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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30877201/the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-parkin-is-dispensable-for-metabolic-homeostasis-in-murine-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-and-adipocytes
#1
Callie A S Corsa, Gemma L Pearson, Aaron Renberg, Matthew M Askar, Tracy Vozheiko, Ormond A MacDougald, Scott A Soleimanpour
The E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin is a critical regulator of mitophagy and has been identified as a susceptibility gene for type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, its role in metabolically active tissues that precipitate T2D development is unknown. Specifically, pancreatic β cells and adipocytes both rely heavily on mitochondrial function in the regulation of optimal glycemic control to prevent T2D, but parkin's role in preserving quality control of β-cell or adipocyte mitochondria is unclear. Although parkin has been previously reported to control mitophagy, here we show that parkin surprisingly is dispensable for glucose homeostasis in both β cells and adipocytes during diet-induced insulin resistance in mice...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873754/sympathetic-nerve-innervation-is-required-for-beigeing-in-white-fat
#2
Qiang Cao, Jia Jing, Xin Cui, Hang Shi, Bingzhong Xue
It is increasingly recognized that activation of beige adipocyte thermogenesis by pharmacological or genetic approaches increases energy expenditure and alleviates obesity. Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) directly innervating brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) plays a key role in promoting nonshivering thermogenesis. However, direct evidence that supports the importance of SNS innervation for beige adipocyte formation is still lacking, and the significance of beige adipocyte thermogenesis in protection of body temperature during cold challenge is not clear...
March 2019: Physiological Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873596/impact-of-estrogens-on-the-regulation-of-white-beige-and-brown-adipose-tissue-depots
#3
Gabriel B Bernasochi, James R Bell, Evan R Simpson, Lea M D Delbridge, Wah Chin Boon
As adipose tissue depots are active endocrine organs, they secrete a variety of hormones (including estrogens from white adipose) and inflammatory mediators, which have important implications in numerous obesity-associated diseases. Adipose tissues are broadly characterized as consisting of white, beige, and brown depot types. The endocrine, metabolic, and inflammatory profiles of adipose are depot dependent and influenced by the estrogenic and androgenic status of the adipose tissue. Estrogen receptors mediate both the genomic and nongenomic actions of estrogens and are expressed in the brain, heart, and other peripheral tissues...
March 14, 2019: Comprehensive Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30871481/circulating-tumor-cell-investigation-in-breast-cancer-patient-derived-xenograft-models-by-automated-immunofluorescence-staining-image-acquisition-and-single-cell-retrieval-and-analysis
#4
Arturo B Ramirez, Raksha Bhat, Debashish Sahay, Carmine De Angelis, Hariprasad Thangavel, Sina Hedayatpour, Lacey E Dobrolecki, Agostina Nardone, Mario Giuliano, Chandandeep Nagi, Mothaffar Rimawi, C Kent Osborne, Michael T Lewis, Jackie L Stilwell, Eric P Kaldjian, Rachel Schiff, Meghana V Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer patient-derived xenograft (BC-PDX) models represent a continuous and reproducible source of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) for studying their role in tumor biology and metastasis. We have previously shown the utility of BC-PDX models in the study of CTCs by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on serial paraffin sections and manual microscopic identification of cytokeratin-positive cells, a method that is both low-throughput and labor-intensive. We therefore aimed to identify and characterize CTCs from small volume mouse blood samples and examined its practical workflow in a study of BC-PDX mice treated with chemotherapy using an automated imaging platform, the AccuCyte®-CyteFinder® system...
