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Menno Hoekstra, Joya E Nahon, Laura M de Jong, Mara J Kröner, Lidewij R de Leeuw, Miranda Van Eck
The nuclear receptor liver X receptor (LXR) impacts on cholesterol metabolism as well as hepatic lipogenesis via transcriptional regulation. It is proposed that inhibition of the protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) uncouples these two transcriptional pathways in vivo by acting as a specific lipogenic coactivator of LXR. Here we validated the hypothesis that treatment with the allosteric PRMT3 inhibitor SGC707 will diminish the hepatic steatosis extent, while leaving global cholesterol metabolism, important in cholesterol-driven pathologies like atherosclerosis, untouched...
February 15, 2019: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Nathan Kuppermann, Peter S Dayan, Deborah A Levine, Melissa Vitale, Leah Tzimenatos, Michael G Tunik, Mary Saunders, Richard M Ruddy, Genie Roosevelt, Alexander J Rogers, Elizabeth C Powell, Lise E Nigrovic, Jared Muenzer, James G Linakis, Kathleen Grisanti, David M Jaffe, John D Hoyle, Richard Greenberg, Rajender Gattu, Andrea T Cruz, Ellen F Crain, Daniel M Cohen, Anne Brayer, Dominic Borgialli, Bema Bonsu, Lorin Browne, Stephen Blumberg, Jonathan E Bennett, Shireen M Atabaki, Jennifer Anders, Elizabeth R Alpern, Benjamin Miller, T Charles Casper, J Michael Dean, Octavio Ramilo, Prashant Mahajan
Importance: In young febrile infants, serious bacterial infections (SBIs), including urinary tract infections, bacteremia, and meningitis, may lead to dangerous complications. However, lumbar punctures and hospitalizations involve risks and costs. Clinical prediction rules using biomarkers beyond the white blood cell count (WBC) may accurately identify febrile infants at low risk for SBIs. Objective: To derive and validate a prediction rule to identify febrile infants 60 days and younger at low risk for SBIs...
February 18, 2019: JAMA Pediatrics
Aurora Corrêa Rodrigues, Tiago Ferreira Leal, Alexandre Jayme Lopes Dantas Costa, Franciany de Jesus Silva, Leôncio Lopes Soares, Patrícia Chakur Brum, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Thales Nicolau Prímola-Gomes, Antônio José Natali
AIM: Investigate the effects of moderate continuous aerobic exercise (MCAE) on the inflammatory cytokine profile and expression of lipolytic and thermogenic genes in β1 -AR-/- mice adipose tissue. MAIN METHODS: Four- to five-month-old male wild type (WT) and β1 -AR-/- mice were divided into groups: WT control (WTc) and trained (WTt); and β1 -AR-/- control (β1 -AR-/- c) and trained (β1 -AR-/- t). Animals from trained groups were submitted to a MCAE regimen (60 min/day; 60% of maximal speed, 5 days/week) on a treadmill, for 8 weeks...
February 13, 2019: Life Sciences
Rebecca Rebbe, Joseph A Mienko, Emily Brown, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether hospital-level factors contribute to discrepancies in reporting to Child Protective Services (CPS) of infants diagnosed with prenatal substance exposure. STUDY DESIGN: We used a linked dataset of birth, hospital, and CPS records using diagnostic codes (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) to identify infants diagnosed with prenatal substance exposure. Using multilevel models, we examined hospital-level and individual birth-level factors in relation to a report to CPS among those infants prenatally exposed to substances...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Pediatrics
Guihong Qi, Yue Zhou, Xiaopo Zhang, Jiaqi Yu, Xin Li, Xiaoxue Cao, Chongming Wu, Peng Guo
Obesity is a worldwide epidemic. Promoting browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) contributes to increased energy expenditure and hence counteracts obesity. Here we show that cordycepin (Cpn), a natural derivative of adenosine, increases energy expenditure, inhibits weight gain, improves metabolic profile and glucose tolerance, decreases WAT mass and adipocyte size, and enhances cold tolerance in normal and high-fat diet-fed mice. Cpn markedly increases the surface temperature around the inguinal WAT and turns the inguinal fat browner...
