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Cellulosic ethanol

Susakul Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Hans van der Oost, John van der Oost, Daan M van Vliet, Caroline M Plugge
The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) or cavy is a grass-eating rodent. Its main diet consists of grass or hay, which comprises cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and their derivatives. Here, the microbial diversity of faecal samples of two guinea pigs and microbial enrichments made with substrates, including starch waste and dried grass, were investigated along with organic acid production profiles. The microbial communities of the faecal samples were dominated by the phyla Bacteroidetes (40%) and Firmicutes (36%)...
February 12, 2019: Current Microbiology
Liang Tian, Nicholas D Cervenka, Aidan M Low, Daniel G Olson, Lee R Lynd
Clostridium thermocellum is a good candidate organism for producing cellulosic biofuels due to its native ability to ferment cellulose, however its maximum biofuel titer is limited by tolerance. Wild type C. thermocellum is inhibited by 5 g/L n-butanol. Using growth adaptation in a chemostat, we increased n-butanol tolerance to 15 g/L. We discovered that several tolerant strains had acquired a D494G mutation in the adhE gene. Re-introducing this mutation recapitulated the n-butanol tolerance phenotype. In addition, it increased tolerance to several other primary alcohols including isobutanol and ethanol...
February 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Lydia Zeibich, Oliver Schmidt, Harold L Drake
The alimentary canal of the earthworm is representative of primitive gut ecosystems, and gut fermenters capable of degrading ingested biomass-derived polysaccharides might contribute to the environmental impact and survival of this terrestrial invertebrate. Thus, this study evaluated the postulation that gut microbiota of the model earthworm Lumbricus terrestris ferment diverse biomass-derived polysaccharides. Structural polysaccharides (e.g., cellulose, chitin) had marginal impact on fermentation in anoxic gut content treatments...
February 6, 2019: Environmental Microbiology
D Mikulski, G Kłosowski, A Menka, B Koim-Puchowska
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of microwave-assisted pretreatment in production of cellulosic bioethanol from maize distillery stillage. High glucose concentration (104.4 ± 0.4 mg/g dry weight) and the highest yield of enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis (75.8 ± 0.9%) were obtained for microwave pretreatment characterized by the following parameters: 300 W, 54 PSI, 15 min. Such pre-treatment parameters allowed the obtaining of not only a high concentration of glucose, but also a low concentration of fermentation inhibitors, i...
January 18, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Wan Yi Tai, Joo Shun Tan, Vuanghao Lim, Chee Keong Lee
The high cost of cellulases remains the most significant barrier to the economical production of bio-ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. The goal of this study was to optimize cellulases and xylanase production by a local indigenous fungus strain (Aspergillus niger DWA8) using agricultural waste (oil palm frond (OPF)) as substrate. The enzyme production profile before optimization indicated that the highest carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCase), filter paper (FPase), and xylanase activities of 1.06 U/g, 2.55 U/g, and 2...
January 30, 2019: Biotechnology Progress
Zofia Hrydziuszko, Daniel Jan Strub, Karolina Labus, Jolanta Bryjak
The major drawbacks of native lipase applications in processes occurring in water or in organic solvents include: difficulties in catalyst recycling, low activity and operational instability. The immobilization of Burkholderia cepacia lipase by adsorption or covalent binding onto 5 differently functionalized carriers (silica, acrylic, cellulose-based) was performed to overcome this problem. The optimization of the reaction preparation in water-rich media was based on the hydrolytic reactivity of the preparations, as well as the thermal, operational and storage stabilities...
January 25, 2019: Bioorganic Chemistry
Anil K Patel, Reeta Rani Singhania, Sang Jun Sim, Ashok Pandey
It is envisaged that the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol production for transport sector, would make cellulases the most demanded industrial enzyme. The greatest potential of cellulolytic enzymes lies in ethanol production from biomass by enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose but low thermostability and low titer of cellulase production resulting into high cost of the enzyme which is the major set-back. A number of research groups are working on cellulase to improve its thermostability so as to be able to perform hydrolysis at elevated temperatures which would eventually increase the efficiency of cellulose hydrolysis...
