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Bone growth

Claudia Fecher-Trost, Femke Lux, Kai-Markus Busch, Ahsan Raza, Manuel Winter, Franziska Hielscher, Thabet Belkacemi, Bram van der Eerden, Ulrich Boehm, Marc Freichel, Petra Weissgerber
Embryonic growth and bone development depend on placental Ca2+ transport across the feto-maternal barrier to supply minerals to the fetus. The individual factors and cellular mechanisms that regulate placental Ca2+ transfer, however, are only beginning to emerge. We find that the Ca2+ -selective transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (TRPV6) channel is expressed in trophoblasts of the fetal labyrinth, in the yolk sac, and in the maternal part of the placenta. Lack of functional TRPV6 channels in the mother leads to a reduced Ca2+ content in both placenta and embryo...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Bruno S Vieira, Joao G Caramori Junior, Gerusa S S Correa, Ines G Colvara, Emanuele Brusamarelo, Thuani V S Pereira, Silvana A P V Barbosa, Cleber F S Oliveira
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytase (PHY), alone or in combination with citric acid (CA), on growing Japanese quails under moderate and severe phosphorus (P) restriction. For this, 504 one-day-old female quails were distributed in a completely randomised design with seven treatments and six replications. Treatments consisted of the following diets: (a) positive control (PC): formulated according to quails nutritional requirements; (b) negative control 40% (NC40 ): PC with 40% less aP; (c) NC40 +PHY; (d) NC40 +PHY+CA; (e) negative control 65% (NC65 ): PC with 65% less aP; (f) NC65 +PHY; (g) NC65 +PHY+CA...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Mingxing Chen, Hui Shen, Linlin Zhu, Hongfeng Yang, Peng Ye, Pengfei Liu, Yue Gu, Shaoliang Chen
Hypoxia-induced excessive pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation plays an important role in the pathology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Berberine (BBR) is reported as an effective antiproliferative properties applied in clinical. However, the effect of BBR on PAH remains unclear. In the present study, we elucidated the protective effects of BBR against abnormal PASMC proliferation and vascular remodeling in chronic hypoxia-induced hearts. Furthermore, the potential mechanisms of BBR were investigated...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Xin Zhao, Ziyun Ruan, Xiling Qin, Yun Feng, Qing Yu, Jie Xu, Yanfei Deng, Penglei Shen, Deshun Shi, Fenghua Lu
Previous studies have demonstrated that proper concentration of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) treatment was advantageous to decrease DNA methylation level, but the relationships between 5-aza-CdR treatment and methylation status of imprinted genes are seldom detected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low concentration 5-aza-CdR treatment on the methylation status of imprinted gene Xist in different genders of buffalo bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). BMSCs were isolated and the cell gender was identified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
February 20, 2019: Cellular Reprogramming
Dion Giovannone, Sandeep Paul, Simone Schindler, Claire Arata, D'Juan T Farmer, Punam Patel, Joanna Smeeton, J Gage Crump
Much of the vertebrate skeleton develops from cartilage templates that are progressively remodeled into bone. Lineage tracing studies in mouse suggest that chondrocytes within these templates persist and become osteoblasts, yet the underlying mechanisms of this process and whether chondrocytes can generate other derivatives remain unclear. We find that zebrafish cartilages undergo extensive remodeling and vascularization during juvenile stages to generate fat-filled bones. Growth plate chondrocytes marked by sox10 and col2a1a contribute to osteoblasts, marrow adipocytes, and mesenchymal cells within adult bones...
February 20, 2019: ELife
Li Lu, Guohu Chen, Jingjing Yang, Zhanjun Ma, Yang Yang, Yan Hu, Yubao Lu, Zhangqi Cao, Yan Wang, Xuexi Wang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), with the capacity for self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell types, exhibit the property of homing towards tumor sites and immunosuppression and have been used as tumor-tropic vectors for tumor therapy. However, few studies have investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms that link MSCs to targeted tumor cells. In this study, we elucidated the inhibitory effects and mechanisms of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) on human glioma U251 cells using a co-culture system in vitro...
February 19, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Maha Abdelmonem, Nancy N Shahin, Laila A Rashed, Hebat Allah A Amin, Ashraf A Shamaa, Amira A Shaheen
Stem cell therapy represents a promising therapeutic avenue for cardiac disorders, including heart failure. Although stem cell transplantation showed encouraging preliminary results, the outcomes of clinical studies are still unsatisfactory. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of two therapeutic approaches, in vivo co-delivery of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) concomitant with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation and in vitro preconditioning of BMSCs with NaHS, both of which are intended to promote the success of stem cell therapy in rats with isoprenaline-induced heart failure...
