Read by QxMD icon Read

Cellulolytic Microbiomes

Thais L Brito, Amanda B Campos, F A Bastiaan von Meijenfeldt, Julio P Daniel, Gabriella B Ribeiro, Genivaldo G Z Silva, Diego V Wilke, Daniela T de Moraes, Bas E Dutilh, Pedro M Meirelles, Amaro E Trindade-Silva
Teredinidae are a family of highly adapted wood-feeding and wood-boring bivalves, commonly known as shipworms, whose evolution is linked to the acquisition of cellulolytic gammaproteobacterial symbionts harbored in bacteriocytes within the gills. In the present work we applied metagenomics to characterize microbiomes of the gills and digestive tract of Neoteredo reynei, a mangrove-adapted shipworm species found over a large range of the Brazilian coast. Comparative metagenomics grouped the gill symbiont community of different N...
2018: PloS One
Maryam Bagheri Varzaneh, Fenja Klevenhusen, Qendrim Zebeli, Renee Petri
In the search for natural alternatives to antibiotic feed additives, we compared the efficacy of two doses of Scrophularia striata extract [ S. striata -Low at 40 and S. striata -High at 80 mg g-1 dry matter (DM)] with monensin (monensin) and a negative control in the modulation of rumen fermentation, methane production and microbial abundance in vitro . Microbes were investigated using qPCR and 16S rRNA targeted sequencing. Data showed that the addition of S. striata increased production of total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in comparison to both monensin and control ( P = 0...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Javier Rodríguez Hernáez, Maria Esperanza Cerón Cucchi, Silvio Cravero, Maria Carolina Martinez, Sergio Gonzalez, Andrea Puebla, Joaquin Dopazo, Marisa Farber, Norma Paniego, Máximo Rivarola
Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens forms part of the gastrointestinal microbiome of ruminants and other mammals, including humans. Indeed, it is one of the most common bacteria found in the rumen and plays an important role in ruminal fermentation of polysaccharides, yet, to date, there is no closed reference genome published for this species in any ruminant animal. We successfully assembled the nearly complete genome sequence of B. fibrisolvens strain INBov1 isolated from cow rumen using Illumina paired-end reads, 454 Roche single-end and mate pair sequencing technology...
October 2018: Microbial Genomics
Zongfu Hu, Xi Chen, Jie Chang, Jianhua Yu, Qing Tong, Shuguo Li, Huaxin Niu
Due to its wide distribution across the world, the snail Radix auricularia plays a central role in the transferal of energy and biomass by consuming plant biomass in freshwater systems. The gut microbiota are involved in the nutrition, digestion, immunity, and development of snails, particularly for cellulolytic bacteria, which greatly contribute to the digestion of plant fiber. For the first time, this study characterized the gut bacterial communities of R. auricularia , as well as predicted functions, using the Illumina Miseq platform to sequence 16S rRNA amplicons...
2018: PeerJ
A E Naas, L M Solden, A D Norbeck, H Brewer, L H Hagen, I M Heggenes, A C McHardy, R I Mackie, L Paša-Tolić, M Ø Arntzen, V G H Eijsink, N M Koropatkin, M Hess, K C Wrighton, P B Pope
BACKGROUND: In nature, obligate herbivorous ruminants have a close symbiotic relationship with their gastrointestinal microbiome, which proficiently deconstructs plant biomass. Despite decades of research, lignocellulose degradation in the rumen has thus far been attributed to a limited number of culturable microorganisms. Here, we combine meta-omics and enzymology to identify and describe a novel Bacteroidetes family ("Candidatus MH11") composed entirely of uncultivated strains that are predominant in ruminants and only distantly related to previously characterized taxa...
March 1, 2018: Microbiome
Yu Xia, Chao Yang, Tong Zhang
Background: Part-stream low-frequency ultrasound (LFUS) was one of the common practices for sludge disintegration in full-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) facilities. However, the effectiveness of part-stream LFUS treatment and its effect on AD microbiome have not been fully elucidated. Methods: Here we testified the effectiveness of part-stream LFUS pretreatment by treating only a fraction of feed sludge (23% and 33% total solid of the feed sludge) with 20 Hz LFUS for 70 s...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Johanna Stern, Sarah Moraïs, Yonit Ben-David, Rachel Salama, Melina Shamshoum, Raphael Lamed, Yuval Shoham, Edward A Bayer, Itzhak Mizrahi
Heterologous display of enzymes on microbial cell surfaces is an extremely desirable approach, since it enables the engineered microbe to interact directly with the plant wall extracellular polysaccharide matrix. In recent years, attempts have been made to endow noncellulolytic microbes with genetically engineered cellulolytic capabilities for improved hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and for advanced probiotics. Thus far, however, owing to the hurdles encountered in secreting and assembling large, intricate complexes on the bacterial cell wall, only free cellulases or relatively simple cellulosome assemblies have been introduced into live bacteria...
