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Katherine M Nelson, Stefan Partelow, Achim Schlüter
This research examines the donation behavior of tourists who are asked to donate to coastal conservation aimed at addressing a bundled mix of land and sea issues. Historically, the governance and financing of land and sea conservation have been separated; yet coastal tourism directly involves a mix of activities and development challenges which link land and sea together on the coast. Marine parks, and numerous studies examining their funding schemes, have typically focused on mandatory user fees targeting specific types of activities...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Yuemei Hu, Kai Chu, Nathalie Lavis, Xiaoling Li, Bill Liang, Shuzhen Liu, Ming Shao, Jean-Denis Shu, Cynthia Tabar, Sandrine Samson
Seasonal influenza causes substantial morbidity and mortality in China, which largely results from limited vaccine accessibility and poor vaccination coverage. Since 2013, Sanofi Pasteur's facilities in Shenzhen, China have produced a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (Shz-IIV3) for each influenza season according to Chinese pharmacopeia requirements. However, the immunogenicity of Shz-IIV3 has not been compared to existing Chinese trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV3s). Here, we describe the results of a phase IV, observer-blind, randomized study to evaluate whether the immunogenicity of Shz-IIV3 was non-inferior to a comparator IIV3 (Hualan Biological Engineering Inc) also manufactured and licensed in China...
February 19, 2019: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
James M McCarty, Michael D Lock, Sean Bennett, Kristin M Hunt, Jakub K Simon, Marc Gurwith
Aging is accompanied by a decline in immune function which can lead to decreased responses to vaccines. Attenuated recombinant Vibrio cholerae O1 vaccine strain CVD 103-HgR elicits a rapid serum vibriocidal antibody (SVA) response and protects against cholera diarrhea in volunteer challenge studies but has not been studied in older adults. We evaluated CVD 103-HgR (PXVX0200) in adults age 46-64, compared them to previously studied adults age 18-45, and studied age-related immunogenicity across adults 18-64 years of age...
February 13, 2019: Vaccine
Aimée Wattiaux, Brittany Bettendorf, Laura Block, Andrea Gilmore-Bykovskyi, Edmond Ramly, Megan E Piper, Ann Rosenthal, Jane Sadusky, Elizabeth Cox, Betty Chewning, Christie M Bartels
OBJECTIVE: Although smoking is a risk factor for cardiovascular and rheumatic disease severity, only 10% of rheumatology visits document cessation counseling. After implementing a rheumatology clinic protocol that increased tobacco quitline referrals 20-fold, current objectives were to 1) examine patients' barriers and facilitators to smoking cessation based on prior rheumatology experiences, 2) solicit reactions to the new cessation protocol, and 3) identify patient-centered outcomes or "signs of cessation progress" following improved care...
February 15, 2019: Arthritis Care & Research
Gérard Socié, Marie-Pierre Caby-Tosi, Jing L Marantz, Alexander Cole, Camille L Bedrosian, Christoph Gasteyger, Arshad Mujeebuddin, Peter Hillmen, Johan Vande Walle, Hermann Haller
Eculizumab is the first and only medication approved for paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) and atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) treatment. However, eculizumab safety based on long-term pharmacovigilance is unknown. This analysis summarises safety data collected from spontaneous and solicited sources from 16 March 2007 through 1 October 2016. Cumulative exposure to eculizumab was 28 518 patient-years (PY) (PNH, 21 016 PY; aHUS, 7502 PY). Seventy-six cases of meningococcal infection were reported (0·25/100 PY), including eight fatal PNH cases (0·03/100 PY)...
February 15, 2019: British Journal of Haematology
Yin Bun Cheung, Shirlyn H S Neo, Irene Teo, Grace M Yang, Geok Ling Lee, Julian Thumboo, John W K Chia, Audrey R X Koh, Debra L M Qu, William W L Che, Annie Lau, Hwee Lin Wee
BACKGROUND: The quality of life of family caregivers of patients with advanced cancers is an important concern in oncology care. Yet, there are few suitable measurement scales available for use in Asia. This study aims to develop and evaluate a locally derived measurement scale in English and Chinese to assess the quality of life of family caregivers of patients with advanced cancers in Singapore. METHODS: Scale contents were generated from qualitative research that solicited inputs from family caregivers...