January 14, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Andreas Mautner, Thawanrat Kobkeatthawin, Florian Mayer, Christof Plessl, Selestina Gorgieva, Vanja Kokol, Alexander Bismarck
Water hardness not only constitutes a significant hazard for the functionality of water infrastructure but is also associated with health concerns. Commonly, water hardness is tackled with synthetic ion-exchange resins or membranes that have the drawbacks of requiring the awkward disposal of saturated materials and being based on fossil resources. In this work, we present a renewable nanopaper for the purpose of water softening prepared from phosphorylated TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (PT-CNF). Nanopapers were prepared from CNF suspensions in water (PT-CNF nanopapers) or low surface tension organic liquids (ethanol), named EPT-CNF nanopapers, respectively...
January 22, 2019: Nanomaterials
Mi Li, Chang Geun Yoo, Yunqiao Pu, Ajaya K Biswal, Allison K Tolbert, Debra Mohnen, Arthur J Ragauskas
Knockdown (KD) expression of GAlactUronosylTransferase 4 ( GAUT4 ) in switchgrass improves sugar yield and ethanol production from the biomass. The reduced recalcitrance of GAUT4 -KD transgenic biomass is associated with reduced cell wall pectic homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan II content and cross-linking, and the associated increases in accessibility of cellulose to enzymatic deconstruction. To further probe the molecular basis for the reduced recalcitrance of GAUT4 -KD biomass, potential recalcitrance-related factors including the physicochemical properties of lignin and hemicellulose are investigated...
2019: Communications biology
Jeff Dahlberg
Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench is an important annual C4 cereal crop with unique properties-it can be used in almost all renewable schemes being proposed for renewable fuels and green technologies. In the United States, the grain is currently used as a feedstock in the grain-ethanol process, while in China, the Philippines, and India, sweet sorghums are used in a sugar-to-ethanol process. High-tonnage biomass sorghums are being investigated for their potential use in both cellulosic and lignocellulosic renewables...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jairo Herrera-Morales, Taylor A Turley, Miguel Betancourt-Ponce, Eduardo Nicolau
The prevalence of emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in ground and surface water has sparked the search for more effective methods to remove EOCs from the environment. In pursuit of a solution for this environmental concern, herein we present the development of reusable films based on cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) and the block copolymer, poly(4-vinylpyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (P4VP-PEO) to adsorb sulfamethoxazole (SMX) as an EOC model compound. We hypothesize that the adsorption of SMX was achieved mainly by π-π interactions between the pyridine functionalities of the block copolymer and the electron deficient phenyl group of the SMX...
January 11, 2019: Materials
Hui Liu, Wei Ding
Prothioconazole is a type of broad-spectrum triazole thione fungicide developed by the Bayer Company. Prothioconazole-desthio is the main metabolite of prothioconazole in the environment. In our study, enantiomeric separation of prothioconazole and prothioconazole-desthio was performed on various chiral stationary phases (CSPs) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It was found that polysaccharide CSPs showed better ability than brushing CSPs in enantiomeric separation. The successful chiral separation of prothioconazole could be achieved on self-made Chiralcel OD, commercialized Chiralcel OJ-H and Lux Cellulose-1...
January 11, 2019: Chirality
Bruna M Oliveira, Marcelo Zaiat, Guilherme H D Oliveira
Biodegradation of organic micropollutants is likely to occur due to cometabolism by particular microbial groups. In an effort to identify the stages of anaerobic digestion potentially involved in the biodegradation of the veterinary antimicrobial sulfamethazine (SMZ), the influence of selected carbon sources (sucrose, glucose, fructose, ethanol, meat extract, cellulose, soluble starch, soy oil, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) on SMZ removal by anaerobic sludge was evaluated in short-term batch experiments...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Bo Wu, Han Qin, Yiwei Yang, Guowei Duan, Shihui Yang, Fengxue Xin, Chunyan Zhao, Huanhuan Shao, Yanwei Wang, Qili Zhu, Furong Tan, Guoquan Hu, Mingxiong He
Background: Cellulosic biofuels are sustainable compared to fossil fuels. However, inhibitors, such as acetic acid generated during lignocellulose pretreatment and hydrolysis, would significantly inhibit microbial fermentation efficiency. Microbial mutants able to tolerate high concentration of acetic acid are needed urgently to alleviate this inhibition. Results: Zymomonas mobilis mutants AQ8-1 and AC8-9 with enhanced tolerance against acetic acid were generated via a multiplex atmospheric and room temperature plasma (mARTP) mutagenesis...
