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Cerebral mapping

Zenshi Miyake, Yasushi Tomidokoro, Takao Tsurubuchi, Akira Matsumura, Noriaki Sakamoto, Masayuki Noguchi, Akira Tamaoka
RATIONALE: Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a type of malignant lymphoma in which neoplastic B cells proliferate selectively within the lumina of small- and medium-sized vessels. Patients with IVLBCL frequently develop neurological manifestations during their disease course. Patients are known to often develop various neurological manifestations, but there are only a few reports of IVLBCL whose initial symptoms are deafness and/or disequilibrium. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 66-year-old Japanese man was provisionally diagnosed with sudden sensorineural hearing loss...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kathryn Rosenblatt, Keenan A Walker, Carrie Goodson, Elsa Olson, Dermot Maher, Charles H Brown, Paul Nyquist
BACKGROUND: Impaired cerebral autoregulation and cerebral hypoperfusion may play a critical role in the high morbidity and mortality in patients with sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE). Bedside assessment of cerebral autoregulation may help individualize hemodynamic targets that optimize brain perfusion. We hypothesize that near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived cerebral oximetry can identify blood pressure ranges that enhance autoregulation in patients with SAE and that disturbances in autoregulation are associated with severity of encephalopathy...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Michael J Thrippleton, Gordon W Blair, Maria C Valdes-Hernandez, Andreas Glatz, Scott I K Semple, Fergus Doubal, Alex Vesey, Ian Marshall, David E Newby, Joanna M Wardlaw
A protocol for evaluating ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) uptake and elimination in cerebral small vessel disease patients was developed and piloted. B ₁-insensitive R ₁ measurement was evaluated in vitro. Twelve participants with history of minor stroke were scanned at 3-T MRI including structural imaging, and R ₁ and R ₂* mapping. Participants were scanned (i) before and (ii) after USPIO (ferumoxytol) infusion, and again at (iii) 24⁻30 h and (iv) one month. Absolute and blood-normalised changes in R ₁ and R ₂* were measured in white matter (WM), deep grey matter (GM), white matter hyperintensity (WMH) and stroke lesion regions...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Seonhwa Lee, Hae-June Lee, Hyunji Kang, Eun-Ho Kim, Young-Cheol Lim, Hyejin Park, Sang Moo Lim, Yong Jin Lee, Jung Min Kim, Jin Su Kim
The authors identified that chemo-brain was induced after trastuzumab (TZB) therapy. In addition, atorvastatin (ATV) could rescue chemo-brain during trastuzumab (TZB) therapy. Enhanced therapeutic effect of TZB was confirmed after ATV therapy. We also investigated that there was no hair loss side effect due to ATV therapy. In an animal model, 150 μg TZB and five serial doses of 20 mg/kg ATV were administered. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data were acquired...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Enfeng Wang, Yin Wu, Jerry S Cheung, Takahiro Igarashi, Limin Wu, Xiaoan Zhang, Phillip Zhe Sun
pH-weighted amide proton transfer (APT) MRI is sensitive to tissue pH change during acute ischemia, complementing conventional perfusion and diffusion stroke imaging. However, the currently used pH-weighted magnetization transfer (MT) ratio asymmetry (MTRasym ) analysis is of limited pH specificity. To overcome this, MT and relaxation normalized APT (MRAPT) analysis has been developed that to homogenizes the background signal, thus providing highly pH conspicuous measurement. Our study aimed to calibrate MRAPT MRI toward absolute tissue pH mapping and determine regional pH changes during acute stroke...
February 9, 2019: NeuroImage
Ahmed Elmarakby, Jessica Faulkner, Paramita Pati, R Dan Rudic, Clare Bergson
The link between blood pressure (BP) and cerebral function is well established. However, it is not clear whether a common mechanism could underlie the relationship between elevated BP and cognitive deficits. The expression of calcyon, a gene abundant in catecholaminergic and hypothalamic nuclei along with other forebrain regions, is increased in the brain of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) which is a widely accepted animal model of essential hypertension and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
2019: PloS One
Clotilde Lecrux, Miled Bourourou, Edith Hamel
Neuroimaging techniques, such as functional MRI, map brain activity through hemodynamic-based signals, and are invaluable diagnostic tools in several neurological disorders such as stroke and dementia. Hemodynamic signals are normally precisely related to the underlying neuronal activity through neurovascular coupling mechanisms that ensure the supply of blood, glucose and oxygen to neurons at work. The knowledge of neurovascular coupling has greatly advanced over the last 30 years, it involves multifaceted interactions between excitatory and inhibitory neurons, astrocytes, and the microvessels...
