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Luca Pompermaier, Stefan Schwaiger, Monizi Mawunu, Thea Lautenschlaeger, Hermann Stuppner
Thonnigia sanguinea is a plant widely used in traditional African medicine against a variety of diseases. The obligate parasite is growing throughout tropical African forests and utilizes a large variety of hosts. Dihydrochalcone glucoside derivatives isolated from the subaerial parts of this plant were identified as potential antidiabetic lead compounds. In this study, an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatographic method coupled with a photodiode array detector was developed for the quantitation of six major dihydrochalcone derivatives...
March 22, 2019: Planta Medica
Antonio Manzalini, Bruno Galeazzi
BACKGROUND:  Every living organism is an open system operating far from thermodynamic equilibrium and exchanging energy, matter and information with an external environment. These exchanges are performed through non-linear interactions of billions of different biological components, at different levels, from the quantum to the macro-dimensional. The concept of quantum coherence is an inherent property of living cells, used for long-range interactions such as synchronization of cell division processes...
March 22, 2019: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
Zhenyu Wang, Qiang Zhang, Yunong Yue, Jiawen Xu, Wei Xu, Xinhu Sun, Yanqiu Chen, Jin Jiang, Yu Liu
Materials with tunable and high strain sensitivities have a great potential to be used in next-generation flexible electronic devices. Conventional methods, which focus on tailoring the material composition to obtain controllable sensitivities, face the issues of complicated fabrication process and unstability, restricting their use in real applications. In this work, we propose the idea of tuning the sensitivities through precisely controlled micro-structures. Based on 3D printing technique, we successfully fabricate graphene/polydimethylsiloxane composites with long-range ordered porous structures...
March 22, 2019: Nanotechnology
Dayle Terrington, Conal Hayton, Adam M Peel, Stephen J Fowler, William Fraser, Andrew M Wilson

 Introduction: Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology with a variable clinical course and prognosis. There is a growing need to identify non-invasive biomarkers to differentiate between clinical phenotypes, identify those at risk of disease progression and monitor response to treatment. 
 Objectives: We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis, to evaluate the utility of breath-based biomarkers in discriminating sarcoidosis from healthy controls, alongside correlation with existing non-breath based biomarkers used in clinical practice, radiological stage, markers of disease activity and response to treatment...
March 22, 2019: Journal of Breath Research
Jingyi Yan, Jinshan Yang, Shaoming Dong, Kai Huang, Jing Ruan, Jianbao Hu, Haijun Zhou, Quan Zhu, Xiangyu Zhang, Yusheng Ding
Organisms inspire us to enhance macroscale performance by utilizing the anisotropic properties of one dimensional (1D) nanomaterials. This work reports a bioinspired anisotropic nanocomposite by polar solution assisted mechanical stretching method, consisting of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and silicon carbide nanowires (SiCNWs) with aligned morphology in one direction. The design of myofibers-like structure is based on the highly-aligned SiCNWs and PVA chains that interact in the form of intermolecular force. Highly-aligned PVA acts as flexible linear chain for its special zigzag structure, and SiCNWs can be considered as stiff linear chain...
March 22, 2019: Nanotechnology
Mengying Shi, Marios E Myronakis, Yue-Houng Hu, Matthew W Jacobson, Mathias Lehmann, Rony Fueglistaller, Pascal Huber, Paul Baturin, Adam S Wang, Dianne Ferguson, Thomas Harris, Daniel Morf, Ross I Berbeco
We have developed a novel method for fast image simulation of flat panel detectors, based on the photon energy deposition efficiency and the optical spread function (OSF). The proposed method, FastEPID, determines the photon detection using photon energy deposition and replaces particle transport within the detector with precalculated OSFs. The FastEPID results are validated against experimental measurement and conventional Monte Carlo simulation in terms of modulation transfer function (MTF), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), contrast, and relative difference of pixel value, obtained with a slanted slit image, Las Vegas phantom, and anthropomorphic pelvis phantom...
