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gender discrimination

Shih-Chiang Huang, Kwai-Fong Ng, Ta-Sen Yeh, Chi-Tung Cheng, Jie-Sian Lin, Yu-Jen Liu, Huei-Chieh Chuang, Tse-Ching Chen
Limited studies investigated clinicopathological and prognostic significance of histologic and molecular subgroups of gastric cancer concurrently. We retrospectively enrolled 1,248 patients with gastric cancer who received radical gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy and classified these cases into the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated and microsatellite instability (MSI)-associated subtypes by EBV-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical stains for DNA mismatch repair proteins, respectively...
February 16, 2019: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Juri D Kropotov, Marina V Pronina, Valery A Ponomarev, Yury I Poliakov, Irina V Plotnikova, Andreas Mueller
OBJECTIVE: The main goal was to assess common and specific deficits of cognitive control in (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) ADHD and schizophrenia (SZ) using event-related potentials (ERPs). METHOD: Behavioral and EEG data in cued GO/NOGO task were recorded in 132 healthy controls (HC) and age, gender and education matched 63 ADHD adults, and 68 SZ patients. RESULTS: N2d wave in NOGO-GO contrast of ERPs did not differ between the groups while the P3d wave discriminated SZ group from two other groups...
February 10, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Jing Zhao, Shaopeng Gu, Adam McDermaid
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is prevalent across the world, and kidney function is well defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The progression of kidney disease can be predicted if the future eGFR can be accurately estimated using predictive analytics. In this study, we developed and validated a prediction model of eGFR by data extracted from a regional health system. This dataset includes demographic, clinical and laboratory information from primary care clinics. The model was built using Random Forest regression and evaluated using Goodness-of-fit statistics and discrimination metrics...
February 12, 2019: Mathematical Biosciences
Ranjit Manchanda, Matthew Burnell, Faiza Gaba, Saskia Sanderson, Kelly Loggenberg, Sue Gessler, Jane Wardle, Lucy Side, Rakshit Desai, Angela F Brady, Huw Dorkins, Yvonne Wallis, Cyril Chapman, Chris Jacobs, Ian Tomlinson, Uziel Beller, Usha Menon, Ian Jacobs
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate factors affecting unselected-population-based-BRCA-testing in Ashkenazi-Jews (AJ). DESIGN: Cohort-study set within recruitment to the GCaPPS-trial (ISRCTN73338115). SETTING: North-London AJ-population. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: AJ women/men >18-years, recruited through self-referral. METHODS: AJ-women/men underwent pre-test counselling for BRCA-testing through recruitment clinics (clusters)...
February 15, 2019: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Pierluca Coiro, Daniela D Pollak
Recent and rapidly developing movements relating to the increasing awareness and reports of gender bias, discrimination, and abuse have reached the academic environments. The consideration that negative attitudes toward women and abuse of power creates a hostile environment for female scientists, facilitating sexual harassment and driving women out of science, can be easily related to. Rationally inaccessible gender biases are not only evident at the level of the researchers, but are also paralleled by a corresponding imbalance at the level of the research subjects...
February 14, 2019: Translational Psychiatry
John Alexander Brooks, Christopher McCudden, Ari Breiner, Pierre R Bourque
OBJECTIVE: We set out to test the discriminative power of an age-adjusted upper reference limit for cerebrospinal fluid total protein (CSF-TP) in identifying clinically relevant causes of albuminocytological dissociation (ACD). METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 2627 patients who underwent a lumbar puncture at a tertiary care centre over a 20-year period. Samples with CSF-TP above 45 mg/dL (0.45 g/L) were included. Samples with white cell count >5×109 /L, red cell count >50×109 /L and glucose <2...
February 13, 2019: BMJ Open
Anne L Stangl, Valerie A Earnshaw, Carmen H Logie, Wim van Brakel, Leickness C Simbayi, Iman Barré, John F Dovidio
Stigma is a well-documented barrier to health seeking behavior, engagement in care and adherence to treatment across a range of health conditions globally. In order to halt the stigmatization process and mitigate the harmful consequences of health-related stigma (i.e. stigma associated with health conditions), it is critical to have an explicit theoretical framework to guide intervention development, measurement, research, and policy. Existing stigma frameworks typically focus on one health condition in isolation and often concentrate on the psychological pathways occurring among individuals...
February 15, 2019: BMC Medicine
Csilla Czimbalmos, Ibolya Csecs, Attila Toth, Orsolya Kiss, Ferenc Imre Suhai, Nora Sydo, Zsofia Dohy, Astrid Apor, Bela Merkely, Hajnalka Vago
BACKGROUND: We aimed to characterize gender specific left ventricular hypertrophy using a novel, accurate and less time demanding cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) quantification method to differentiate physiological hypertrophy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy based on a large population of highly trained athletes and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients. METHODS: Elite athletes (n = 150,>18 training hours/week), HCM patients (n = 194) and athletes with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 10) were examined by CMR...
2019: PloS One
Muhammad Shaheryar Ahmed Rajput, Ahmad Nawaz Ahmad, Asif Ali Arain, Mohammad Adeel, Saeed Akram, Muhammad Sohail Awan, Muhammad Ehsan Bari
Introduction Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are the most common benign neoplasms of a cerebellopontine angle (CPA), which arise from the Schwann cells of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Eighty percent of CPA tumors are VS followed by meningioma as the second common mass lesion in this critical potential space. Treatment options range from watchful waiting with serial imaging studies to radiosurgery or a microsurgical excision or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The primary objective of the study was to assess hearing and facial nerve status before and after the surgery via the retrosigmoid approach...
