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antimicrobial resistance north africa

Rene S Hendriksen, Patrick Munk, Patrick Njage, Bram van Bunnik, Luke McNally, Oksana Lukjancenko, Timo Röder, David Nieuwenhuijse, Susanne Karlsmose Pedersen, Jette Kjeldgaard, Rolf S Kaas, Philip Thomas Lanken Conradsen Clausen, Josef Korbinian Vogt, Pimlapas Leekitcharoenphon, Milou G M van de Schans, Tina Zuidema, Ana Maria de Roda Husman, Simon Rasmussen, Bent Petersen, Clara Amid, Guy Cochrane, Thomas Sicheritz-Ponten, Heike Schmitt, Jorge Raul Matheu Alvarez, Awa Aidara-Kane, Sünje J Pamp, Ole Lund, Tine Hald, Mark Woolhouse, Marion P Koopmans, Håkan Vigre, Thomas Nordahl Petersen, Frank M Aarestrup
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious threat to global public health, but obtaining representative data on AMR for healthy human populations is difficult. Here, we use metagenomic analysis of untreated sewage to characterize the bacterial resistome from 79 sites in 60 countries. We find systematic differences in abundance and diversity of AMR genes between Europe/North-America/Oceania and Africa/Asia/South-America. Antimicrobial use data and bacterial taxonomy only explains a minor part of the AMR variation that we observe...
March 8, 2019: Nature Communications
Dilip Nathwani, Della Varghese, Jennifer Stephens, Wajeeha Ansari, Stephan Martin, Claudie Charbonneau
Background: Hospital antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) aim to promote judicious use of antimicrobials to combat antimicrobial resistance. For ASPs to be developed, adopted, and implemented, an economic value assessment is essential. Few studies demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of ASPs. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the economic and clinical impact of ASPs. Methods: An update to the Dik et al. systematic review (2000-2014) was conducted on EMBASE and Medline using PRISMA guidelines...
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Zhijie Zhang, Meng Chen, Ying Yu, Sisi Pan, Yong Liu
Background: Antimicrobial activity of tigecycline and comparator agents was assessed in vitro against 27857 isolates source from blood samples collected between 2012 and 2016 as part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (TEST). Methods: The broth microdilution methods was used to determine  minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of blood-borne isolates according to guildlines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints from CLSI guidelines were used as standards to determine susceptibility against comparator agents, whereas tigecycline breakpoints were provided by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Iman Dandachi, Selma Chabou, Ziad Daoud, Jean-Marc Rolain
In recent years, extended ESBL and carbapenemase producing Gram negative bacteria have become widespread in hospitals, community settings and the environment. This has been triggered by the few therapeutic options left when infections with these multi-drug resistant organisms occur. The emergence of resistance to colistin, the last therapeutic option against carbapenem-resistant bacteria, worsened the situation. Recently, animals were regarded as potent antimicrobial reservoir and a possible source of infection to humans...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Harald Seifert, Joseph Blondeau, Michael J Dowzicky
We report contemporary (2014-2016) Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.) global data on activity of tigecycline and comparators against WHO 'priority pathogens', and global trends (2004-2016) in antimicrobial resistance. MICs were determined using CLSI broth microdilution methodology. Antimicrobial resistance was determined using CLSI breakpoints (FDA breakpoints for tigecycline). Data are reported for Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and South America. From 2014-2016, Africa, Asia and South America reported highest resistance rates among Acinetobacter baumannii; North America lowest (all antimicrobials tested)...
August 20, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
E Junaid, L Jenkins, H Swanepoel, Z North, T Gould
Antimicrobial stewardship programmes have been introduced worldwide in response to the rise in antimicrobial resistance. The World Health Organization has mandated each Member State to produce a plan to address this problem. We report on the organic development of an antibiotic stewardship programme in a rural regional hospital in a resource-limited setting in South Africa. This has resulted in organisational change with increased awareness, participation, monitoring and education in antibiotic stewardship throughout the hospital...