March 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Timo Klein, Petra Wollseiffen, Marit Sanders, Jurgen Claassen, Heather Carnahan, Vera Abeln, Tobias Vogt, Heiko K Strüder, Stefan Schneider
Changes in gravity conditions have previously been reported to influence brain hemodynamics as well as neuronal activity. This paper attempts to identify a possible link between changes in brain blood flow and neuronal activity during microgravity. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity (MCAv) was measured using Doppler ultrasound. Brain cortical activity (i.e., cortical current density) was measured using electroencephalography. Finger blood pressure was recorded and exported to generate beat-by-beat systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), and cerebrovascular conductance index (CVCi)...
February 11, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Sei Haga, Takato Morioka, Katsuharu Kameda, Kenta Takahara, Toshiyuki Amano, Saori Tomohara, Hayato Takaki, Yuichiro Tsurusaki, Shoji Arihiro
Arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance perfusion imaging is a promising tool for the diagnosis of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid endarterectomy. However, arterial spin-labeling with a single post-labeling delay has been reported to show a higher incidence of increased arterial spin-labeling signals in the bilateral hemisphere, probably due to a shortening of the arterial transit time or an arterial transit artifact caused by intravascular stagnant magnetically-labeled spin. To overcome these shortcomings, we used two post-labeling delay settings (1...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Qin Qin, Yaoming Qu, Wenbo Li, Dapeng Liu, Taehoon Shin, Yansong Zhao, Doris D Lin, Peter C M van Zijl, Zhibo Wen
PURPOSE: Velocity-selective saturation (VSS) pulse trains provide a viable alternative to the spatially selective methods for measuring cerebral blood volume (CBV) by reducing the sensitivity to arterial transit time. This study is to compare the Fourier-transform-based velocity-selective saturation (FT-VSS) pulse trains with the conventional flow-dephasing VSS techniques for CBV quantification. METHODS: The proposed FT-VSS label and control modules were compared with VSS pulse trains utilizing double refocused hyperbolic tangent (DRHT) and 8-segment B1-insensitive rotation (BIR-8)...
February 8, 2019: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Leqiang Sun, Yajie Tang, Keji Yan, Jinsong Yu, Yanyan Zou, Weize Xu, Ke Xiao, Zhihui Zhang, Weiming Li, Beili Wu, Zhe Hu, Kening Chen, Zhen F Fu, Jinxia Dai, Gang Cao
BACKGROUND: Neurotropic virus-based tracers have been extensively applied in mapping and manipulation of neural circuits. However, their neurotropic and neurotoxic properties remain to be fully characterized. METHODS: Through neural circuit tracing, we systematically compared the neurotropism discrepancy among different multi-trans-synaptic and mono-synaptic retrograde viral tracers including pseudorabies virus (PRV), rabies virus (RV), and the newly engineered retro adeno-associated virus (rAAV2-retro) tracers...
February 8, 2019: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Audrey P Fan, Ahmed A Khalil, Jochen B Fiebach, Greg Zaharchuk, Arno Villringer, Kersten Villringer, Claudine J Gauthier
Recent clinical trials of new revascularization therapies in acute ischemic stroke have highlighted the importance of physiological imaging to identify optimal treatments for patients. Oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) is a hallmark of at-risk tissue in stroke, and can be quantified from the susceptibility effect of deoxyhemoglobin molecules in venous blood on MRI phase scans. We measured OEF within cerebral veins using advanced quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) MRI reconstructions in 20 acute stroke patients...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Dong-Eog Kim, Wi-Sun Ryu, Dawid Schellingerhout, Han-Gil Jeong, Paul Kim, Sang-Wuk Jeong, Man-Seok Park, Kang-Ho Choi, Joon-Tae Kim, Beom Joon Kim, Moon-Ku Han, Jun Lee, Jae-Kwan Cha, Dae-Hyun Kim, Hyun-Wook Nah, Soo Joo Lee, Jae Guk Kim, Keun-Sik Hong, Yong-Jin Cho, Hong-Kyun Park, Byung-Chul Lee, Kyung-Ho Yu, Mi-Sun Oh, Jong-Moo Park, Kyusik Kang, Kyung Bok Lee, Tai Hwan Park, Sang-Soon Park, Yong-Seok Lee, Hee-Joon Bae
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thrombectomy within 24 hours can improve outcomes in selected patients with a clinical-infarct mismatch. We devised an easy-to-use visual estimation tool that allows infarct volume estimation in centers with limited resources. METHODS: We identified 1,031 patients with cardioembolic or large-artery atherosclerosis infarction on diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) obtained before recanalization therapy and within 24 hours of onset, and occlusion of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery...
