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Preterm AND Epigenetic

Sharon G Casavant, Xiaomei Cong, James Moore, Angela Starkweather
BACKGROUND: Every year, an estimated 15 million babies are born preterm (<37 weeks' gestational age [GA]) globally. These preterm infants are exposed to repeated stressful and often painful procedures as part of routine life-saving care within the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Preterm birth continues to be a major health issue associated with increased risk of neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders such as cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders and psychiatric disease...
March 11, 2019: Early Human Development
Olivia J Carpinello, Alan H DeCherney, Micah J Hill
Since Barker's publication of "The fetal and infant origins of adult disease" in 1990, significant emphasis has been placed on the intrauterine environment and its effect on adult disease. Historical events such as the Dutch Famine and the 1918 Flu Pandemic have provided organic data about the epigenetic changes that can result from famine, infection, and stress. Mechanisms that allow for intrauterine survival may predispose to adult disease states when the fetus enters a world of abundance. As the field of in vitro fertilization (IVF) has developed and evolved, little attention has been paid to subtle yet significant differences in IVF offspring...
May 2018: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Sine Berntsen, Viveca Söderström-Anttila, Ulla-Britt Wennerholm, Hannele Laivuori, Anne Loft, Nan B Oldereid, Liv Bente Romundstad, Christina Bergh, Anja Pinborg
Worldwide, more than 7 million children have now been born after ART: these delivery rates are steadily rising and now comprise 2-6% of births in the European countries. To achieve higher pregnancy rates, the transfer of two or more embryos was previously the gold standard in ART. However, recently the practise has moved towards a single embryo transfer policy to avoid multiple births. The positive consequences of the declining multiple birth rates after ART are decreasing perinatal risks and overall improved health for the ART progeny...
February 12, 2019: Human Reproduction Update
Yonghui Wu, Xinyi Lin, Ives Yubin Lim, Li Chen, Ai Ling Teh, Julia L MacIsaac, Kok Hian Tan, Michael S Kobor, Yap Seng Chong, Peter D Gluckman, Neerja Karnani
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB), defined as child birth before completion of 37 weeks of gestation, is a major challenge in perinatal health care and can bear long-term medical and financial burden. Over a million children die each year due to PTB complications, and those who survive can face developmental delays. Unfortunately, our understanding of the molecular pathways associated with PTB remains limited. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting the role of DNA methylation (DNAm) in mediating the effects of PTB on future health outcomes...
February 11, 2019: Clinical Epigenetics
Xiaoyun Gou, Ying Tang, Yi Qu, Dongqiong Xiao, Junjie Ying, Dezhi Mu
White matter injury (WMI) prevents the normal development of myelination, leading to central nervous system myelination disorders and the production of chronic sequelae associated with WMI, such as chronic dyskinesia, cognitive impairment and cerebral palsy. This results in a large emotional and socioeconomic burden. Decreased myelination in preterm infant WMI is associated with the delayed development or destruction of oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells, particularly oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs)...
February 9, 2019: Reviews in the Neurosciences
A K Eremkina, N G Mokrysheva, E A Pigarova, S S Mirnaya
A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its negative consequences for health is identified as area of primary concern for scientists and clinicians worldwide. Vitamin D deficiency affects not only bone health but many socially significant acute and chronic diseases. Observational studies support that pregnant and lactating women, children and teenagers represent the high risk groups for developing vitamin D deficiency. Current evidence highlights a crucial role of vitamin D in providing the fetal life-support system and fetus development, including implantation, placental formation, intra- and postpartum periods...
November 22, 2018: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Sharon G Casavant, Xiaomei Cong, Roslyn H Fitch, James Moore, Ted Rosenkrantz, Angela Starkweather
BACKGROUND: Every year, an estimated 15 million babies are born preterm (<37 weeks' gestational age) globally. These preterm infants are exposed to repeated stressful and often painful procedures as part of routine life-saving care within the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Low thresholds for tactile and nociceptive input make it more difficult for neonates to discriminate between noxious and nonnoxious stimuli, which can result in continuous activation of stress responses in an attempt to achieve stability through adaptation, or allostasis...