February 14, 2019: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Sharad Agarkhedkar, Jugesh Chhatwal, Rajeev Zachariah Kompithra, Sanjay K Lalwani, Arun Narayan, Vinay Muninarayanaswam, Nithya Gogtay, Kristin Stempa, Viviane Gresset-Bourgeois
A quadrivalent split-virion inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4; Fluzone® Quadrivalent, Sanofi Pasteur) has been available in the US since 2013 for individuals aged ≥ 6 months. Here, we describe the results of an open-label, multicenter trial (WHO Universal Trial Number U1111-1143-8370) evaluating the immunogenicity and safety of IIV4 in Indian children aged 6-35 months and 3-8 years, adolescents aged 9-17 years, and adults aged ≥ 18 years (n = 100 per group). Post-vaccination hemagglutination inhibition titers for all strains in all age groups were ≥ 8 fold higher than at baseline (range, 8-51)...
February 14, 2019: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Bernice Marcopulos, Emilia Łojek
OBJECTIVE: We introduce this special issue which focuses on how advances in neuroscience and technology can modernize and transform clinical neuropsychological assessment. METHOD: We included both invited and solicited papers to reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of currently used, standardized neuropsychological tests and to explore how we might incorporate new technologies and neuroscientific advances to modernize neuropsychological assessment methods. RESULTS: The papers are organized along the following themes: (1) A critique of the current clinical neuropsychological test armamentarium; (2) A description of new opportunities for collecting neurobehavioral data with technology; (3) Digital science, biomedical big data and the internet; (4) Integrating neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological assessments; (5) Modernization, globalization and culture...
February 14, 2019: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Ryuta Sakamoto, Rikiya Kameno, Taira Kobayashi, Asahi Ishiyama, Kazuo Watanabe, Osamu Hoshino
Until recently, glia, which exceeds the number of neurons, was considered to only have supportive roles in the central nervous system, providing homeostatic controls and metabolic supports. However, recent studies suggest that glia interacts with neurons and plays active roles in information processing within neuronal circuits. To elucidate how glia contributes to neuronal information processing, we simulated a sensory neuron-glia (neuron-astrocyte) network model. It was investigated in association with ambient (extracellular) GABA level, because the astrocyte has a major role in removing extracellular GABA molecules...
February 12, 2019: Biological Cybernetics
Bakul Javadekar, Apurba Ghosh, Rajeev Zachariah Kompithra, Shally Awasthi, Olga Perminova, Viktor Romanenko, Vera Rodnikova, Susanna Kharit, Yael Thollot, Valerie Bosch-Castells, Alexander Goldstein, Himanshu Dubey
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of tolerability, safety and immunogenicity of a two-dose series of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide diptheria toxoid conjugate (ACYW-D) vaccine in Indian and Russian infants/toddlers. DESIGN: Open-label, single-arm, phase III multi-national trial. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: 300 children aged 9-17 months, previously unvaccinated against meningococcal disease from four sites each in India (n=200) and the Russian Federation (n=100)...
December 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
Emily C Williams, Theresa E Matson, Alex H S Harris
BACKGROUND: Effective medications for treating alcohol use disorders (AUD) are available but underutilized. Multiple barriers to their provision have been identified, and optimal strategies for addressing and overcoming barriers to use of medications for AUD treatment remain elusive. We conducted a structured review of published care delivery and implementation studies evaluating interventions that aimed to increase medication treatment for patients with AUD to identify interventions and component strategies that were most effective...
February 12, 2019: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Mashrin L Chowdhury, Maha M Husainat, Kristina D Suson
Introduction OBJECTIVE: To elucidate whether urology residents in the United States feel bullied by nurses, how respected they feel at work, and whether this impacts personal and patient care. METHODS: We distributed an IRB-approved online, validated, revised Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ-R) to US urology residents in their first year or above. We evaluated bullying through scoring work (total range 5-25), person (total range 9-45) and physical intimidation (total range 3-15) related bullying domains...
February 8, 2019: Urology
Zhipeng Luo, Milos Hauskrecht
Learning of classification models in practice often relies on human annotation effort in which humans assign class labels to data instances . As this process can be very time-consuming and costly, finding effective ways to reduce the annotation cost becomes critical for building such models. To solve this problem, instead of soliciting instance-based annotation we explore region-based annotation as the feedback. A region is defined as a hyper-cubic subspace of the input feature space and it covers a subpopulation of data instances that fall into this region...
2019: Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases: European Conference, ECML PKDD: Proceedings
Frank Sirotich, Carol E Adair, Janet Durbin, Elizabeth Lin, Christopher Canning
To inform the development of a pan-Canadian Mental Health and Addictions (MHA) performance measurement framework, we undertook a rapid review of the recent Performance Measurement (PM) literature and solicited input from 20 MHA policy and measurement experts. Six key steps for framework development were identified: recognizing and acknowledging key issues, developing shared language and understanding of key concepts, defining overall scope, defining framework dimension/domains, selecting indicators and using systematic engagement and consultation processes with stakeholders...