2019: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Christos Nitsos, Polykarpos Lazaridis, Astrid Mach-Aigner, Kostas Matis, Konstantinos Triantafyllidis
Acetone and ethanol extraction of lignin deposits from the surface of hydrothermally (liquid hot water) pretreated beech wood biomass alleviate the lignin inhibitory effects during enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose and boosts the enzymatic digestibility to high values (~70%). Characterization of the extarcted lignins (FTIR, Py/GC-MS, DTG, GPC) indicated high purity, low molecular weight and features that suggest that it consists mainly of fragments of the native wood lignin partially depolymerized and recondensed on the biomass surface during the hydrothermal pretreatment...
January 9, 2019: ChemSusChem
Maarouf Abdou Alio, Oana-Cristina Tugui, Christophe Vial, Agnès Pons
A mixture of sawmill feedstocks comprising four softwood species (fir, spruce, Scots pine, and Douglas fir) was subjected to a microwave-assisted Organosolv pretreatment. The influence of H2 SO4 as a catalyst, ethanol-water ratio as the solvent, and temperature on wood fractionation, cellulose yield and purity, lignin recovery, and inhibitor formation were investigated. Minute addition of H2 SO4 (0.25% w/w) was found to enhance lignin extraction and hemicellulose hydrolysis, thus providing cellulose yield and purity above 68% ± 2% and 61% ± 3%, respectively...
December 24, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Eun Joong Oh, Na Wei, Suryang Kwak, Heejin Kim, Yong-Su Jin
Mixed sugars derived from lignocellulosic biomass can be converted into biofuels and chemicals by engineered microorganisms, but toxic fermentation inhibitors produced from harsh depolymerization processes of lignocellulosic biomass pose a critical challenge for economic production of biofuels and chemicals. Unlike other fermentation inhibitors generated from sugar degradation, acetic acid is inevitably produced from acetylated hemicellulose, and its concentrations in cellulosic hydrolysates are substantially higher than other fermentation inhibitors...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Biotechnology
Hisao Tomita, Fumiyoshi Okazaki, Yutaka Tamaru
For a resolution of reducing carbon dioxide emission and increasing food production to respond to the growth of global population, production of biofuels from non-edible biomass is urgently required. Abundant orange wastes, such as peel and strained lees, are produced as by-product of orange juice, which is available non-edible biomass. However, D-limonene included in citrus fruits often inhibits yeast growth and makes the ethanol fermentation difficult. This study demonstrated that isopropanol-butanol-ethanol fermentation ability of Clostridium beijerinckii and cellulosic biomass degrading ability of C...
January 3, 2019: AMB Express
Yuvraj Govindrao Jadhav, Upendra Chandrakant Galgatte, Pravin Digambar Chaudhari
Purpose: To develop fast dissolving oral film to address vomiting and nausea in pediatric population. Methods: Oral films of Dimenhydrinate were prepared by solvent casting method by using hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose E5 (HPMC E5), polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) and croscarmellose sodium. Solubility of dimenhydrinate was enhanced by ethanol as a co-solvent. To make dimenhydrinate palatable sodium saccharin and peppermint oil were used. All films were evaluated for mechanical parameters, surface pH, morphology, disintegration time and percent dissolution...
November 2018: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Alexandre de Araujo Guilherme, Paulo Victor Fortunato Dantas, Carlos Eduardo de Araújo Padilha, Everaldo Silvino Dos Santos, Gorete Ribeiro de Macedo
Ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using sugarcane bagasse as substrate was developed using batch and fed-batch mode. Acid, alkali, hydrothermal and hydrogen peroxide pretreatments to the sugarcane bagasse were tested. Experiments were carried out to optimize the enzyme load of cellulases and β-glucosidase. Four strains, two of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and two of Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast species were evaluate using SSF to produce ethanol. A kinetic study in bioreactor was carried out to optimize the SSF...
December 29, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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