March 22, 2019: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Hongbin Cao, Zhiyan Xiao, Yin Zhang, Tiffany Kwong, Shabbar F Danish, Joseph Weiner, Xiao Wang, Ning Yue, Zhitao Dai, Yu Kuang, Yongrui Bai, Ke Nie
OBJECTIVEThe authors sought to compare the dosimetric quality of hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery in treating sizeable brain tumors across the following treatment platforms: GammaKnife (GK) Icon, CyberKnife (CK) G4, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) on the Varian TrueBeam STx, double scattering proton therapy (DSPT) on the Mevion S250, and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) on the Varian ProBeam.METHODSIn this retrospective study, stereotactic radiotherapy treatment plans were generated for 10 patients with sizeable brain tumors (> 3 cm in longest diameter) who had been treated with VMAT...
March 22, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery
LaTrice Montgomery, Erin A McClure, Rachel L Tomko, Susan C Sonne, Theresa Winhusen, Garth E Terry, Jason T Grossman, Kevin M Gray
BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of blunt smoking among cannabis users, very few studies examine the clinical profile of blunt smokers relative to those using more common methods of cannabis use, such as joints. METHODS: The current study uses baseline data from the ACCENT (Achieving Cannabis Cessation-Evaluating N-acetylcysteine Treatment) study, a multi-site randomized pharmacotherapy clinical trial within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, to predict the association between blunt and joint use frequency and cannabis use characteristics (e...
March 14, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
S M Illamola, A K Echaabi, C Mazeron, S Deshayes, M A Loriot, N Pallet
Thiopurines are drugs widely used for the treatment of autoimmune conditions, inflammatory bowel disease or acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Determination of thiopurine methyltransferase activity (TPMT), a major determinant of thiopurines toxicity, has been suggested before implementing thiopurine treatment. An ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was developed and validated for the quantification of TPMT enzyme activity based on the conversion of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) to 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP) using S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) as methyl donor in red blood cell lysates (RBC)...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Yicong Yin, Songlin Yu, Ling Qiu, Xiaoxia Wang, Danchen Wang, Chaochao Ma, Kai Zhang, Tingting You
Aldosterone (ALD) measurement plays a critical role in screening and diagnosis of primary aldosteronism. A variety of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods for serum ALD have been developed. However, the few LC-MS/MS methods for 24 h urinary ALD that have been reported require tedious sample pretreatment procedure. This study aimed to establish a novel method for quantification of ALD in urine by LC-MS/MS. Urine samples from study participants were hydrolyzed and subjected to anion exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by the detection of eluates by the negative electro-spray ionization and multiple reaction monitor modes...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Donghu Zhang, Tian Yang, Jianyang Lin
As a novel non-purine xanthine oxidase inhibitor, WSJ-557 is a potential drug for gout. To determine the WSJ-557 concentration in plasma and various tissues of rats, a fast and sensitive method was first established by the ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) in this paper. The liquid-liquid extraction of ethyl acetate was adopted for the sample preparation, and carbamazepine was taken as the internal standard. In the process of chromatographic separation, MRM transitions for WSJ-557 and carbamazepine (internal standard, IS) were m/z 316...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Ali Kadar, Ludovic Peyre, Henri Wortham, Pierre Doumenq
In this study, an accurate and robust gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed for quantitative analysis of diphenylamine, tolylfluanid, propargite and phosalone in liver fractions. Different injector parameters were optimized by an experimental design technique (central composite design). An optimal combination of injector temperature (°C), splitless time (min) and overpressure (kPa) values enabled to maximize the chromatographic responses. Sample preparation was based on protein precipitation using trichloroacetic acid followed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of the pesticides with hexane...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Takeki Yamamoto, Shouki Yatsushiro, Muneaki Hashimoto, Kazuaki Kajimoto, Yusuke Ido, Kaori Abe, Yasuyuki Sofue, Takahiro Nogami, Takuya Hayashi, Kenji Nagatomi, Noboru Minakawa, Hiroaki Oka, Toshihiro Mita, Masatoshi Kataoka
A highly sensitive diagnostic system for determining low-density infections that are missed by conventional methods is necessary to detect the carriers of Plasmodium falciparum. A fluorescent blue-ray optical system with a polycarbonate scan disc was developed to detect P. falciparum-infected red blood cells (Pf-iRBCs), and nine samples could be analyzed simultaneously. The cultured P. falciparum strain 3D7 was used to examine the potential of the system for diagnosing malaria. After an RBC suspension had been applied to the disc, the cells were dispersed on the disc by rotation...