February 10, 2019: Healthcare Management Forum
Fiona A Miller, Pascale Lehoux, Stuart Peacock, Valeria E Rac, Jeff Neukomm, Carolyn Barg, Jessica P Bytautas, Murray Krahn
OBJECTIVES: Procurement's important role in healthcare decision making has encouraged criticism and calls for greater collaboration with health technology assessment (HTA), and necessitates detailed analysis of how procurement approaches the decision task. METHODS: We reviewed tender documents that solicit medical technologies for patient care in Canada, focusing on request for proposal (RFP) tenders that assess quality and cost, supplemented by a census of all tender types...
February 8, 2019: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
Saul N Faust, Maguelone Le Roy, Chitsanu Pancharoen, Miguel Angel Rodriguez Weber, Katrina Cathie, Ulrich Behre, Jolanta Bernatoniene, Matthew D Snape, Klaus Helm, Carlos Eduardo Medina Pech, Ouzama Henry, Carmen Baccarini, Michael Povey, Paul Gillard
BACKGROUND: A new formulation of the live-attenuated varicella vaccine Varilrix (GSK) produced without human serum albumin (HSA) was developed to minimize a theoretical risk of transmission of infectious diseases. A previous study showed that the vaccine was immunologically non-inferior to the HSA-containing vaccine and well-tolerated in toddlers; low-grade fever was numerically higher in children receiving the vaccine without HSA, but the study lacked power to conclude on this difference...
February 7, 2019: BMC Pediatrics
Seung Soo Hong, Ui Yoon Choi, Sang Hyuk Ma, Soo Young Lee, Seung Beom Han, Kyung-Hyo Kim, Jin Han Kang, Jong-Hyun Kim
Several approved inactivated hepatitis A (HA) vaccines are available in Korea. These have been shown to be immunogenic and safe in European children; however, their immunogenicity and safety have not been investigated among Korean children. We aimed to compare the immunogenicity and safety of the most commonly used HA vaccines in ethnic Korean children aged 12 to 18 months.In this open-label, randomized, prospective, multicenter study, 108 children were enrolled and randomized to receive a pediatric form of Avaxim, Epaxal, or Havrix...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kevin Kelleher, Rhona Hunt, Ailish Hannigan, J Calvin Coffey, Mary Clarke Moloney, Mary Ahern, Elaine Conway, Leonard O'Sullivan
Peristomal skin complications are a common problem for persons with an ileostomy. PURPOSE: The purpose of this pilot study was to solicit user feedback and perform an initial assessment of the performance of a new barrier seal designed to decrease the risk of chemical-induced dermatitis. METHODS: Seven (7) potential participants who were at least 18 years of age, >6 months post surgery, with an end or loop ileostomy and unbroken peristomal skin, and who were capable of changing their appliance themselves or had the availability of care assistance were identified and recruited by the stoma care nurse at the University Hospital, Limerick, Ireland...
January 2019: Wound management & prevention
Tetsuo Nakayama, Masahiro Eda, Motonori Hirano, Wakako Goto
Domestic measles, mumps, and rubella combined (MMR) vaccines were discontinued in 1993 in Japan because of the unexpected high incidence of aseptic meningitis. The introduction of an effective MMR vaccine with lower reactogenicity has been expected. A new MMR vaccine (JVC-001) was developed, using mumps RIT4385 strain in combination with Japanese measles AIK-C strain and rubella Takahashi strain (MR) vaccine. An open-label, randomized, phase I/II clinical study was conducted in 100 healthy Japanese children equally randomized to a JVC-001 group and an MR with monovalent mumps vaccine (Hoshino strain) group...
February 6, 2019: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Ye Zhang, Songyuan Tang, Katherine Li, Lai Sze Tso, Barry L Bayus, David Glidden, Bin Yang, Heping Zheng, Chongyi Wei, Joseph Tucker, Weiming Tang
BACKGROUND: Crowdsourcing method is an excellent tool for developing tailored interventions to improve sexual health. We evaluated the implementation of an innovation contest for sexual health promotion in China. METHODS: We organized an innovation contest over three months in 2014 for Chinese individuals < 30 years old to submit images for a sexual health promotion campaign. We solicited entries via social media and in-person events. The winning entry was adapted into a poster and distributed to STD clinics across Guangdong Province...
February 4, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
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