francesc Coll, Sandra Reuter, Nicholas M Brown, Mark A Holmes, Brian O'Connell, Julian Parkhill, M Estee Török, Martin Cormican, Sharon J Peacock
BACKGROUND: Long-term care facilities (LTCF) are potential reservoirs for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), control of which may reduce MRSA transmission and infection elsewhere in the healthcare system. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has been used successfully to understand MRSA epidemiology and transmission in hospitals and has the potential to identify transmission between these and LTCF. METHODS: Two prospective observational studies of MRSA carriage were conducted in LTCF in England and Ireland...
October 3, 2016: Genome Medicine
P J Wu, D Jeyaratnam, O Tosas, B S Cooper, G L French
BACKGROUND: Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is frequently endemic in healthcare settings and may be transmitted by person-to-person spread. Asymptomatic MRSA carriers are potential, unsuspected sources for transmission and some of them may be identified by admission screening. AIM: To assess whether rapid point-of-care screening (POCS) for MRSA at hospital admission may be associated with a reduction in MRSA acquisition rates when compared with slower laboratory-based methods...
March 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
P J Reich, M G Boyle, P G Hogan, A J Johnson, M A Wallace, A M Elward, B B Warner, C-A D Burnham, S A Fritz
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). We characterized the clinical and molecular epidemiology of MRSA strains colonizing NICU patients. Nasal MRSA isolates (n = 250, from 96 NICU patients) recovered through active surveillance from 2009 to 2014 were characterized with staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing and detection of mupA (marker of high-level mupirocin resistance) and qacA/B (marker associated with chlorhexidine resistance)...
July 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Thomas Obadia, Lulla Opatowski, Laura Temime, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Éric Fleury, Pierre-Yves Boëlle, Didier Guillemot
BACKGROUND: Reducing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria in hospitals remains a challenge. Current methods are screening of patients, isolation, and adherence to hygiene measures among healthcare workers (HCWs). More specific measures could rely on a better characterization of the contacts at risk of dissemination. OBJECTIVE: To quantify how close-proximity interactions (CPIs) affected Staphylococcus aureus dissemination. DESIGN Nested case-control study...
August 2015: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
J Legrand, L Temime, C Lawrence, J L Herrmann, P Y Boelle, D Guillemot
BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus carriage among healthcare workers (HCWs) is a concern in hospital settings, where it may provide a reservoir for later infections in both patients and staff. Earlier studies have shown that the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in HCWs is highly variable, depending notably on location, hospital department type, MRSA prevalence among patients, and type of contacts with patients. However, MRSA incidence in HCWs and its occupational determinants have seldom been studied...
July 2015: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Sanchita Das, Maureen Harazin, Marc Oliver Wright, Irene Dusich, Ari Robicsek, Lance R Peterson
BACKGROUND: Control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is difficult in select populations. We used molecular typing to study the effect of universal surveillance and decolonization of carriers, without isolation, on MRSA transmission in a specialized unit. METHODS: Patients admitted to the unit were screened for nasal MRSA at admission and discharge. Those who acquired MRSA during their stay were identified and linked to carriers with shared time in unit...
September 2014: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Z A Memish, A Assiri, A Turkestani, S Yezli, M Al Masri, R Charrel, T Drali, J Gaudart, S Edouard, P Parola, P Gautret
Every year, more than 10 million pilgrims arrive in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for the Hajj or Umrah. Crowding conditions lead to high rates of respiratory infections among the pilgrims, representing a significant cause of morbidity and a major cause of hospitalization. Pre- and post-Hajj nasal specimens were prospectively obtained from a paired cohort (692 pilgrims) and from nonpaired cohorts (514 arriving and 470 departing pilgrims) from 13 countries. The countries of residence included Africa (44.2%), Asia (40...
June 2015: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Mitra Saadatian-Elahi, Anne Tristan, Frédéric Laurent, Jean-Philippe Rasigade, Coralie Bouchiat, Anne-Gaëlle Ranc, Gérard Lina, Olivier Dauwalder, Jérôme Etienne, Michèle Bes, François Vandenesch
Acquisition of nasal Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization by contaminated hands is likely an important determinant of its nasal carriage rate in health care and lab setting. The objective of our cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of nasal methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) or -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage among health care professionals (HCPs) attending an international symposium and to study the association between compliance with hygiene rules, individual-related parameters, and medical conditions with nasal S...
2013: PloS One
Makoto Jones, Jian Ying, Benedikt Huttner, Martin Evans, Matthew Maw, Christopher Nielson, Michael A Rubin, Tom Greene, Matthew H Samore
BACKGROUND: The study of hospital methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) epidemiology is complicated by its transmissibility. Our objective was to understand how MRSA importation and transmission influence MRSA nosocomial infections in Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). METHODS: We performed hospital-level analyses of acute-care MRSA admission prevalence, acquisition rates, and incident nosocomial clinical culture (INCC) rates, each a surrogate measure of importation, transmission, and nosocomial infection, respectively...
January 2014: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Miranda M L van Rijen, Marjolein F Q Kluytmans-van den Bergh, Erwin J M Verkade, Peter B G Ten Ham, Beth J Feingold, Jan A J W Kluytmans
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) is rapidly increasing. Currently, it is unknown which reservoirs are involved. An exploratory hospital-based case-control study was performed in sixteen Dutch hospitals to identify risk factors for CA-MRSA carriage in patients not belonging to established risk groups. METHODS: Cases were in- or outpatients from sixteen Dutch hospitals, colonised or infected with MRSA without healthcare- or livestock-associated risk factors for MRSA carriage...