April 15, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Wenping Zhang, Wenbin Liu, Rong Hou, Liang Zhang, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Huaibo Sun, Junjin Xie, Yunfei Zhang, Chengdong Wang, Lifeng Li, Bisong Yue, He Huang, Hairui Wang, Fujun Shen, Zhihe Zhang
The giant panda feeds almost exclusively on bamboo, a diet highly enriched in lignin and cellulose, but is characterized by a digestive tract similar to carnivores. It is still large unknown if and how the giant panda gut microbiota contributes to lignin and cellulose degradation. Here we show the giant pandas' gut microbiota does not significantly contribute to cellulose and lignin degradation. We found that no operational taxonomic unit had a nearest neighbor identified as a cellulolytic species or strain with a significant higher abundance in juvenile than cubs, a very low abundance of putative lignin and cellulose genes existed in part of analyzing samples but a significant higher abundance of genes involved in starch and hemicellulose degradation in juveniles than cubs...
May 2018: ISME Journal
Emma C L Finlayson-Trick, Landon J Getz, Patrick D Slaine, Mackenzie Thornbury, Emily Lamoureux, Jamie Cook, Morgan G I Langille, Lois E Murray, Craig McCormick, John R Rohde, Zhenyu Cheng
Host diet influences the diversity and metabolic activities of the gut microbiome. Previous studies have shown that the gut microbiome provides a wide array of enzymes that enable processing of diverse dietary components. Because the primary diet of the porcupine, Erethizon dorsatum, is lignified plant material, we reasoned that the porcupine microbiome would be replete with enzymes required to degrade lignocellulose. Here, we report on the bacterial composition in the porcupine microbiome using 16S rRNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis...
2017: PloS One
Irena Maus, Andreas Bremges, Yvonne Stolze, Sarah Hahnke, Katharina G Cibis, Daniela E Koeck, Yong S Kim, Jana Kreubel, Julia Hassa, Daniel Wibberg, Aaron Weimann, Sandra Off, Robbin Stantscheff, Vladimir V Zverlov, Wolfgang H Schwarz, Helmut König, Wolfgang Liebl, Paul Scherer, Alice C McHardy, Alexander Sczyrba, Michael Klocke, Alfred Pühler, Andreas Schlüter
Background: To elucidate biogas microbial communities and processes, the application of high-throughput DNA analysis approaches is becoming increasingly important. Unfortunately, generated data can only partialy be interpreted rudimentary since databases lack reference sequences. Results: Novel cellulolytic, hydrolytic, and acidogenic/acetogenic Bacteria as well as methanogenic Archaea originating from different anaerobic digestion communities were analyzed on the genomic level to assess their role in biomass decomposition and biogas production...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Lucia Žifčáková, Tomáš Větrovský, Vincent Lombard, Bernard Henrissat, Adina Howe, Petr Baldrian
BACKGROUND: Evergreen coniferous forests contain high stocks of organic matter. Significant carbon transformations occur in litter and soil of these ecosystems, making them important for the global carbon cycle. Due to seasonal allocation of photosynthates to roots, carbon availability changes seasonally in the topsoil. The aim of this paper was to describe the seasonal differences in C source utilization and the involvement of various members of soil microbiome in this process. RESULTS: Here, we show that microorganisms in topsoil encode a diverse set of carbohydrate-active enzymes, including glycoside hydrolases and auxiliary enzymes...
September 18, 2017: Microbiome
Libin Mathew Varghese, Sharad Agrawal, Divya Sharma, Rishi Pal Mandhan, Ritu Mahajan
In this study, screening and isolation of xylano-cellulolytic enzymes producing positive microbes from termitarium and termite gut microbiome were done using cost-effective agricultural wastes. The enrichment of xylano-cellulolytic microbes was done in three steps using wheat bran and waste paper. The qualitative screening of xylanase and cellulase producing micro-organisms was done on nutrient agar plates containing wheat bran and waste paper, respectively. Xylanase and cellulase positive colonies were analysed by observing the zone of substrate (wheat bran and waste paper) hydrolysis around the colonies...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
Joshua A O'Hair, Hui Li, Santosh Thapa, Matthew B Scholz, Suping Zhou
Novel cellulolytic microorganisms can potentially influence second-generation biofuel production. This paper reports the draft genome sequence of Bacillus licheniformis strain YNP1-TSU, isolated from hydrothermal-vegetative microbiomes inside Yellowstone National Park. The assembled sequence contigs predicted 4,230 coding genes, 66 tRNAs, and 10 rRNAs through automated annotation.
