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Probiotics vagus

M Gomez-Eguilaz, J L Ramon-Trapero, L Perez-Martinez, J R Blanco
INTRODUCTION: The microbiota is the set of millions of microorganisms that coexist in a symbiotic way in our body. It is mainly located in the digestive tract, being distributed in function of the chemical properties and the functions of the different organs. The factors that influence its composition are multiple (diet, individual habits, diseases or drugs). It also participates in several functions of the organism such as metabolism, immunity or even the function of the central nervous system...
February 1, 2019: Revista de Neurologia
Ennio Avolio, Gilda Fazzari, Merylin Zizza, Antonino De Lorenzo, Laura Di Renzo, Raffaella Alò, Rosa Maria Facciolo, Marcello Canonaco
Emerging studies are beginning to suggest that emotional states together with healthful measures constitute pertinent features of our lifestyle in which bad eating habits but more importantly what our gut has to host are causing great concern. It is well known that humans have established mutual relationships with a wide array of colonized microbes (collectively called gut microbiota) consisting of bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses. The gut microbiota has exhibited a notable ability of communicating with the brain via a two-way system that includes the vagus nerve, immune sites, and a number of neurotransmitters...
January 1, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Luis Vitetta, Gemma Vitetta, Sean Hall
The brain and the gut are connected from early fetal life. The mother's exposure to microbial molecules is thought to exert in utero developmental effects on the fetus. These effects could importantly underpin the groundwork for subsequent pathophysiological mechanisms for achieving immunological tolerance and metabolic equilibrium post birth, events that continue through to 3-4 years of age. Furthermore, it is understood that the microbiome promotes cues that instruct the neonate's mucosal tissues and skin in the language of molecular and cellular biology...
April 1, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Antonino De Lorenzo, Micaela Costacurta, Giuseppe Merra, Paola Gualtieri, Giorgia Cioccoloni, Massimiliano Marchetti, Dimitrios Varvaras, Raffaella Docimo, Laura Di Renzo
BACKGROUND: Evidence of probiotics effects on gut function, brain activity and emotional behaviour were provided. Probiotics can have dramatic effects on behaviour through the microbiome-gut-brain axis, through vagus nerve. We investigated whether chronic probiotic intake could modulate psychological state, eating behaviour and body composition of normal weight obese (NWO) and preobese-obese (PreOB/OB) compared to normal weight lean women (NWL). METHODS: 60 women were enrolled...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
Klara Latalova, Miroslav Hajda, Jan Prasko
The gut microbes, collectively called microbiota, are linked to the brain through a bidirectional system that involves the vagus nerve, the immune system, and various neurotransmitters. Stress response, memory functions, social behavior, and mood are modulated by microbiota. Furthermore, microbiota play a role in the development of the central nervous system. These features, established largely in rodent studies, have informed hypotheses about the role of microbiota in human psychiatric disorders. Microbiota affect phenomena that are known to be parts of the depression phenotype, such as exaggerated response to stress and inflammatory features...
March 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
Michael Eisenstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2016: Nature
Mamoru Tanida, Mai Takada, Akito Kato-Kataoka, Mitsuhisa Kawai, Kouji Miyazaki, Toshishige Shibamoto
Intragastric (IG) administration of probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) decreases the sympathetic nerve outflow of anesthetized rats in a tissue-specific manner. In the present study, we examined the effects of IG administration of LcS on sympathetic activation induced by an intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and an intravenous (IV) injection of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) or interleukin (IL)-1β in urethane-anesthetized rats. The IG administration of LcS differently affected the stimulatory responses of sympathetic nerve outflow to CRF...
April 21, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
M Malick, K Gilbert, J Daniel, J Arseneault-Breard, T A Tompkins, R Godbout, G Rousseau
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with apoptosis in the amygdala and, ultimately, with clinical signs of depression. Different treatments have proven to be beneficial in preventing depression, including combination of the probiotics Lactobacillus helveticus and Bifidobacterium longum for prophylaxis. We have speculated previously that the benefit of these probiotics is due to their anti-inflammatory properties, and evidence suggests that an intact vagus nerve is important for this effect to occur...
May 2015: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Charles Schmidt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2015: Nature
Mak Adam Daulatzai
The non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder which is very common world wide. The human gut harbors microbiota which has a wide variety of microbial organisms; they are mainly symbiotic and important for well being. However, "dysbiosis" - i.e. an alteration in normal commensal gut microbiome with an increase in pathogenic microbes, impacts homeostasis/health. Dysbiosis in NCGS causes gut inflammation, diarrhea, constipation, visceral hypersensitivity, abdominal pain, dysfunctional metabolic state, and peripheral immune and neuro-immune communication...
2015: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Leo Galland
The human gut microbiome impacts human brain health in numerous ways: (1) Structural bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides provide low-grade tonic stimulation of the innate immune system. Excessive stimulation due to bacterial dysbiosis, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, or increased intestinal permeability may produce systemic and/or central nervous system inflammation. (2) Bacterial proteins may cross-react with human antigens to stimulate dysfunctional responses of the adaptive immune system...