January 2019: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Ferran Comas, Cristina Martínez, Mònica Sabater, Francisco Ortega, Jessica Latorre, Francisco Díaz-Sáez, Julian Aragonés, Marta Camps, Anna Gumà, Wifredo Ricart, José Manuel Fernández-Real, José María Moreno-Navarrete
Background: Nrg4 expression has been linked to brown adipose tissue activity and browning of white adipocytes in mice. Here, we aimed to investigate whether these observations could be translated to humans by investigating NRG4 mRNA and markers of brown/beige adipocytes in human visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). We also studied the possible association of NRG4 with insulin action. Methods: SAT and VAT NRG4 and markers of brown/beige ( UCP1, UCP3, and TMEM26 )-related gene expression were analyzed in two independent cohorts ( n = 331 and n = 59)...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Shireesh Srivastava, Richard L Veech
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is proposed to maintain thermal homeostasis through dissipation of chemical energy as heat by the uncoupling proteins (UCPs) present in their mitochondria. The recent demonstration of the presence of BAT in humans has invigorated research in this area. The research has provided many new insights into the biology and functioning of this tissue and the biological implications of its altered activities. Another finding of interest is browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) resulting in what is known as beige/brite cells, which have increased mitochondrial proteins and UCPs...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Mayank Goyal, Mohammed Almekhlafi, Diederik W Dippel, Bruce C V Campbell, Keith Muir, Andrew M Demchuk, Serge Bracard, Antoni Davalos, Francis Guillemin, Tudor G Jovin, Bijoy K Menon, Peter J Mitchell, Scott Brown, Philip White, Charles B L M Majoie, Jeffrey L Saver, Michael D Hill
Background and Purpose- We report the relation of onset-to-treatment time and door-to-needle time with functional outcomes and mortality among patients with ischemic stroke with imaging-proven large vessel occlusion treated with intravenous alteplase. Methods- Individual patient-level data from the HERMES (Highly Effective Reperfusion Evaluated in Multiple Endovascular Stroke Trials) collaboration were pooled from 7 trials that randomized patients to mechanical thrombectomy added to best medical therapy versus best medical therapy alone...
February 14, 2019: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Magdalena Blaszkiewicz, Jake W Willows, Cory P Johnson, Kristy L Townsend
Brown and white adipose tissues are essential for maintenance of proper energy balance and metabolic health. In order to function efficiently, these tissues require both endocrine and neural communication with the brain. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as the inducible brown adipocytes that appear in white adipose tissue (WAT) after simulation, are thermogenic and energy expending. This uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-mediated process requires input from sympathetic nerves releasing norepinephrine. In addition to sympathetic noradrenergic signaling, adipose tissue contains sensory nerves that may be important for relaying fuel status to the brain...
February 12, 2019: Biology
Carmem Peres Valgas da Silva, Diego Hernández-Saavedra, Joseph D White, Kristin I Stanford
The rise in obesity over the last several decades has reached pandemic proportions. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic organ that is involved in energy expenditure and represents an attractive target to combat both obesity and type 2 diabetes. Cold exposure and exercise training are two stimuli that have been investigated with respect to BAT activation, metabolism, and the contribution of BAT to metabolic health. These two stimuli are of great interest because they have both disparate and converging effects on BAT activation and metabolism...
February 12, 2019: Biology
Marc A Oliver, Meritxell Marti, Luisa Coderch, Victor Carrer, Martin Kreuzer, Clara Barba
BACKGROUND: The main objective of this study was to determine the lipid profile of brown and white Caucasian hair fibres and the effects of lipids on the properties of fibres. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine the structures of white and brown hair lipid bilayers, cross sections of fibres of both hair types were examined using synchrotron-based μ-FTIR mapping. Dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) analyses were also performed to determine the differences in the barrier function of both fibres...
February 13, 2019: Skin Research and Technology
Dejan Jakimovski, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Sirin Gandhi, Yi Guan, Jesper Hagemeier, Deepa P Ramasamy, Tom A Fuchs, Richard W Browne, Niels Bergsland, Michael G Dwyer, Murali Ramanathan, Robert Zivadinov
BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the role, if any, of dietary and lifestyle factors in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of lifestyle-based risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) on clinical and MRI-derived MS outcomes. METHODS: The study enrolled 175 MS or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients and 42 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) who were longitudinally followed for 5...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Neurology
Dalila Azzout-Marniche, Catherine Chaumontet, Julien Piedcoq, Nadezda Khodorova, Gilles Fromentin, Daniel Tomé, Claire Gaudichon, Patrick C Even
Background: We have reported large differences in adiposity (fat mass/body weight) gain between rats fed a low-fat, high-starch diet, leading to their classification into carbohydrate "sensitive" and "resistant" rats. In sensitive animals, fat accumulates in visceral adipose tissues, leading to the suggestion that this form of obesity could be responsible for rapid development of metabolic syndrome. Objective: We investigated whether increased amylase secretion by the pancreas and accelerated starch degradation in the intestine could be responsible for this phenotype...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Lisandro D Colantonio, Keri L Monda, Robert S Rosenson, Todd M Brown, Katherine E Mues, George Howard, Monika M Safford, Larisa Yedigarova, Michael E Farkouh, Paul Muntner
PURPOSE: Determine the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events among adults with clinically evident CVD who meet the inclusion criteria for the FOURIER clinical trial on PCSK9 inhibition in a real-world database. METHODS: We analyzed data from 2072 African American and 2972 white REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study participants 45-85 years of age with clinically evident CVD. Study participants meeting the FOURIER inclusion criteria (one major or two minor cardiovascular risk factors, fasting LDL cholesterol ≥ 70 mg/dL or non-HDL cholesterol ≥ 100 mg/dL, triglycerides ≤ 400 mg/dL, and taking statin) were followed for CVD events (myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, and CVD death) from baseline in 2003-2007 through 2014...
