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Preterm AND Stress

Britt Frisk Pados, Francis Hess
BACKGROUND: Infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are exposed to many stressors. There is growing evidence that chronic stress early in life has long-term neurodevelopmental implications. Skin-to-skin care (SSC) is an intervention used to reduce stress in the NICU. CLINICAL QUESTION: In premature infants in the NICU, what is the available evidence that SSC improves short-term physiologic stress outcomes compared with incubator care? SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed and CINAHL were searched for terms related to SSC, stress, physiology, and premature infants...
March 19, 2019: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Summer Haddad, Cindy-Lee Dennis, Prakesh S Shah, Robyn Stremler
BACKGROUND: Sleep disruption during the first postpartum year is associated with several negative health outcomes including postpartum depression. Such disruption may be a greater issue for parents of preterm neonates, yet literature on this subject has not been critically reviewed. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize literature on sleep quantity, sleep quality, and factors influencing sleep among parents of preterm infants during infant hospitalization and following discharge...
March 5, 2019: Midwifery
Eran Elhaik
Background: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the most common cause of postneonatal unexplained infant death. The allostatic load hypothesis posits that SIDS is the result of cumulative perinatal painful, stressful, or traumatic exposures that tax neonatal regulatory systems. Aims: To test the predictions of the allostatic load hypothesis we explored the relationships between SIDS and two common phenotypes, male neonatal circumcision (MNC) and prematurity. Methods: We collated latitudinal data from 15 countries and 40 US states sampled during 2009 and 2013...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Clinical and Translational Research
Sharon G Casavant, Xiaomei Cong, James Moore, Angela Starkweather
BACKGROUND: Every year, an estimated 15 million babies are born preterm (<37 weeks' gestational age [GA]) globally. These preterm infants are exposed to repeated stressful and often painful procedures as part of routine life-saving care within the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Preterm birth continues to be a major health issue associated with increased risk of neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders such as cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders and psychiatric disease...
March 11, 2019: Early Human Development
Olivia J Carpinello, Alan H DeCherney, Micah J Hill
Since Barker's publication of "The fetal and infant origins of adult disease" in 1990, significant emphasis has been placed on the intrauterine environment and its effect on adult disease. Historical events such as the Dutch Famine and the 1918 Flu Pandemic have provided organic data about the epigenetic changes that can result from famine, infection, and stress. Mechanisms that allow for intrauterine survival may predispose to adult disease states when the fetus enters a world of abundance. As the field of in vitro fertilization (IVF) has developed and evolved, little attention has been paid to subtle yet significant differences in IVF offspring...
May 2018: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Xin Chen, Xiaoqian Zhang, Jiahua Pan
BACKGROUND Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease common in preterm infants. Montelukast, an effective cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) receptor antagonist, has a variety of pharmacological effects and has protective effects against a variety of diseases. Currently, the efficacy and safety of montelukast sodium in treating BPD has been revealed, however, the precise molecular mechanism of the effect of montelukast on BPD development remain largely unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of montelukast on BPD in vivo and in vitro...
March 13, 2019: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Brikene Elshani, Vjosa Kotori, Armond Daci
ω-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) are widely used during pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). ω-3 PUFAs are beneficial in the regulation of maternal and fetal metabolic function, inflammation, immunity, macrosomia (MAC), oxidative stress, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth, preterm birth, offspring metabolic function, and neurodevelopment. Dietary counseling is vital for improving therapeutic outcomes in patients with GDM. In maternal circulation, ω-3 PUFAs are transported via transporters, synthesis enzymes, and intracellular proteins, which activate nuclear receptors and play central roles in the cellular metabolic processes of placental trophoblasts...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Chenxi Cai, Zhengxiao Zhang, Maria Morales, Yanan Wang, James Friel
Knowledge about the development of the preterm infant gut microbiota is emerging and is critical to their health. Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; birth weight, <1500 g) infants usually have special dietary needs while showing increased oxidative stress related to intensive care. This prospective cohort study assessed the effect of feeding practice on gut microbiome development and oxidative stress in preterm infants. Fecal samples were collected from each infant in the early (1-2 weeks of enteral feeding) and late (2-4 weeks of enteral feeding) feeding stages...
March 6, 2019: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Amelie Maillard, Elodie Garnier, Elie Saliba, Geraldine Favrais
AIM: The primary objective was to assess the effect of prematurity at term-equivalent age on skin conductance and behavioural responses to acute stress. The secondary objective was to explore the reliability of skin conductance in detecting neonatal discomfort in preterm and full-term populations. METHODS: Very preterm infants at term-equivalent age and healthy full-term neonates, 34 infants in each group, underwent the hip dysplasia screening test. The acute pain in newborn infants (APN) scale was scored before and 15, 45 and 90 seconds after stimulus...
March 9, 2019: Acta Paediatrica
Vanesa Stojanovska, Samantha K Barton, Mary Tolcos, Andrew W Gill, Martin Kluckow, Suzanne L Miller, Valerie Zahra, Stuart B Hooper, Robert Galinsky, Graeme R Polglase
Antenatal administration of betamethasone (BM) is a common antecedent of preterm birth, but there is limited information about its impact on the acute evolution of preterm neonatal brain injury. We aimed to compare the effects of maternal BM in combination with mechanical ventilation on the white matter (WM) of late preterm sheep. At 0.85 of gestation, pregnant ewes were randomly assigned to receive intra-muscular (i.m.) saline (n = 9) or i.m. BM (n = 13). Lambs were delivered and unventilated controls (UVCSal, n = 4; UVCBM, n = 6) were humanely killed without intervention; ventilated lambs (VentSal, n = 5; VentBM, n = 7) were injuriously ventilated for 15 min, followed by conventional ventilation for 75 min...