December 2014: Journal of Medicinal Food
Sara Reardon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2014: Nature
Joe Alcock, Carlo C Maley, C Athena Aktipis
Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to increase their fitness, sometimes at the expense of host fitness. Microbes may do this through two potential strategies: (i) generating cravings for foods that they specialize on or foods that suppress their competitors, or (ii) inducing dysphoria until we eat foods that enhance their fitness. We review several potential mechanisms for microbial control over eating behavior including microbial influence on reward and satiety pathways, production of toxins that alter mood, changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of the vagus nerve, the neural axis between the gut and the brain...
October 2014: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Timothy G Dinan, Catherine Stanton, John F Cryan
Here, we define a psychobiotic as a live organism that, when ingested in adequate amounts, produces a health benefit in patients suffering from psychiatric illness. As a class of probiotic, these bacteria are capable of producing and delivering neuroactive substances such as gamma-aminobutyric acid and serotonin, which act on the brain-gut axis. Preclinical evaluation in rodents suggests that certain psychobiotics possess antidepressant or anxiolytic activity. Effects may be mediated via the vagus nerve, spinal cord, or neuroendocrine systems...
November 15, 2013: Biological Psychiatry
Azucena Perez-Burgos, Bingxian Wang, Yu-Kang Mao, Bhavik Mistry, Karen-Anne McVey Neufeld, John Bienenstock, Wolfgang Kunze
Mounting evidence supports the influence of the gut microbiome on the local enteric nervous system and its effects on brain chemistry and relevant behavior. Vagal afferents are involved in some of these effects. We previously showed that ingestion of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) caused extensive neurochemical changes in the brain and behavior that were abrogated by prior vagotomy. Because information can be transmitted to the brain via primary afferents encoded as neuronal spike trains, our goal was to record those induced by JB-1 in vagal afferents in the mesenteric nerve bundle and thus determine the nature of the signals sent to the brain...
January 15, 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
P Bercik, S M Collins, E F Verdu
BACKGROUND: The 'gut-brain' or 'brain-gut axis', depending on whether we emphasize bottom-up or top-bottom pathways, is a bi-directional communication system, comprised of neural pathways, such as the enteric nervous system (ENS), vagus, sympathetic and spinal nerves, and humoral pathways, which include cytokines, hormones, and neuropeptides as signaling molecules. Recent evidence, mainly arising from animal models, supports a role of microbes as signaling components in the gut-brain axis...
May 2012: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
P Bercik, A J Park, D Sinclair, A Khoshdel, J Lu, X Huang, Y Deng, P A Blennerhassett, M Fahnestock, D Moine, B Berger, J D Huizinga, W Kunze, P G McLean, G E Bergonzelli, S M Collins, E F Verdu
BACKGROUND: The probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 normalizes anxiety-like behavior and hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mice with infectious colitis. Using a model of chemical colitis we test whether the anxiolytic effect of B. longum involves vagal integrity, and changes in neural cell function. Methods  Mice received dextran sodium sulfate (DSS, 3%) in drinking water during three 1-week cycles. Bifidobacterium longum or placebo were gavaged daily during the last cycle...
December 2011: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Premysl Bercik, Elena F Verdu, Jane A Foster, Joseph Macri, Murray Potter, Xiaxing Huang, Paul Malinowski, Wendy Jackson, Patricia Blennerhassett, Karen A Neufeld, Jun Lu, Waliul I Khan, Irene Corthesy-Theulaz, Christine Cherbut, Gabriela E Bergonzelli, Stephen M Collins
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clinical and preclinical studies have associated gastrointestinal inflammation and infection with altered behavior. We investigated whether chronic gut inflammation alters behavior and brain biochemistry and examined underlying mechanisms. METHODS: AKR mice were infected with the noninvasive parasite Trichuris muris and given etanercept, budesonide, or specific probiotics. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy was performed in a subgroup of mice before infection...
December 2010: Gastroenterology
Hanneke van der Kleij, Caitlin O'Mahony, Fergus Shanahan, Liam O'Mahony, John Bienenstock
The vagus nerve is an important pathway signaling immune activation of the gastrointestinal tract to the brain. Probiotics are live organisms that may engage signaling pathways of the brain-gut axis to modulate inflammation. The protective effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus [corrected] (LR) and Bifidobacterium infantis (BI) during intestinal inflammation were studied after subdiaphragmatic vagotomy in acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis in BALB/c mice and chronic colitis induced by transfer of CD4(+) CD62L(+) T lymphocytes from BALB/c into SCID mice...
October 2008: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Mamoru Tanida, Toshihiko Yamano, Keiko Maeda, Nobuaki Okumura, Yoichi Fukushima, Katsuya Nagai
Previously, it was shown that milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria lowers blood pressure, suggesting that metabolites or components of the bacteria have hypotensive action. To examine whether one of lactobacilli, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 (LJLa1), a probiotic strain adhesive onto intestinal epithelial cells, or its metabolite has hypotensive action, and if so the mechanism of action, we determined the effects of intraduodenal injection of LJLa1 on blood pressure (BP) and the activity of autonomic nerves in urethane-anesthetized rats...
December 2, 2005: Neuroscience Letters
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