March 12, 2019: BMC Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30862029/peanut-sprout-extracts-attenuate-triglyceride-accumulation-by-promoting-mitochondrial-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-adipocytes
#5
Seok Hee Seo, Sang-Mi Jo, Jiyoung Kim, Myoungsook Lee, Yunkyoung Lee, Inhae Kang
Peanut sprouts (PS), which are germinated peanut seeds, have recently been reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity effects. However, the underlying mechanisms by which PS modulates lipid metabolism are largely unknown. To address this question, serial doses of PS extract (PSE) were added to 3T3-L1 cells during adipocyte differentiation. PSE (25 µg/mL) significantly attenuated adipogenesis by inhibiting lipid accumulation in addition to reducing the level of adipogenic protein and gene expression with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
March 11, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30857158/-trans-cinnamic-acid-stimulates-white-fat-browning-and-activates-brown-adipocytes
#6
Nam Hyeon Kang, Sulagna Mukherjee, Jong Won Yun
Recently, pharmacological activation of brown fat and induction of white fat browning (beiging) have been considered promising strategies to treat obesity. To search for natural products that could stimulate the process of browning in adipocytes, we evaluated the activity of trans -cinnamic acid ( t CA), a class of cinnamon from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia , by determining genetic expression using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and protein expression by immunoblot analysis for thermogenic and fat metabolizing markers...
March 8, 2019: Nutrients
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30845999/drug-resistance-profiling-of-a-new-triple-negative-breast-cancer-patient-derived-xenograft-model
#7
Margarite D Matossian, Hope E Burks, Steven Elliott, Van T Hoang, Annie C Bowles, Rachel A Sabol, Bahia Wahba, Muralidharan Anbalagan, Brian Rowan, Mohamed E Abazeed, Bruce A Bunnell, Krzysztof Moroz, Lucio Miele, Lyndsay V Rhodes, Steven D Jones, Elizabeth C Martin, Bridgette M Collins-Burow, Matthew E Burow
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents an aggressive subtype with limited therapeutic options. Experimental preclinical models that recapitulate their tumors of origin can accelerate target identification, thereby potentially improving therapeutic efficacy. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), due to their genomic and transcriptomic fidelity to the tumors from which they are derived, are poised to improve the preclinical testing of drug-target combinations in translational models...
March 7, 2019: BMC Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30840893/microbiota-depletion-impairs-thermogenesis-of-brown-adipose-tissue-and-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue
#8
Baoguo Li, Li Li, Min Li, Sin Man Lam, Guanlin Wang, Yingga Wu, Hanlin Zhang, Chaoqun Niu, Xueying Zhang, Xue Liu, Catherine Hambly, Wanzhu Jin, Guanghou Shui, John R Speakman
The relation between gut microbiota and the host has been suggested to benefit metabolic homeostasis. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige adipocytes facilitate thermogenesis to maintain host core body temperature during cold exposure. However, the potential impact of gut microbiota on the thermogenic process is confused. Here, we evaluated how BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) responded to temperature challenges in mice lacking gut microbiota. We found that microbiota depletion via treatment with different cocktails of antibiotics (ABX) or in germ-free (GF) mice impaired the thermogenic capacity of BAT by blunting the increase in the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and reducing the browning process of WAT...
March 5, 2019: Cell Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30840554/pp2a-b55-sur-6-collaborates-with-the-nuclear-lamina-for-centrosome-separation-during-mitotic-entry
#9
Vincent Boudreau, Richard Chen, Alan Edwards, Muhammad Sulaimain, Paul S Maddox
Across most sexually reproducing animals, centrosomes are provided to the oocyte through fertilization and must be positioned properly to establish the zygotic mitotic spindle. How centrosomes are positioned in space and time through the concerted action of key mitotic entry biochemical regulators including Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A-B55/SUR-6), biophysical regulators including Dynein, and the nuclear lamina is unclear. Here, we uncover a role for PP2A-B55/SUR-6 in regulating centrosome separation. Mechanistically, PP2A-B55/SUR-6 regulates nuclear size prior to mitotic entry, in turn affecting nuclear envelope-based Dynein density and motor capacity...
March 6, 2019: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30826729/the-transcription-factor-atf7-controls-adipocyte-differentiation-and-thermogenic-gene-programming
#10
Yang Liu, Toshio Maekawa, Keisuke Yoshida, Masafumi Muratani, Bruno Chatton, Shunsuke Ishii
Adipocytes function as major players in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, and factors contributing to adipocyte differentiation and function are promising targets for combatting obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Activating transcription factor 7 (ATF7), a stress-responsive chromatin regulator, is involved in energy metabolism, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Herein, we showed that ATF7 is required for adipocyte differentiation and interacts with histone dimethyltransferase G9a in adipocytes to repress the expression of interferon-stimulated genes, which in turn suppress adipogenesis...
