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Johnette Peñas, Vikki Carr de Los Reyes, Ma Nemia Sucaldito, Denisse Lou Manalili, Herdie Hizon, Rio Magpantay
Objective: On 2 October 2015, the Event-Based Surveillance and Response Unit of the Department of Health (DOH), Philippines received a report of foodborne illness cases in Santa Cruz, Davao del Sur. A team from DOH was sent to conduct an investigation to identify the implicated source and determine risk factors. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was done. A suspect case was defined as a previously well individual in Compound A, Santa Cruz who developed abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, diarrhoea or vomiting on either 1 or 2 October 2015...
October 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Xue Li, Jiwei Luo, Hui Deng, Peng Huang, Chengjun Ge, Huamei Yu, Wen Xu
Biochar, can be used as a sorbent material to sequester organic contaminants in soils. In this study, the sorption-desorption behavior of atrazine (AT) was studied in latosol (L) supplemented with varying doses of cassava waste biochar (CW). Changes in the release of AT were assessed with varying aging time (0-60 days) and environmental factors (pH, ionic strength, solid-liquid ratio and disturbance intensity). Results indicate that the addition of 0.1%-5% (w/w) CW in L, promoted AT adsorption by 1.7- to 36-fold as compared with the natural soil control, after 60 days...
December 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Daniel Rogers Mukiibi, Titus Alicai, Robert Kawuki, Geoffrey Okao-Okuja, Fred Tairo, Peter Sseruwagi, Joseph Ndunguru, Elijah Miinda Ateka
Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) are two viral diseases that cause severe yield losses in cassava of up to 100%, thereby persistently threatening food and income security in sub-Saharan Africa. For effective management of these diseases, there is a critical need to develop and deploy varieties with dual resistance to CBSD and CMD. In this study, we determined the response of advanced breeding lines to field infection by cassava brown streak viruses (CBSVs) and cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs)...
January 2019: Crop Protection
Adebanjo Ayobamidele Badejo
Poverty eradication and global food security are among the targets of world leaders, most especially combating the scourge of hidden hunger. Provitamin A carotenoids cannot be synthesized de novo by human and so it must be taken as part of the diet. The deficiency of which is causing almost 6000 sights to be lost daily in most developing countries because of the monotonous starchy diets lacking substantial amount of carotenoid. Conventional breeding as well as genetic engineering have been used to increase the level of carotenoid in many staples including rice, potato, maize and cassava...
December 2018: Journal, Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology
Milan Milenovic, Everlyne Nafula Wosula, Carmelo Rapisarda, James Peter Legg
Whiteflies of the Bemisia tabaci species complex are economically important pests of cassava. In Africa, they cause greatest damage through vectoring viruses responsible for cassava mosaic disease and cassava brown streak disease. Several cryptic species from the B. tabaci complex colonize cassava and neighboring crops, but the feeding interactions between the different crops and B. tabaci species are unknown. The electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique makes it possible to conduct detailed feeding studies of sap-sucking insects by creating an electric circuit through the insect and the plant...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Alyne F K Minakawa, Paula C S Faria-Tischer, Suzana Mali
Starch nanoparticles (SNP) were produced employing a simple ultrasound method without chemical additives from cassava, corn, and yam starches, which contain 18%, 25% and 30% amylose, respectively. Simultaneously, starch microparticles (SMP) were also obtained, which were significantly smaller than the native starch granules. The yield of the process for all starch sources was 12 ± 1% SNP and 88 ± 5% SMP, starting with aqueous starch suspensions at 10% and 30 min of sonication. Yam starch (higher amylose content) resulted in smaller SMP (1-3 μm) and SNP (8-32 nm) than did those obtained from corn (SMP = 3-6 μm; SNP = 36-68 nm) and cassava (SMP = 3-7 μm; SNP = 35-65 nm) starches...