March 2019: Biological Research for Nursing
Xi-Meng Wang, Fu-Ying Tian, Li-Jun Fan, Chuan-Bo Xie, Zhong-Zheng Niu, Wei-Qing Chen
BACKGROUND: The etiology and mechanism of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) are still unclear. Accumulating evidence has documented that various environmental exposure scenarios may cause maternal and fetal epigenetic changes, which initiates the focus on whether epigenetics can contribute to the occurrence of sPTB. Therefore, we conducted the current study to examine and compare the DNA methylation changes associated with sPTB in placenta and cord blood. METHODS: This hospital-based case-control study was carried out at three Women and Children's hospitals in South China, where 32 spontaneous preterm births and 16 term births were recruited...
January 3, 2019: BMC Medical Genomics
Linda Titus, Elizabeth E Hatch, Keith M Drake, Samantha E Parker, Marianne Hyer, Julie R Palmer, William C Strohsnitter, Ervin Adam, Arthur L Herbst, Dezheng Huo, Robert N Hoover, Rebecca Troisi
BACKGROUND: Animal studies suggest that prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) causes epigenetic alterations in primordial germ cells that affect the next generation, but human studies are sparse. METHODS: We assessed hormonally mediated outcomes in third generation women whose mothers were prenatally DES-exposed and unexposed. RESULTS: Compared to the unexposed, DES-exposed third generation women had an increased risk of irregular menses and amenorrhea; the respective prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in follow-up data were 1...
December 27, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Livio Provenzi, Roberto Giorda, Monica Fumagalli, Maddalena Brambilla, Fabio Mosca, Renato Borgatti, Rosario Montirosso
During the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay, very preterm (VPT) infants are exposed to life-saving yet pain-inducing skin-breaking procedures (i.e., NICU pain-related stress) which contribute to the programming of hypo-responsive HPA axis development during the first months of life. Unfortunately, to date the mechanisms linking NICU pain-related stress and altered HPA axis regulation are only limitedly known. Telomere length (TL) regulation is an epigenetic mechanism previously shown to be affected by early stress exposures and capable of associating with HPA axis reactivity in children...
December 6, 2018: Early Human Development
Franziska Schleger, Katarzyna Linder, Laura Walter, Martin Heni, Johanna Brändle, Sara Brucker, Jan Pauluschke-Fröhlich, Magdalene Weiss, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Hubert Preissl, Andreas Fritsche
Introduction: We have previously shown that fetuses of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and insulin resistance exhibit a prolongation of fetal auditory event-related brain responses (fAER) compared to fetuses of normal glucose tolerant women during an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT). This implies that maternal metabolism may program the developing fetal brain. We now asked whether a family history of type 2 diabetes without metabolic programing also impacts fetal brain activity. We therefore investigated brain activity in fetuses of normal glucose tolerant mothers with and without family history of type 2 diabetes (FHD+ and FHD-)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
M I Goran, J F Plows, E E Ventura
Consumption of sugar and alternative low- or no-energy sweeteners has increased in recent decades. However, it is still uncertain how consumption of sugar and alternative sweeteners during pregnancy affects pregnancy outcomes and long-term offspring health. This review aims to collate the available evidence surrounding the consequences of sugar and alternative sweetener consumption during pregnancy, a so-called secondhand sugar effect. We found evidence that sugar consumption during pregnancy may contribute to increased gestational weight gain and the development of pregnancy complications, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and preterm birth...
December 3, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Adriana Ibarra, Begoña Vega-Guedes, Yeray Brito-Casillas, Ana M Wägner
Maternal diabetes is associated with an increased risk of complications for the mother and her offspring. The latter have an increased risk of foetal macrosomia, hypoglycaemia, respiratory distress syndrome, preterm delivery, malformations and mortality but also of life-long development of obesity and diabetes. Epigenetics have been proposed as an explanation for this long-term risk, and microRNAs (miRNAs) may play a role, both in short- and long-term outcomes. Gestation is associated with increasing maternal insulin resistance, as well as β-cell expansion, to account for the increased insulin needs and studies performed in pregnant rats support a role of miRNAs in this expansion...