February 18, 2019: IScience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30824545/identification-of-a-natural-beige-adipose-depot-in-mice
#11
Michelle Chan, Yen Ching Lim, Jing Yang, Maria Namwanje, Longhua Liu, Li Qiang
Beige fat is a potential therapeutic target for obesity and other metabolic diseases due to its inducible brown fat-like functions. Inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) can undergo robust brown remodeling with appropriate stimuli and is therefore widely considered as a representative beige fat depot. However, adipose tissues residing in different anatomic depots exhibit a broad range of plasticity, raising the possibility that better beige fat depots with greater plasticity may exist. Here we identified and characterized a novel, naturally-existing beige fat depot-thigh adipose tissue (tAT)...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30823446/beta-aminoisobutyric-acid-as-a-novel-regulator-of-carbohydrate-and-lipid-metabolism
#12
REVIEW
Dmitrii A Tanianskii, Natalia Jarzebska, Andreas L Birkenfeld, John F O'Sullivan, Roman N Rodionov
The prevalence and incidence of metabolic syndrome is reaching pandemic proportions worldwide, thus warranting an intensive search for novel preventive and treatment strategies. Recent studies have identified a number of soluble factors secreted by adipocytes and myocytes (adipo-/myokines), which link sedentary life style, abdominal obesity, and impairments in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In this review, we discuss the metabolic roles of the recently discovered myokine β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA), which is produced by skeletal muscle during physical activity...
February 28, 2019: Nutrients
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30804793/beta-3-adrenergic-receptor-activation-rescues-metabolic-dysfunction-in-female-estrogen-receptor-alpha-null-mice
#13
Stephanie L Clookey, Rebecca J Welly, Dusti Shay, Makenzie L Woodford, Kevin L Fritsche, R Scott Rector, Jaume Padilla, Dennis B Lubahn, Victoria J Vieira-Potter
Metabolic disease risk escalates following menopause. The mechanism is not fully known, but likely involves reduced signaling through estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), which is highly expressed in brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT). Objective: Test the hypothesis that uncoupling protein (UCP1) activation mitigates metabolic dysfunction caused by loss of signaling through ERα. Methods: At 8 weeks of age, female ERα knock out (KO) and wild-type mice were housed at 28°C and fed a Western-style high-fat, high sucrose diet (HFD) or a normal low-fat chow diet (NC) for 10 weeks...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30800379/striped-bodypainting-protects-against-horseflies
#14
Gábor Horváth, Ádám Pereszlényi, Susanne Åkesson, György Kriska
Bodypainting is widespread in African, Australian and Papua New Guinean indigenous communities. Many bodypaintings use white or bright yellow/grey/beige stripes on brown skin. Where the majority of people using bodypainting presently live, blood-sucking horseflies are abundant, and they frequently attack the naked brown regions of the human body surface with the risk of transmitting the pathogens of dangerous diseases. Since horseflies are deterred by the black and white stripes of zebras, we hypothesized that white-striped paintings on dark brown human bodies have a similar effect...
January 2019: Royal Society Open Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30800077/neonatal-resveratrol-and-nicotinamide-riboside-supplementations-sex-dependently-affect-beige-transcriptional-programming-of-preadipocytes-in-mouse-adipose-tissue
#15
Madhu Asnani-Kishnani, Ana M Rodríguez, Alba Serrano, Andreu Palou, M Luisa Bonet, Joan Ribot
Nutritional programming of the thermogenic and fuel oxidation capacity of white adipose tissue (WAT) through dietary interventions in early life is a potential strategy to enhance future metabolic health. We previously showed that mild neonatal supplementations with the polyphenol resveratrol (RSV) and the vitamin B3 form nicotinamide riboside (NR) have sex-dependent, long-term effects on the thermogenic/oxidative phenotype of WAT of mice in adulthood, enhancing this phenotype selectively in male animals. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these dietary interventions may impact the commitment of progenitor cells resident in the developing WAT toward brown-like (beige) adipogenesis...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30796355/predicted-secreted-protein-analysis-reveals-synaptogenic-function-of-clstn3-during-wat-browning-and-bat-activation-in-mice
#16
Shu-Qin Chen, Qiang Niu, Li-Ping Ju, Miriayi Alimujiang, Han Yan, Ning-Ning Bai, Jun Xu, Qi-Chen Fang, Jun-Feng Han, Ying Yang, Wei-Ping Jia
Promoting white adipose tissue (WAT) browning and enhancing brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity are attractive therapeutic strategies for obesity and its metabolic complications. Targeting sympathetic innervation in WAT and BAT represents a promising therapeutic concept. However, there are few reports on extracellular microenvironment remodeling, especially changes in nerve terminal connections. Identifying the key molecules mediating the neuro-adipose synaptic junctions is a key point. In this study, we used bioinformatics methods to identify the differentially expressed predicted secreted genes (DEPSGs) during WAT browning and BAT activation...