June 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Ndagijimana Pamphile, Liu Xuejiao, Yu Guangwei, Wang Yin
The increasing release of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) into water poses serious threats to human beings. In this study, a novel core-shell activated carbon (CSAC) material with a high-mechanical-strength porous ceramic shell was synthesized and tested by adsorbing sulfamethoxazole (SMX) from aqueous solutions. An activated carbon core (AC core) was synthesized from a mixture of powder AC (92%) and cassava waste splinters binder (8%). Moreover, a shell with a high thickness of 0.13 cm and compressive strength (2...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Hanne G Masure, Arno G B Wouters, Ellen Fierens, Jan A Delcour
Gradientless baking by means of ohmic heating was used for the first time in gluten-free (GF) bread making. Combination thereof with in-line measurements of batter height, viscosity and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) release proved to be powerful for studying structure formation in GF breads. GF breads studied here were based on (i) a mixture of potato and cassava starches and egg white powder (C/P-S+EW), (ii) rice flour (RF) or (iii) a mixture of RF and egg white powder (RF+EW). The work revealed that bread volume and crumb structure rely heavily on the balance between the moment of CO2 release from batter during baking and that of crumb setting...
February 2019: Food Research International
Andrea Díaz, Cecilia Dini, Sonia Z Viña, María Alejandra García
Cassava sour starch is a gluten-free product obtained by natural fermentation and sun-drying that outstrips the native starch baking expansion properties. Although maize starch has been subjected to a similar process, this desirable feature could not be achieved. Ahipa, an unexploited tuberous root, renders starch with relatively low gelatinization temperature and amylose content, like that of cassava. The aim of this work was to study the characteristics and technological properties of ahipa starch subjected to different fermentation processes and drying methods (oven- or sun-drying) and compare the bakery quality of its derived products to those from fermented cassava starches...
February 2019: Food Research International
M Ramírez, M J Tenorio, C Ramírez, A Jaques, H Nuñez, R Simpson, O Vega
The design and development of gluten-free foods requires a comprehensive understanding of the behavior of the raw materials to attain the same cooking and nutritional quality as gluten-based food. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal hot-air drying conditions for elaboration of cassava flour to be used in a gluten-free pasta formulation. The results showed that the operational conditions to minimize the hot-air drying time (57 min) to produce cassava flour with higher water holding capacity was 57 ℃ at 3 m/s...
February 2, 2019: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
N E Adesiji, J A Ademola
The transfer factors (TFs) of naturally occurring radionuclides, 238 U and 232 Th from soil to different cassava plant compartments were calculated. Cassava is widely cultivated in Nigeria and contributes significantly to the food supply of the nation. There is sparsity of data on the TFs in Nigeria, and no TF data from any African country were included in the International Atomic Energy Agency's compilation of TFs for the tropical ecosystem. Samples of tin tailings and soil samples from virgin land were used to formulate three soil groups; group-A (soil from virgin land only), group-B (tailings only) and group-C (equal dry mass combination of tailings and soil from virgin land)...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Margarita Del Rosario Salazar-Sánchez, Sergio David Campo-Erazo, Héctor Samuel Villada-Castillo, José Fernando Solanilla-Duque
Polylactic acid (PLA) and starch are compounds used in the manufacture of packaging to replace petroleum products as biodegradable and environmentally friendly materials. This study evaluated the structure and surface of a film manufactured by extrusion from cassava starch and PLA, which underwent a biodegradation process under compost conditions following the guidelines of ISO 4855-2:2007. Samples were taken every week for one month to perform Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) tests to identify functional groups on film, and High-Resolution Optical Microscopy (HROM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) tests, from these techniques Structural changes in the film were evidenced...
January 29, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Qing Chen, Xiao Liang, Chunling Wu, Jintao Gao, Qian Chen, Zhe Zhang
BACKGROUD: The red spider mite Tetranychus urticae is known as worldwide pest in cassava production which can caused serious economic losses. Because no threshold levels are established for T.urticae in cassava cropping, many growers in China are applying excessive chemical applications per cassava cropping period. This is not only expensive, but also results in lower yields because of severe leaf damage and development of resistance. This study aims to develop an immediate threshold level for T...