February 11, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Seung-Hyun Ro, Yura Jang, Jiyoung Bae, Isaac M Kim, Cameron Schaecher, Zachery D Shomo
Autophagy, lipophagy, and mitophagy are considered to be the major recycling processes for protein aggregates, excess fat, and damaged mitochondria in adipose tissues in response to nutrient status-associated stress, oxidative stress, and genotoxic stress in the human body. Obesity with increased body weight is often associated with white adipose tissue (WAT) hypertrophy and hyperplasia and/or beige/brown adipose tissue atrophy and aplasia, which significantly contribute to the imbalance in lipid metabolism, adipocytokine secretion, free fatty acid release, and mitochondria function...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Di Wu, Ran Duan, Fang Geng, Xia Hu, Na Gan, Hui Li
Egg white lysozyme plays an important role in the processing of high value-added poultry products. Considering its applications in the food industry, lysozyme could interact with other food additives, thereby impacting their performance. The present study comparatively investigated the interaction and orientation of the mono-, dis-, and tris-azo food dyes with egg white lysozyme. Allura red AC, brilliant black PN and direct brown 1 bound to lysozyme through a static quenching mechanism with 105 magnitude binding constants...
June 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Devin L Brown, Fatema Shafie-Khorassani, Sehee Kim, Ronald D Chervin, Erin Case, Lewis B Morgenstern, Azadeh Yadollahi, Susan Tower, Lynda D Lisabeth
Background and Purpose- Limited data are available about the relationship between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and recurrent stroke and mortality, especially from population-based studies, large samples, or ethnically diverse populations. Methods- In the BASIC project (Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christ), we identified patients with ischemic stroke (2010-2015). Subjects were offered screening for SDB with the ApneaLink Plus device, from which a respiratory event index (REI) ≥10 defined SDB. Demographics and baseline characteristics were determined from chart review and interview...
February 12, 2019: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Gang Liu, Qianjun Zhao, Feizhou Sun, Xu Han Han, Junjin Zhao, Haiyong Feng, Kejun Wang, Jian Lu, Chousheng Liu
Objective: An experiment was conducted to evaluate genetic diversity of 26 Chinese indigenous goats by 30 microsatellite markers, and then to define conservation priorities to set up the protection programs according to the weight given to within- and between-breed genetic diversity. Methods: Twenty-six representative populations of Chinese indigenous goats, 1351 total, were sampled from different geographic regions of China. Within-breed genetic diversity and marker polymorphism were estimated calculating the mean number of alleles (MNA), observed heterozygosities (HO), expected heterozygosities (He), fixation index (FIS), effective number of alleles (NE) and allelic richness (Rt)...
February 9, 2019: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Christine L Olson, Martin Jiskra, Jeroen E Sonke, Daniel Obrist
Vegetation uptake of atmospheric mercury (Hg) is an important mechanism enhancing atmospheric Hg deposition via litterfall and senescence. We here report Hg concentrations and pool sizes of different plant functional groups and plant species across nine tundra sites in northern Alaska. Significant spatial differences were observed in bulk vegetation Hg concentrations at Toolik Field station (52 ± 9 μg kg-1 ), Eight Mile Lake Observatory (40 ± 0.2 μg kg-1 ), and seven sites along a transect from Toolik Field station to the Arctic coast (36 ± 9 μg kg-1 )...
April 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Petra Kovács-Bodor, Katalin Csondor, Anita Erőss, Dénes Szieberth, Ágnes Freiler-Nagy, Ákos Horváth, Árpád Bihari, Judit Mádl-Szőnyi
The elevated radioactivity of the thermal waters of Buda Thermal Karst (BTK), Hungary is known and studied since the beginning of the 20th century. In the recent studies, the anomalous 222 Rn/226 Ra ratios have drawn the attention to the existence of local 222 Rn source. Biogeochemical precipitates (i.e. biofilms) in spring caves were found to have high adsorption capacity, accumulating e.g. 226 Ra. Biogeochemical precipitates are ubiquitous in the thermal springs of BTK, occurring in different amount and colours (dark grey, brown, red, white), and have different microbial communities and elemental composition...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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