February 22, 2019: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30794803/interleukin-6-released-from-differentiating-human-beige-adipocytes-improves-browning
#17
Endre Kristóf, Ágnes Klusóczki, Roland Veress, Abhirup Shaw, Zsolt Sándor Combi, Klára Varga, Ferenc Gyo Ry, Zoltán Balajthy, Péter Bai, Zsolt Bacso, László Fésüs
Brown and beige adipocytes contribute significantly to the regulation of whole body energy expenditure and systemic metabolic homeostasis not exclusively by thermogenesis through mitochondrial uncoupling. Several studies have provided evidence in rodents that brown and beige adipocytes produce a set of adipokines ("batokines") which regulate local tissue homeostasis and have beneficial effects on physiological functions of the entire body. We observed elevated secretion of Interleukin (IL) -6, IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) -1, but not tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) or IL-1β pro-inflammatory cytokines, by ex vivo differentiating human beige adipocytes (induced by either PPARγ agonist or irisin) compared to white...
February 19, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30790841/a-new-species-of-stone-loach-teleostei-nemacheilidae-schistura-from-arunachal-pradesh-india
#18
Hrishikesh Choudhury, Abhinit Dey, Ratul Ch Bharali, Dandadhar Sarma, Waikhom Vishwanath
Schistura rebuw, new species, is described from the Kameng River, a north-bank tributary of the Brahmaputra, Arunachal Pradesh, India. The new species is easily distinguished from all known congeners in the Brahmaputra basin by its unique sexual dimorphism, specifically a suborbital slit in adult females, and a suborbital flap in adult males; and a colour pattern of 10-11 blackish bars on a greyish-beige body, the pre-dorsal bars mostly broken or incomplete, coalescing dorsally in a more or less alternate fashion...
January 29, 2019: Zootaxa
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30782959/rosiglitazone-remodels-the-lipid-droplets-and-britens-human-visceral-and-subcutaneous-adipocytes-ex-vivo
#19
Mi-Jeong Lee, Sukanta Jash, Jessica E C Jones, Vishwajeet Puri, Susan K Fried
Treatment with PPARγ agonists in vivo improves human adipocyte metabolism, but the cellular mechanisms and possible depot differences in responsiveness to their effects are poorly understood. To examine the ex vivo metabolic effects of rosiglitazone, we cultured explants of human visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissues for 7 days. Rosiglitazone increased mRNA levels of transcriptional regulators of brite/beige adipocytes (PGC1α, PRDM16), triglyceride synthesis (GPAT3, DGAT1), and lipolysis (ATGL), similarly in adipose tissues from both depots...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Lipid Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778488/correction-from-white-to-beige-adipocytes-therapeutic-potential-of-dietary-molecules-against-obesity-and-their-molecular-mechanisms
#20
Siyu Wang, Min-Hsiung Pan, Wei-Lun Hung, Yen-Chen Tung, Chi-Tang Ho
Correction for 'From white to beige adipocytes: therapeutic potential of dietary molecules against obesity and their molecular mechanisms' by Siyu Wang et al., Food Funct., 2019, DOI: 10.1039/c8fo02154f.
February 19, 2019: Food & Function
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