January 31, 2019: Pest Management Science
Kegui Chen, Behnam Khatabi, Vincent N Fondong
Geminiviruses (family Geminiviridae) are among the most devastating plant viruses worldwide, causing severe damage in crops of economic and subsistence importance. These viruses have very compact genomes and many of the encoded proteins are multi-functional. Here, we investigated the role of the East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV) AC4 on virus infectivity in Nicotiana benthamiana. Results showed that plants inoculated with EACMCV containing a knockout mutation in AC4 ORF, displayed symptoms two to three days later than plants inoculated with wild-type virus, and these plants recovered from infection whereas plants inoculated with the wild-type virus did not...
January 30, 2019: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Narayanan Narayanan, Getu Beyene, Raj Deepika Chauhan, Eliana Gaitán-Solís, Jackson Gehan, Paula Butts, Dimuth Siritunga, Ihuoma Okwuonu, Arthur Woll, Dulce M Jiménez-Aguilar, Erick Boy, Michael A Grusak, Paul Anderson, Nigel J Taylor
Less than 10% of the estimated average requirement (EAR) for iron and zinc is provided by consumption of storage roots of the staple crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in West African human populations. We used genetic engineering to improve mineral micronutrient concentrations in cassava. Overexpression of the Arabidopsis thaliana vacuolar iron transporter VIT1 in cassava accumulated three- to seven-times-higher levels of iron in transgenic storage roots than nontransgenic controls in confined field trials in Puerto Rico...
January 28, 2019: Nature Biotechnology
Marc Ghislain, Tawanda Muzhingi, Jan W Low
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2019: Nature Biotechnology
Tanyaporn Siriwong, Bustomi Laimeheriwa, Uyun Nurul Aini, Muhammad Nur Cahyanto, Alissara Reungsang, Apilak Salakkam
The present study investigated cold hydrolysis of cassava pulp (CP) and the use of cold hydrolysis with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for ethanol production. Cold hydrolysis of 100 g-CP/L at 50 °C for 2 h, followed by at 30 °C for 72 h resulted in the production of 71.5 ± 1.8 g/L of reducing sugar, with a yield of 0.72 g/g-CP. A mathematical model describing the cold hydrolysis process was subsequently developed. The model proved to be applicable for other cold hydrolysis systems with satisfactory results...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Biotechnology
Otavio A Silva, Michelly G Pellá, Matheus G Pellá, Josiane Caetano, Márcia R Simões, Paulo R S Bittencourt, Douglas C Dragunski
Films based on cassava starch have been widely used for fruit coating; however, it is necessary to incorporate other polymers in order to improve mechanical properties, once starch only leads to highly hydrophilic films, compromising their application. In this way, a polymeric blend based on cassava starch, chitosan and gelatin was combined with a plasticizer to produce biodegradable films with satisfactory mechanical and barrier properties, in order to be used as fruit coating. The films were prepared by casting method and a statistical design of 23 was used to evaluate the effect of each polymer and what their combinations would influence over the final product...
January 24, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Katharina Hipp, Kerstin Zikeli, Gabi Kepp, Lena Schmid, Robert L Shoeman, Tomasz P Jurkowski, Tatjana Kleinow, Holger Jeske
One geminiviral gene encodes the capsid protein (CP), which can appear as several bands after electrophoresis depending on virus and plant. African cassava mosaic virus-Nigeria CP in Nicotiana benthamiana, however, yielded one band (~ 30 kDa) in total protein extracts and purified virions, although its expression in yeast yielded two bands (~ 30, 32 kDa). Mass spectrometry of the complete protein and its tryptic fragments from virions is consistent with a cleaved start M1, acetylated S2, and partial phosphorylation at T12, S25 and S62...
January 17, 2019: Virology
Tongtong Yun, Bo Pang, Jie Lu, Yanna Lv, Yi Cheng, Haisong Wang
In order to maximize value and minimize waste, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and carboxymethyl starch (CMS) was synthesized via solvent method using cassava residue as raw material. The alkalization time, etherification temperature, the amounts of reactants and the alkali boiling pretreatment which influence the carboxymethylation degree of cassava residue were investigated. Additionally, we studied the variation of Cobb values and ring crush index of the corrugated medium after surface sizing with the optimized carboxymethylated cassava residue...
January 23, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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