January 2019: Journal of Stroke
Jesus Pujol, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Dídac Maciá, Pino Alonso, Ben J Harrison, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Joan Deus, José M Menchón, Narcís Cardoner, Carles Soriano-Mas
We mapped alterations of the functional structure of the cerebral cortex using a novel imaging approach in a sample of 160 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. Whole-brain functional connectivity maps were generated using multidistance measures of intracortical neural activity coupling defined within isodistant local areas. OCD patients demonstrated neural activity desynchronization within the orbitofrontal cortex and in primary somatosensory, auditory, visual, gustatory, and olfactory areas. Symptom severity was significantly associated with the degree of functional structure alteration in OCD-relevant brain regions...
February 4, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Seema Rohilla, Harender K Garg, Ishwar Singh, Rohtas K Yadav, Dhara B Dhaulakhandi
Introduction: This study was conducted to grade meningiomas based on relative Cerebral Blood Volume (rCBV) and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) to help surgeons plan the approach and extent of operation as well as decide on the need of any adjuvant radio/chemo therapy. The current and evolving genomic, proteomic, and spectroscopic technologies are also discussed which can supplement the current radiologic methods and procedures in grading meningiomas. Methods: A total of 35 patients with meningioma prospectively underwent basic MR sequences (T1W, T2W, T2W/FLAIR) in axial, sagittal and coronal planes followed by Diffusion Weighted (DW) imaging having b value of 1000 (minimum ADC values used for analysis)...
November 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Anna Latysheva, Kyrre Eeg Emblem, Petter Brandal, Einar Osland Vik-Mo, Jens Pahnke, Kjetil Røysland, John K Hald, Andrés Server
PURPOSE: According to the revised World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System (CNS) of 2016, oligodendrogliomas are now defined primarily by a specific molecular signature (presence of IDH mutation and 1p19q codeletion). The purpose of our study was to assess the value of dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to characterize oligodendrogliomas and to distinguish them from astrocytomas. METHODS: Seventy-one adult patients with untreated WHO grade II and grade III diffuse infiltrating gliomas and known 1p/19q codeletion status were retrospectively identified and analyzed using relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps based on whole-tumor volume histograms...
February 2, 2019: Neuroradiology
Thierry Paquette, Ryota Tokunaga, Sara Touj, Hugues Leblond, Mathieu Piché
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is essential for neuronal metabolic functions. CBF is partly regulated by cholinergic projections from the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) during cortical processing of sensory information. During pain-related processing, however, this mechanism may be altered by large fluctuations in systemic mean arterial pressure (MAP). The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of NBM to CBF responses evoked by nociceptive electrical stimuli and how it may be affected by systemic MAP...
January 31, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Lucy Beishon, Jatinder S Minhas, Kate Patrick, Iswariya Shanmugam, Claire A L Williams, Ronney B Panerai, Thompson G Robinson, Victoria J Haunton
Background Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography (TCD) can be utilised to measure the tight coupling of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) in response to cognitive demand by task activation, termed neurovascular coupling. AIMS: To investigate the differences in neurovascular coupling between healthy older (>50 years) and younger (18-49 years) adults in response to cognitive testing. METHODS: Fifty-four older (n=25) and younger (n=29) adults underwent continuous bilateral TCD, beat-to-beat blood pressure (MAP; Finapres), heart rate (HR; electrocardiogram), and end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2; capnography) monitoring...
January 31, 2019: Current Aging Science
Xi Yang, Xinyu Hu, Wanjie Tang, Bin Li, Yanchun Yang, Qiyong Gong, Xiaoqi Huang
BACKGROUND: Using the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in a relatively large sample of drug-naive patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the current study aims to explore alterations in regional and network-level neural function and to determine the association between these alterations in intrinsic neural activity and symptom severity in OCD. METHODS: A total of 68 drug-naive OCD patients and 68 healthy control subjects (HCS) were examined using rs-fMRI...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Yaqiong Chai, Adam M Bush, Julie Coloigner, Aart J Nederveen, Benita Tamrazi, Chau Vu, Soyoung Choi, Thomas D Coates, Natasha Lepore, John C Wood
Although modern medical management has lowered overt stroke occurrence in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), progressive white matter (WM) damage remains common. It is known that cerebral blood flow (CBF) increases to compensate for anemia, but sufficiency of cerebral oxygen delivery, especially in the WM, has not been systematically investigated. Cerebral perfusion was measured by arterial spin labeling in 32 SCD patients (age range: 10-42 years old, 14 males, 7 with HbSC, 25 HbSS) and 25 age and race-matched healthy controls (age range: 15-45 years old, 10 males, 12 with HbAS, 13 HbAA); 8/24 SCD patients were receiving regular blood transfusions and 14/24 non-transfused SCD patients were taking hydroxyurea...
January 29, 2019: American Journal of Hematology
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