December 4, 2018: Curēus
Lee Kannis-Dymand, José M Salguero, Juan Ramos-Cejudo, Raymond W Novaco
OBJECTIVE: A validated, brief measure of anger is needed in clinical settings to screen for problematic anger. This study examined the validity of the seven-item Dimensions of Anger Reactions-Revised (DAR-R), including a version for the Spanish population. METHOD: Multiple psychometric instruments administered to 541 (76.6% female) adults in Australia and 1,115 (56.3% female) in Spain were analyzed. RESULTS: A two-factor model (anger response and anger impairment) was confirmed...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Tomasz Kolenda, Kacper Guglas, Anna Teresiak, Renata Bliźniak, Katarzyna Lamperska
INTRODUCTION: Head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most invasive types of cancer with high mortality. A previous study has indicated that low levels of let-7d and miR-205 in HNSCC patients are correlated with poor survival. Let-7d and miR-205 are tumor suppressors and regulators of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, it is unclear if let-7d and miR-205 together influence cancer cells. AIM: To determine if let-7d and miR-205 expression levels influence HNSCC patient outcome...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Christopher C Hemond, Bonnie I Glanz, Rohit Bakshi, Tanuja Chitnis, Brian C Healy
BACKGROUND: Serum hematological indices such as the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) or monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) have been used as biomarkers of pathogenic inflammation and prognostication in multiple areas of medicine; recent evidence shows correlation with psychological parameters as well. OBJECTIVES/AIMS: To characterize clinical, neuroimaging, and psycho-neuro-immunological associations with NLR and MLR in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We identified a large cohort of clinically well-defined patients from our longitudinal database that included MS-related outcomes, disease-modifying therapy, patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures, and quantified cerebral MRI at 1...
February 12, 2019: BMC Neurology
Maria Scavone, Elena Carboni, Ettore Stefanelli, Giusy Romano, Anna Vero, Laura Giancotti, Roberto Miniero, Valentina Talarico
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that discriminate between transient and permanent congenital hypothyroidism. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of 58 children with congenital hypothyroidism and eutopic thyroid gland. Gender, gestational age, birth weight, TSH and serum thyroxine levels at diagnosis and L-thyroxine dose at 12 and 24 months of age were analyzed. RESULTS: Median (IQR) initial TSH levels were 73.3 (276.5) µIU/mL in permanent hypothyroidism and 24...
December 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
Artem Platonov, Pietro Avanzini, Veronica Pelliccia, Giorgio LoRusso, Ivana Sartori, Guy A Orban
The anterior temporal lobe (ATL), located at the tip of the human temporal lobes, has been heavily implicated in semantic processing by neuropsychological and functional imaging studies. These techniques have revealed a hemispheric specialization of ATL, but little about the time scale on which it operates. Here we show that ATL is specifically activated in intracerebral recordings when subjects discriminate the gender of an actor presented in a static frame followed by a video. ATL recording sites respond briefly (100 ms duration) to the visual static presentation of an actor in a task-, but not in a stimulus-duration-dependent way...
2019: Communications biology
Sonia K Kang, Sarah Kaplan
Women's representation in science and medicine has slowly increased over the past few decades. However, this rise in numbers of women, or gender diversity, has not been matched by a rise in gender inclusion. Despite increasing representation, women still encounter bias and discrimination when compared with men in these fields across a variety of outcomes, including treatment at school and work, hiring, compensation, evaluation, and promotion. Individual and systemic biases create unwelcome environments for women, particularly for those who additionally identify with other traditionally devalued groups (eg, women of colour)...
February 9, 2019: Lancet
Pieter Dudal, Piet Bracke
Empirical research has consistently shown that overeducation is positively associated with depressive symptoms. However, little is known about the cross-national variation of this association. This study investigates the issue by examining how macro-economic factors and labor-market policies moderate the link between two objective measures of overeducation (the realized-matches and job-analyst methods) and depressive symptoms. Analysis is based on individual-level data from the European Social Survey, Rounds 3, 6, and 7 (N = 51,054)...
February 6, 2019: Health & Place
Heiko Gaßner, Cecilia Raccagni, Bjoern M Eskofier, Jochen Klucken, Gregor K Wenning
Background: Differentiating idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) from atypical Parkinsonian disorders (APD) is challenging, especially in early disease stages. Postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD) are substantial motor impairments of IPD and APD. Clinical evidence implies that patients with APD have larger PIGD impairment than IPD patients. Sensor-based gait analysis as instrumented bedside test revealed more gait deficits in APD compared to IPD. However, the diagnostic value of instrumented bedside tests compared to clinical assessments in differentiating APD from IPD patients have not been evaluated so far...
2019: Frontiers in Neurology
Alexandra Witze
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Nature
Daniel Cruz, Yubelky Rodriguez, Christina Mastropaolo
The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Microaggressions in Health Care Scale (MHCS), including factor structure, measurement invariance, and internal consistency reliability. We used a cross-sectional research design to study perceived racial microaggressions, discrimination, and mental health in 296 African American and Latino respondents. Participants completed measures that assess healthcare microaggressions and daily discrimination as well as the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21)...
2019: PloS One
Ariella R Tabaac, Eric G Benotsch, Andrew J Barnes
PURPOSE: Sexual minority women (SMW) are vulnerable to cervical cancer, yet there is a dearth of research on potential mediators of cervical cancer disparities. Medical heterosexism, which involves sexual orientation-based discrimination in medical contexts, and provider-patient communication quality and trust in providers may be important factors influencing the cancer prevention decisions of SMW. The purpose of this study was to examine how provider-patient communication quality, trust in providers, and perceived medical heterosexism are associated with cervical cancer screening among SMW...
February 5, 2019: LGBT Health
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