June 26, 2018: South African Medical Journal
Jacqueline Sneddon, Gavin Barlow, Sally Bradley, Adrian Brink, Sujith J Chandy, Dilip Nathwani
Background: The University of Dundee and the BSAC developed a massive open online course (MOOC) to address the global need for education to support antimicrobial stewardship in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: An interactive course, Antimicrobial Stewardship: Managing Antibiotic Resistance, was developed and delivered via the FutureLearn© platform. The course ran over four 6 week periods during 2015 and 2016 supported by educators and was evaluated via data on uptake and feedback from learners on impact on clinical practice...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Ferielle Mesbah Zekar, Sophie A Granier, Muriel Marault, Lydia Yaici, Benoit Gassilloud, Charles Manceau, Abdelaziz Touati, Yves Millemann
The role of food in human exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is a growing food safety issue. The contribution of fruits and vegetables eaten raw to this exposure is still unclear. The evaluation of contamination levels of fruits, vegetables and the agricultural environment by third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Gram-negative bacteria was performed by analyzing 491 samples of fruits and vegetables collected from 5 markets and 7 farms in Bejaia area, north-eastern Mediterranean coast of Algeria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gabriel Levy Hara
Selection of resistant pathogens by antimicrobial use is probably the most important cause of antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) refers to a multifaceted approach to optimise prescribing. The benefits of AMS programmes have been widely demonstrated in terms of reductions in antimicrobial use, mortality, Clostridium difficile and other healthcare-associated infections, hospital length of stay and bacterial resistance. Several kinds of interventions (i.e. restriction of drugs, pre-authorisation of certain antimicrobials, joint clinical rounds with prescribers, implementation of guidelines and education) have shown positive results...
March 2014: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Vanessa K Wong, Kathryn E Holt, Chinyere Okoro, Stephen Baker, Derek J Pickard, Florian Marks, Andrew J Page, Grace Olanipekun, Huda Munir, Roxanne Alter, Paul D Fey, Nicholas A Feasey, Francois-Xavier Weill, Simon Le Hello, Peter J Hart, Samuel Kariuki, Robert F Breiman, Melita A Gordon, Robert S Heyderman, Jan Jacobs, Octavie Lunguya, Chisomo Msefula, Calman A MacLennan, Karen H Keddy, Anthony M Smith, Robert S Onsare, Elizabeth De Pinna, Satheesh Nair, Ben Amos, Gordon Dougan, Stephen Obaro
BACKGROUND: The burden of typhoid in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries has been difficult to estimate, in part, due to suboptimal laboratory diagnostics. However, surveillance blood cultures at two sites in Nigeria have identified typhoid associated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) as an important cause of bacteremia in children. METHODS: A total of 128 S. Typhi isolates from these studies in Nigeria were whole-genome sequenced, and the resulting data was used to place these Nigerian isolates into a worldwide context based on their phylogeny and carriage of molecular determinants of antibiotic resistance...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Christian Penny, Beau Grothendick, Lin Zhang, Connie M Borror, Duane Barbano, Angela J Cornelius, Brent J Gilpin, Clifton K Fagerquist, William J Zaragoza, Michele T Jay-Russell, Albert J Lastovica, Catherine Ragimbeau, Henry-Michel Cauchie, Todd R Sandrin
MALDI-TOF MS has been utilized as a reliable and rapid tool for microbial fingerprinting at the genus and species levels. Recently, there has been keen interest in using MALDI-TOF MS beyond the genus and species levels to rapidly identify antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. The purpose of this study was to enhance strain level resolution for Campylobacter jejuni through the optimization of spectrum processing parameters using a series of designed experiments. A collection of 172 strains of C. jejuni were collected from Luxembourg, New Zealand, North America, and South Africa, consisting of four groups of antibiotic resistant isolates...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sibylle H Lob, Daryl J Hoban, Daniel F Sahm, Robert E Badal
Acinetobacter baumannii, although representing a small percentage of Gram-negative bacilli isolates in intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) and urinary tract infections (UTIs), is frequently multidrug-resistant (MDR) and can pose difficult therapeutic challenges. From 2011 to 2014, 2337 A. baumannii were collected from IAIs and UTIs at 453 hospital sites in 48 countries as part of the SMART ongoing surveillance initiative. Current susceptibility and multidrug resistance, defined as resistance to at least three of the tested drug classes, were determined in a subset of 1011 isolates from 2013 to 2014...
April 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Mario Morgenstern, Christoph Erichsen, Simon Hackl, Julia Mily, Matthias Militz, Jan Friederichs, Sven Hungerer, Volker Bühren, T Fintan Moriarty, Virginia Post, R Geoff Richards, Stephen L Kates
Nasal colonization with antibiotic resistant bacteria represents both a risk factor for the colonized individual and their immediate contacts. Despite the fact that healthcare workers such as orthopedic surgeons are at a critical interface between the healthcare environment and an at-risk patient population, the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria within the surgical profession remains unclear. This study offers a snapshot of the rate of nasal colonization of orthopedic surgeons with multi-resistant staphylococci including methicillin-resistant S...