March 6, 2019: Developmental Neuroscience
Nizar Khatib, Yuval Ginsberg, Einat Shalom-Paz, Hanin Dabaja, Olga Gutzeit, Osnat Zmora, Zvika Millo, Michael G Ross, Zeev Weiner, Ron Beloosesky
BACKGROUND: Maternal administration of magnesium sulfate (Mg) is used in humans to protect the fetal brain during preterm delivery. We sought to determine the neuroprotective mechanism of Mg in a rat model of late gestation maternal inflammation. METHODS: Pregnant rats at 20 d of gestation (20 total, four groups, N = 5 in each group) received i.p. LPS or saline. Dams were randomized for s.c. saline or Mg supplementation 2 h prior and following the LPS/saline injections...
March 5, 2019: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Ángel Sánchez-Illana, Vidhi Shah, José David Piñeiro-Ramos, Juliann M Di Fiore, Guillermo Quintás, Thomas M Raffay, Peter M MacFarlane, Richard J Martin, Julia Kuligowski
Oxidative stress plays an essential role in processes of signaling and damage to biomolecules during early perinatal life. Isoprostanoids and isofuranoids from the free radical-catalyzed peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are widely recognized as reliable biomarkers of oxidative stress. However, their quantification is not straightforward due to high structural similarity of the compounds formed. In this work, a semiquantitative method for the analysis of adrenic acid (AdA, C22:4 n-6) non-enzymatic peroxidation products (i...
February 25, 2019: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Letizia Capasso, Giovanni Vento, Cristina Loddo, Chiara Tirone, Federica Iavarone, Francesco Raimondi, Carlo Dani, Vassilios Fanos
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a major issue affecting morbidity and mortality of surviving premature babies. Preterm newborns are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress and infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia have a typical oxidation pattern in the early stages of this disease, suggesting the important role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a complex disease where knowledge advances as new investigative tools become available. The explosion of the "omics" disciplines has recently affected BPD research...
2019: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Giuseppina Sgandurra, Elena Beani, Emanuela Inguaggiato, Jakob Lorentzen, Jens Bo Nielsen, Giovanni Cioni
Parenting a preterm infant is more challenging than a full-term one. Parent involvement in early intervention programs seems to have positive psychosocial effects on both the child and parent. CareToy is an innovative smart system that provides an intensive individualized home-based family-centred EI in preterm infants between 3 and 9 age-corrected months. A RCT study, preceded by a pilot study, has been recently carried out to evaluate the effects of CareToy intervention on neurodevelopmental outcomes with respect to Standard Care...
2019: Neural Plasticity
Carmen Peña-Bautista, Thierry Durand, Claire Vigor, Camille Oger, Jean-Marie Galano, Consuelo Cháfer-Pericás
Preterm newborns have an immature antioxidant defense system and are especially susceptible to oxidative stress. Resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, intermittent hypoxia and apneic episodes require frequently oxygen supplementation which leads to oxidative stress in preterm newborns. The consequences of oxidative damage are increased short and long-term morbidities, neurodevelopmental impairment and increased mortality. Oxidative stress biomarkers are determined in blood samples from preterm children during their stay in neonatal intensive care units especially for research purposes...
February 22, 2019: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Bei Jia, Lu Zong, Ji Yeon Lee, Jun Lei, Yan Zhu, Han Xie, Julia L Clemens, Mia C Feller, Quan Na, Jie Dong, Michael W McLane, Kimberly Jones-Beatty, Irina Burd
Maternal periodontal disease has been linked to adverse pregnancy sequelae, including preterm birth (PTB); yet, root planing and scaling in pregnancy has not been associated with improved perinatal outcomes. Fluoride, a cariostatic agent, has been added to drinking water and dental products to prevent caries and improve dental health. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of fluoride supplementation using a mouse model of preterm birth and perinatal sequalae. Pregnant mice were fed low dose fluoride (LF- ) or high dose fluoride (HF- ) and given intrauterine injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)...
February 22, 2019: Scientific Reports
Clarence R Manuel, Mariam S Latuga, Charles R Ashby, Sandra E Reznik
BACKGROUND: Preterm delivery is associated with 85% of perinatal morbidity and mortality. While consumption of a high-fat diet leads to exaggerated pro-inflammatory responses and, in pregnant women, increased rates of spontaneous preterm birth, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to elucidate the mechanisms by which maternal consumption of a high fat diet leads to a dysregulated immune response and, in turn, spontaneous preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN: We performed 16s rRNA sequencing of stool samples and compared the gut microbiomes of lipopolysaccharide induced pregnant mice maintained on a high fat diet vs...
February 18, 2019: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Chenchen Zhang, Yixia Yang, Ruiying Chen, Youheng Wei, Youji Feng, Wenxin Zheng, Hong Liao, Zhenbo Zhang
Gestational diabetemellitus (GDM) is a condition whereby a mother's glucose tolerance is impaired with onset or first recognition during pregnancy which is not either type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress plays an essential role in diabetes, however, whether it also includes in GDM has not been fully clarified. Therefore, we investigated the changes of oxidative stress biomarkers and their relationship with pregnancy outcomes in patients with GDM. The serum and placenta were collected for absorbance-based assay and immunohistochemistry assay (IHC)...
2019: American Journal of Translational Research
Cathrine Fowler, Janet Green, Doug Elliott, Julia Petty, Lisa Whiting
AIMS: To explore the experiences of mothers of extremely premature babies during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit stay and transition home. BACKGROUND: Mothers of extremely preterm infants (28-weeks-or-less gestation) experience a continuum of regular and repeated stressful and traumatic events; during the perinatal period, while the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, and during transition home. METHOD: An interpretive description method guided this study...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Clinical Nursing
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