February 18, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Daniel Dejaco, Teresa Steinbichler, Volker Hans Schartinger, Natalie Fischer, Maria Anegg, Joszef Dudas, Andrea Posch, Gerlig Widmann, Herbert Riechelmann
OBJECTIVE: To provide data on specific growth rates (SGRs) of primary tumours (PT-SGR) and largest pathological cervical lymph nodes (LN-SGR) for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). To explore PT-SGR's and LN-SGR's correlation with selected biomarkers epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Ki67 and CD44. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study performed at a tertiary oncological referral centre in Innsbruck, Austria. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients with incident HNSCC treated with primary radiotherapy (RT) or radiochemotherapy (RCT)...
February 19, 2019: BMJ Open
Zoë Shancer, Xiu-Fen Liu, Satoshi Nagata, Qi Zhou, Tapan K Bera, Ira Pastan
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B cell malignancy for which new treatments are urgently needed. The B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is a lineage-restricted differentiation protein highly expressed on myeloma. Recombinant immunotoxins (RITs) are proteins composed of the Fv or Fab portion of an antibody fused to a bacterial toxin. We previously treated H929 myeloma s.c. tumors with anti-BCMA immunotoxins, very active on killing cultured cells, and observed tumor growth inhibition but not complete tumor responses...
February 19, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marco Cipolli, Gloria Tridello, Alessio Micheletto, Sandra Perobelli, Emily Pintani, Simone Cesaro, Emanuela Maserati, Elena Nicolis, Cesare Danesino
OBJECTIVES: Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. Its predominant manifestations include exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, bone marrow failure and skeletal abnormalities. Patients frequently present failure to thrive and susceptibility to short stature. Average birth weight is at the 25th percentile; by the first birthday, >50% of patients drop below the third percentile for height and weight.The study aims at estimating the growth charts for patients affected by SDS in order to give a reference tool helpful for medical care and growth surveillance through the first 8 years of patient's life...
January 17, 2019: BMJ Open
Francesca Chiarini, Camilla Evangelisti, Vittoria Cenni, Antonietta Fazio, Francesca Paganelli, Alberto M Martelli, Giovanna Lattanzi
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase that regulates anabolic and catabolic processes, in response to environmental inputs. The existence of mTOR in numerous cell compartments explains its specific ability to sense stress, execute growth signals, and regulate autophagy. mTOR signaling deregulation is closely related to aging and age-related disorders, among which progeroid laminopathies represent genetically characterized clinical entities with well-defined phenotypes...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
S Paries, S Funcke, O Kershaw, K Failing, M Lierz
Tortoise Picornavirus (ToPV) commonly known as Virus "X" was recently discovered in juvenile European tortoises suffering from soft carapace and plastron as well as kidney disease. Therefore, this virus was a potential candidate to be a causative agent for these disease patterns. Spur thighed tortoises (Testudo graeca) seemed to be more susceptible to establish clinical symptoms than other European species like T. hermanni. Thus this trial investigated the role of ToPV in the described syndrome. Two groups of juvenile European tortoises (T...