2013: PloS One
Tanya Golubchik, Elizabeth M Batty, Ruth R Miller, Helen Farr, Bernadette C Young, Hanna Larner-Svensson, Rowena Fung, Heather Godwin, Kyle Knox, Antonina Votintseva, Richard G Everitt, Teresa Street, Madeleine Cule, Camilla L C Ip, Xavier Didelot, Timothy E A Peto, Rosalind M Harding, Daniel J Wilson, Derrick W Crook, Rory Bowden
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of healthcare associated mortality, but like many important bacterial pathogens, it is a common constituent of the normal human body flora. Around a third of healthy adults are carriers. Recent evidence suggests that evolution of S. aureus during nasal carriage may be associated with progression to invasive disease. However, a more detailed understanding of within-host evolution under natural conditions is required to appreciate the evolutionary and mechanistic reasons why commensal bacteria such as S...
2013: PloS One
Tatiana V Gurieva, Martin C J Bootsma, Marc J M Bonten
BACKGROUND: Control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission has been unsuccessful in many hospitals. Recommended control measures include isolation of colonized patients, rather than decolonization of carriage among patients and/or health care workers. Yet, the potential effects of such measures are poorly understood. METHODS: We use a stochastic simulation model in which health care workers can transmit MRSA through short-lived hand contamination, or through persistent colonization...
2012: BMC Infectious Diseases
Alex J McCarthy, Adam A Witney, Jodi A Lindsay
Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of human and animal infections. Bacteriophage are a class of mobile genetic element (MGE) that carry virulence genes and disseminate them horizontally, including Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), the immune evasion cluster (IEC) associated with human specificity, and enterotoxin A the major toxin associated with food poisoning. S. aureus isolates group into major clonal complex (CC) lineages that largely evolve independently due to possession of different restriction-modification (RM) systems...
2012: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Rebeccah S Lijek, Santiago L Luque, Qian Liu, Dane Parker, Taeok Bae, Jeffrey N Weiser
Nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus is the major risk factor for disease and transmission. Epidemiological studies have reported a reduced risk of S. aureus carriage in immunocompetent but not in immunocompromised children colonized by Streptococcus pneumoniae. We investigate the hypothesis that the immune response to pneumococcal colonization affects S. aureus colonization. We demonstrate that pneumococcal colonization in mice inhibits subsequent S. aureus acquisition in an antibody-dependent manner and elicits antibody that cross-reacts with S...
August 21, 2012: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nimalie D Stone, Donna R Lewis, Theodore M Johnson, Thomas Hartney, Doris Chandler, Johnita Byrd-Sellers, John E McGowan, Fred C Tenover, John A Jernigan, Robert P Gaynes
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents. DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective cohort followed over 6 months. SETTING: Three Veterans Affairs (VA) LTCFs. PARTICIPANTS: All current and new residents except those with short stay (<2 weeks). METHODS: MRSA carriage was assessed by serial nares cultures and classified into 3 groups: persistent (all cultures positive), intermittent (at least 1 but not all cultures positive), and noncarrier (no cultures positive)...
June 2012: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
B Bisdorff, J L Scholhölter, K Claußen, M Pulz, D Nowak, K Radon
Prevalence of and risk factors associated with MRSA-ST398 carriage in 1872 (response 70%) farmers and neighbouring residents in a pig- and poultry-dense area in Germany were investigated using a cross-sectional study and self-sampling nasal swabs. In the population, 1% without occupational livestock contact and 24% with occupational livestock contact tested positive for MRSA-ST398. The group without occupational livestock contact was 3·8 times [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·5-9·3] more likely to be colonized if a household member had livestock contact and 3·2 times (95% CI 1·4-7·4) more likely if they regularly made private farm visits (e...
October 2012: Epidemiology and Infection
Eyal Leshem, Ayala Maayan-Metzger, Galia Rahav, Mordechai Dolitzki, Jacob Kuint, Yulia Roytman, Aviva Goral, Ilya Novikov, Ronen Fluss, Nathan Keller, Gili Regev-Yochay
BACKGROUND: The study objective was to define the risk factors and the route of Staphylococcus aureus transmission between mother and newborn. METHODS: Women at late pregnancy were screened for nasal and vaginal S. aureus colonization. Newborns were screened for nasal, auricular, umbilical, and rectal colonization at birth and before discharge. Carrier mothers and their newborns were rescreened at 1 month. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis was used to assess strain genetic relatedness...
April 2012: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Nisha Nair, Ekaterina Kourbatova, Katharine Poole, Charmaine M Huckabee, Patrick Murray, W Charles Huskins, Henry M Blumberg
BACKGROUND: The multicenter, cluster-randomized Strategies to Reduce Transmission of Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria in Intensive Care Units (STAR*ICU) trial was performed in 18 U.S. adult intensive care units (ICUs). It evaluated the effectiveness of infection control strategies to reduce the transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization and/or infection. Our study objective was to examine the molecular epidemiology of MRSA and assess the prevalence and risk factors for community acquired (CA)-MRSA genotype nasal carriage at the time of ICU admission...
November 2011: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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