2016: PloS One
Daniel Maina, Geoffrey Omuse, Gunturu Revathi, Rodney D Adam
BACKGROUND: Accurate local prevalence of microbial diseases and microbial resistance data are vital for optimal treatment of patients. However, there are few reports of these data from developing countries, especially from sub-Saharan Africa. The status of Aga Khan University Hospital Nairobi as an internationally accredited hospital and a laboratory with an electronic medical record system has made it possible to analyze local prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility data and compare it with other published data...
2016: PloS One
Ann Versporten, Julia Bielicki, Nico Drapier, Mike Sharland, Herman Goossens
OBJECTIVES: Previously, web-based tools for cross-sectional antimicrobial point prevalence surveys (PPSs) have been used in adults to develop indicators of quality improvement. We aimed to determine the feasibility of developing similar quality indicators of improved antimicrobial prescribing focusing specifically on hospitalized neonates and children worldwide. METHODS: A standardized antimicrobial PPS method was employed. Included were all inpatient children and neonates receiving an antimicrobial at 8:00 am on the day of the PPS...
April 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Ionut F Palici, Erika Liktor-Busa, István Zupkó, Blaise Touzard, Mohamed Chaieb, Edit Urbán, Judit Hohmann
The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of selected Saharan species, which are applied in the traditional medicine but not studied thoroughly from chemical and pharmacological point of view. The studied plants, namely Anthyllis henoniana, Centropodia forskalii, Cornulaca monacantha, Ephedra alata var. alenda, Euphorbia guyoniana, Helianthemum confertum, Henophyton deserti, Moltkiopsis ciliata and Spartidium saharae were collected from remote areas of North Africa, especially from the Tunisian region of Sahara...
December 2015: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh, Amal Rahouma, Abdulaziz Zorgani, Khaled Tawil, Abdurazzaq Al Tomi, Ezzadin Franka
The aim of this review is to provide information on the prevalence, clinical syndromes, and antimicrobial resistance and therapy of Aeromonas spp. infections in Arab countries. The data were obtained by an English language literature search from 1995 to 2014 of Medline and PubMed for papers using the search terms "Aeromonas+name of Arab country (i.e. Algeria, Egypt, etc.)". Additional data were obtained from a Google search using the aforementioned terms. The organisms have been reported from diarrheal children, patients with cholera-like diarrhea, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis and from different types of animals, foods and water source in several Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa with predominance of A...
October 2015: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Muyiwa Ajoke Akindolire, Olubukola Oluranti Babalola, Collins Njie Ateba
The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence, antibiotic susceptibility profiles, and virulence genes determinants of S. aureus isolated from milk obtained from retail outlets of the North-West Province, South Africa. To achieve this, 200 samples of raw, bulk and pasteurised milk were obtained randomly from supermarkets, shops and some farms in the North-West Province between May 2012 and April 2013. S. aureus was isolated and positively identified using morphological (Gram staining), biochemical (DNase, catalase, haemolysis and rapid slide agglutination) tests, protein profile analysis (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry) and molecular (nuc specific PCR) methods...
September 2015: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Rodrigo E Mendes, Lalitagauri M Deshpande, Andrew J Costello, David J Farrell, Ronald N Jones, Robert K Flamm
Baseline methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from patients with nosocomial and community-acquired pneumonia collected during Phase 3 trials for ceftobiprole were characterized. Eighty-four unique isolates from patients enrolled in Europe (50.0%), Asia-Western Pacific region (APAC; 20.2%), North America (19.0%), Latin America (8.3%), and South Africa (2.4%) were included. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution and isolates screened for Panton-Valentine leukocidin...
January 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Imen Touihri, Maher Boukhris, Naziha Marrakchi, José Luis, Belgacem Hanchi, Olfa Kallech-Ziri
Allium roseum L. (Alliaceae) endemic mediterranean specie was represented in the North Africa by 12 different taxa. In the present study, chemical composition, antiproliferative, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil extracted from A. roseum var. grandiflorum Briq. bulbs collected in the North of Tunisia were investigated. Chemical characterization has shown methyl methanethiosulfinate as major sulphurous compounds. A. roseum bulbs essential oil provides interesting antiproliferative activity against two human colonic adenocarcinoma HT29 and CACO2 cell lines in dose-dependent manner with a half-maximal inhibition (IC50) of 4...
2015: Journal of Oleo Science
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