March 2, 2017: Genome Announcements
Thijs De Mulder, Karen Goossens, Nico Peiren, Leen Vandaele, Annelies Haegeman, Caroline De Tender, Tom Ruttink, Tom Van de Wiele, Sam De Campeneere
The rumen microbiome occupies a central role in animal health and productivity. A better understanding of the rumen ecosystem is essential to increase productivity or decrease methane production. Samples were collected from the three main rumen environments: the solid-adherent fraction, the liquid fraction and the epithelium. For the liquid and solid fraction, two alternative sample processing protocols were compared, resulting in a total of five sample types: crude solids (S), the eluted solid-adherent fraction (Ad), free-living species in the crude rumen liquid (CRL), strained liquid samples (Lq) and epimural scrapings (Ep)...
March 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
J A Coverdale
Intensive management practices in the horse industry present a unique challenge to the microbiome of the large intestine. Common management practices such as high-concentrate diets, low forage quality, meal feeding, and confinement housing have an impact on intestinal function, specifically large intestinal fermentation. The microbiome of the equine large intestine is a complex and diverse ecosystem, and disruption of microbiota and their environment can lead to increased incidence of gastrointestinal disorder...
June 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Xin-Yue Chan, Kar-Wai Hong, Wai-Fong Yin, Kok-Gan Chan
Tropical carnivorous plant, Nepenthes, locally known as "monkey cup", utilises its pitcher as a passive trap to capture insects. It then secretes enzymes into the pitcher fluid to digest the insects for nutrients acquisition. However, little is known about the microbiota and their activity in its pitcher fluid. Eighteen bacteria phyla were detected from the metagenome study in the Nepenthes pitcher fluid. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria are the dominant phyla in the Nepenthes pitcher fluid...
January 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yury T Granja-Salcedo, Carlos S Ribeiro Júnior, Raphael B de Jesus, Arturo S Gomez-Insuasti, Astrid R Rivera, Juliana D Messana, Roberta C Canesin, Telma T Berchielli
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different dietary levels of concentrate on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and microbial population in steers. Eight Nellore steers fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment. The dietary treatments consist of four different proportions of concentrate to roughage: 30:70, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20% in the dry matter, resulting in Diets 30, 40, 60 and 80, respectively. The roughage was corn silage, and the concentrate was composed of corn, soybean meal and urea...
2016: Archives of Animal Nutrition
Adriana P Manfredi, Nora I Perotti, María A Martínez
The raw materials used to produce bioethanol mostly are food crops, which has led to conflicts on food security. It is, therefore, recommended the gradual replacement for second generation substrates such as lignocellulosic materials. Herein, cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from the gut content of native larvae from Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and adults of Isoptera. Few environmental samples from the pulp and paper feedstock were also assessed. A total of 233 isolates were obtained using enrichment cultures and classic criteria...
December 2015: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Andreas Brune, Carsten Dietrich
Termite guts harbor a dense and diverse microbiota that is essential for symbiotic digestion. The major players in lower termites are unique lineages of cellulolytic flagellates, whereas higher termites harbor only bacteria and archaea. The functions of the mostly uncultivated lineages and their distribution in different diet groups are slowly emerging. Patterns in community structure match changes in the biology of different host groups and reflect the availability of microbial habitats provided by flagellates, wood fibers, and the increasing differentiation of the intestinal tract, which also creates new niches for microbial symbionts...
2015: Annual Review of Microbiology
Maria de Vries, Anne Schöler, Julia Ertl, Zhuofei Xu, Michael Schloter
Incorporation of plant litter is a frequent agricultural practice to increase nutrient availability in soil, and relies heavily on the activity of cellulose-degrading microorganisms. Here we address the question of how different tillage treatments affect soil microbial communities and their cellulose-degrading potential in a long-term agricultural experiment. To identify potential differences in microbial taxonomy and functionality, we generated six soil metagenomes of conventional (CT) and reduced (RT) tillage-treated topsoil samples, which differed in their potential extracellular cellulolytic activity as well as their microbial biomass...
July 2015: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"