2019: PloS One
Yusuke Kohno, Tzuhua Lin, Jukka Pajarinen, Monica Romero-Lopez, Masahiro Maruyama, Jhih-Fong Huang, Karthik Nathan, Zhenyu Yao, Stuart B Goodman
Cell therapy using bone marrow concentrate (BMC) or purified and expanded mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to have a promising osteogenic capacity. However, few studies have directly compared their relative osteogenic ability. The aim of this study was to compare the osteogenic ability of BMC isolated by density gradient centrifugation with bone marrow-derived MSCs in vitro using the cells of 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats. The isolated cells were seeded onto 24-well plates (1 × 105  cells/well) and cultured in control growth media, osteogenic media with dexamethasone, or media without dexamethasone (which simulated the in vivo tissue environment)...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Yilong Dai, Yifu Tang, Xuemei Xu, Zhongwei Luo, Yu Zhang, Zhaohui Li, Zhangyuan Lin, Shushan Zhao, Min Zeng, Buhua Sun, Liang Cheng, Jianxi Zhu, Zeng Xiong, Haitao Long, Yong Zhu, Kun Yu
Osteosarcoma is a malignant primary bone tumor, which often associates with pulmonary metastasis. The radical surgery of osteosarcoma often requires internal orthopedic implants. Therefore, implants with antitumor properties should be developed. Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys possess great potential as orthopedic materials, given their biodegradable properties, superior osteogenesis performance, and antitumor features. However, problems arise with their uncontrolled degradation rates and their unknown antitumor mechanisms...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Yu-Lun Liao, Chi-Chung Chou, Ya-Jane Lee
BACKGROUND: Indoxyl sulfate (IS) has been reported not only to increase with the severity of impaired renal function, but also possibly to be a factor associated with bone abnormalities linked to fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) in humans with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is not yet known whether this correlation between IS and FGF-23 holds true for cats with CKD. HYPOTHESIS: Accumulation of IS is related to FGF-23 secretion in cats with CKD. ANIMALS: Twenty clinically healthy cats and 73 cats with CKD cases were evaluated retrospectively...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Bruno Oliveira Silva Duran, Guilherme Alcarás Góes, Bruna Tereza Thomazini Zanella, Paula Paccielli Freire, Jessica Silvino Valente, Rondinelle Artur Simões Salomão, Ana Fernandes, Edson Assunção Mareco, Robson Francisco Carvalho, Maeli Dal-Pai-Silva
The postembryonic growth of skeletal muscle in teleost fish involves myoblast proliferation, migration and differentiation, encompassing the main events of embryonic myogenesis. Ascorbic acid plays important cellular and biochemical roles as an antioxidant and contributes to the proper collagen biosynthesis necessary for the structure of connective and bone tissues. However, whether ascorbic acid can directly influence the mechanisms of fish myogenesis and skeletal muscle growth remains unclear. The aim of our work was to evaluate the effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on the in vitro myoblast proliferation and migration of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus)...
February 18, 2019: Scientific Reports
Pulavendran Sivasami, Nabin Poudel, Maria Cristina Munteanu, Joanna Hudson, Pamela Lovern, Lin Liu, Tim Griffin, Myron E Hinsdale
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The cellular and extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions that regulate adipose tissue homeostasis are incompletely understood. Proteoglycans (PGs) and their sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) provide spatial and temporal signals for ECM organization and interactions with resident cells by impacting growth factor and cytokine activity. Therefore, PGs and their GAGs could be significant to adipose tissue homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of ECM sulfated GAGs in adipose tissue homeostasis...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Takahiro Teshima, Sena Kurita, Takashi Sasaki, Hirotaka Matsumoto, Ayaka Niina, Daijiro Abe, Nobuo Kanno, Hidekazu Koyama
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D-dependent rickets is rare in animals and humans. Several types of this condition are associated with genetic variants related to vitamin D metabolism. This is the first report of type 1B vitamin D-dependent rickets in a cat. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we describe the case of a 3-month-old female domestic short-haired cat previously fed on commercial kitten food that presented at our clinic with seizures, lethargy, and generalized pain. Serum and ionized calcium concentrations and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in this cat were low, and radiographs showed skeletal demineralization and abnormally wide growth plates on the long bones...
February 18, 2019: BMC Veterinary Research
Marcus A Weinman, Jacob A Fischer, Dakota C Jacobs, Cheri P Goodall, Shay Bracha, Patrick E Chappell
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma strikes hundreds of people each year, of both advanced and younger ages, and is often terminal. Like many tumor types, these bone tumors will frequently undergo a neuroendocrine transition, utilizing autocrine and/or paracrine hormones as growth factors and/or promoters of angiogenesis to facilitate progression and metastasis. While many of these factors and their actions on tumor growth are characterized, some tumor-derived neuropeptides remain unexplored. METHODS: Using validated canine osteosarcoma cell lines in vitro, as well as cells derived from spontaneous tumors in dogs, we explored the autocrine production of two neuropeptides typically found in the hypothalamus, and most closely associated with reproduction: gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and kisspeptin (Kiss-1)...
February 18, 2019: BMC Cancer
Shinsuke Takeda, Akinobu Nishimura, Shigeto Nakazora, Akihiro Sudo, Hitoshi Hirata, Ko Kato
A bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP) is a rare, benign, osseous tumor that presents as an exophytic cortical growth consisting of bone, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. However, the identification of BPOP by preoperative imaging along with appropriate diagnosis and treatment without recurrence is challenging, particularly for BPOPs that rarely develop in certain parts of the body. Herein, we report a rare case involving a BPOP at the sesamoid bone of the hallux that was first suspected on preoperative computed tomography imaging...
January 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
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