November 12, 2018: Non-Coding RNA
Eamon Fitzgerald, James P Boardman, Amanda J Drake
Preterm Birth (PTB) accounts for approximately 11% of all births worldwide each year and is a profound physiological stressor in early life. The burden of neuropsychiatric and developmental impairment is high, with severity and prevalence correlated with gestational age at delivery. PTB is a major risk factor for the development of cerebral palsy, lower educational attainment and deficits in cognitive functioning, and individuals born preterm have higher rates of schizophrenia, autistic spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
November 2018: Current Genomics
Chaini Konwar, E Magda Price, Li Qing Wang, Samantha L Wilson, Jefferson Terry, Wendy P Robinson
BACKGROUND: Placental inflammation, often presenting as acute chorioamnionitis (aCA), is commonly associated with preterm birth. Preterm birth can have both immediate and long-term adverse effects on the health of the baby. Developing biomarkers of inflammation in the placenta can help to understand its effects and potentially lead to new approaches for rapid prenatal diagnosis of aCA. We aimed to characterize epigenetic variation associated with aCA in placenta (chorionic villi) and fetal membranes (chorion and amnion) to better understand how aCA may impact processes that lead to preterm birth...
October 29, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Lauren Anton, Luz-Jeannette Sierra, Ann DeVine, Guillermo Barila, Laura Heiser, Amy G Brown, Michal A Elovitz
Cervicovaginal (CV) microbiota is associated with vaginal health and disease in non-pregnant women. Recent studies in pregnant women suggest that specific CV microbes are associated with preterm birth (PTB). While the associations between CV microbiota and adverse outcomes have been demonstrated, the mechanisms regulating the associations remain unclear. As the CV space contains an epithelial barrier, we postulate that CV microbiota can alter the epithelial barrier function. We investigated the biological, molecular, and epigenetic effects of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus iners , and Gardnerella vaginalis on the cervical epithelial barrier function and determined whether L...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jae Young Yoo, Young-Ah You, Eun Jin Kwon, Mi Hye Park, Sunah Shim, Young Ju Kim
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association between preterm birth and epigenetic mechanisms in the amnion. Methods: We examined the association between differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and differentially expressed genes (DEG) using a cytosine-phosphate-guanine methylation array and whole-transcriptome sequencing from the amnion (preterm birth, n=5; full term, n=5). We enrolled 35 participants for mRNA expression analysis and pyrosequencing: 16 full-term and 19 preterm subjects...
September 2018: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
Sneha Mani, Jayashri Ghosh, Yemin Lan, Suneeta Senapati, Teri Ord, Carmen Sapienza, Christos Coutifaris, Monica Mainigi
PTB affects approximately 1 in 10 pregnancies and contributes to approximately 50% of neonatal mortality. However, despite decades of research, little is understood about the etiology of Preterm Birth (PTB), likely due to the multifactorial nature of the disease. In this study, we examined preterm and term placentas, from unassisted conceptions and those conceived using in vitro fertilization (IVF). IVF increases the risk of PTB and causes epigenetic change in the placenta and fetus, therefore we utilized these patients as a unique population with a potential common etiology...
September 18, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Carol L Wagner, Bruce W Hollis
Pregnancy is a time of tremendous growth and physiological changes for mother and her developing fetus with lifelong implications for the child. The concert of actions that must occur so mother does not reject the foreign tissue of the fetus is substantial. There must be exquisite balance between maternal tolerance to these foreign proteins of paternal origin but also immune surveillance and function such that the mother is not immunocompromised. When this process goes awry, the mother may experience such pregnancy complications as preeclampsia and infections...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Josef Neu, Mohan Pammi
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a disease of preterm infants and associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Although the pathogenesis of NEC is not clear, microbial dysbiosis, with a bloom of the phylum Proteobacteria, has been reported. Antibiotics and the use of H2 blockers, which affect the gut microbiome, are associated with increased incidence of NEC. In association with dysbiosis, inflammatory processes are upregulated with increased Toll-like receptor signaling, leading to translocation of nuclear factor kappa-β, a transcription factor that induces transcription of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines...
December 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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