March 7, 2019: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Nabarun Polley, Supratim Basak, Roland Hass, Claudia Pacholski
A simple, convenient, and inexpensive method to fabricate optical fiber based biosensors which utilize periodic hole arrays in gold films for signal transduction is reported. The process of hole array formation mainly relies on self-assembly of hydrogel microgels in combination with chemical gold film deposition and subsequent transfer of the perforated film onto an optical fiber tip. In the fabrication process solely chemical wet lab techniques are used, avoiding cost-intensive instrumentation or clean room facilities...
March 12, 2019: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Yun Hong, Yuefeng Rao
Tumor metastasis is a major cause of colorectal cancer-related deaths. The liver is a common site of colorectal cancer metastasis. There is no effective treatment for patients with colorectal cancer with liver metastasis. Due to the complicated and variable metastasis process, the current treatment methods for colorectal cancer liver metastasis cannot meet the clinical needs. Currently, no effective delivery system is available for clinical use which could specifically target metastatic cancers. The emergence of nanoscale drug delivery systems indicates a new direction for the treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastasis...
March 19, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jiayin Ruan, Yunxian Zhou
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease is a chronic condition causing inflammation of the lining of the digestive system. Individuals suffering from this illness encounter various challenges and problems, but studies investigating the illness experiences of patients with Crohn's disease in East Asian countries are scarce. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the illness experiences of patients with Crohn's disease in China and construct an interpretive understanding of these experiences from the perspective of the patients...
March 5, 2019: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Qing Wang, Yong Wang, Jingxia Liu, Courtney L Sutphen, Carlos Cruchaga, Tyler Blazey, Brian A Gordon, Yi Su, Charlie Chen, Joshua S Shimony, Beau M Ances, Nigel J Cairns, Anne M Fagan, John C Morris, Tammie L S Benzinger
Interest in understanding the roles of white matter (WM) inflammation and damage in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) has been growing significantly in recent years. However, in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for imaging inflammation are still lacking. An advanced diffusion-based MRI method, neuro-inflammation imaging (NII), has been developed to clinically image and quantify WM inflammation and damage in AD. Here, we employed NII measures in conjunction with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker classification (for β-amyloid (Aβ) and neurodegeneration) to evaluate 200 participants in an ongoing study of memory and aging...
March 13, 2019: NeuroImage: Clinical
David A Stoney, Andrew M Bowen, Madeline Ausdemore, Paul L Stoney, Cedric Neumann, Frederick P Stoney
Prior work has shown that the contact surfaces of footwear rapidly lose very small particles (VSP) when walking on dry soil. Other research, with more general sampling from shoe soles, has shown that particles can persist much longer. Given rapid losses from contact surfaces, we hypothesize that non-contact, recessed areas of footwear retain particles from prior exposures. Here we conduct differential analysis of VSP recovered separately from contact and recessed surfaces, following a controlled series of environmental exposures...
February 26, 2019: Forensic Science International
Jing Zou, Yixin Huang, Lirong Zhu, Zheng Cui, Baoling Yuan
A spectrophotometric method using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) as the indicator was proposed for measuring persulfates, i.e., peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and peroxydisulfate (PDS). This method was based on the direct oxidation of the colorless ABTS by PMS/PDS to generate the green-colored ABTS+ at neutral pH and room temperature. The generated ABTS+ had four different characteristic absorption peaks at 820 nm, 732 nm, 650 nm and 415 nm. The absorption values at these wavelengths increased with the increase of PMS/PDS concentration, and there were well linear relationships (R2  > 0...
March 14, 2019: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Yubin Zhao, Yoshinori Yamaguchi, Chenchen Liu, Mingda Li, Xiaoming Dou
The use of Sudan black B as coloring agent in foods is forbidden for its toxicology effect on human organs. This work proposes an efficient and sensitive method for food security inspection targeting Sudan black B. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is applied to the analysis of trace Sudan black B. It could be detected at concentrations as low as 0.05 mg/L in standard solutions and 0.1 mg/kg in black rice extracts with the SERS method for measurement. The linear relationship between the intensity and concentration could be used for the quantitative detection of Sudan black B...
March 13, 2019: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
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