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Giulia Russo, Claudio Bilato
Although equivalent (generic) medicinal products have been introduced in the Italian market since decades, Italy is still among the latest for prescription of equivalent medicinal products. Several reasons may explain this behavior such as a scant familiarity with equivalent medicinal products, a general skepticism toward "not branded-named" medications and an "indolent laziness" both by specialists and general practitioners. Yet, the wider use of the generic drug could: (i) save economical resources for the National and Regional Health Services and allow to allocate them in clinical research and development of new therapies; (ii) reduce the economic burden for the patients by saving the brand drug-related co-payments, especially if they are on polytherapy...
February 2019: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
Maria Kosma, David R Buchanan
The purpose of this phronetic/pragmatic, mixed-methods study was to integrate quantitative data with qualitative data in examining the complex relations among depression, exercise, screen-viewing time, and life plans among 14 socioeconomically disadvantaged African American young adults. Based on the thematic analysis, the two emerging themes were as follows: life priorities (passing the General Educational Development [GED] test, pursuing profession/career, and being dedicated to church/ministry) and challenges in passing GED examination (e...
February 11, 2019: International Quarterly of Community Health Education
Manbachan Singh Bedi, Tanmay Bhavthankar, G Malleswara Rao, K Jagadeesh Babu, Vimala Ambati, Varun Jonalgadda, Elizabeth Ogando-Rivas, Kamesh Konchada, J Chaitanya, Aravind Jvnk
OBJECTIVE: The art of surgery is becoming perpetually complex and dependent on scopes, screens and technology, inviting a complex learning curve and development of hand eye coordination and dexterity amongst other skills.We introduce an affordable, DIY microsurgical simulator which can be setup using a smartphone & a pair of reflective prism glasses. The glasses employ, periscopic prisms on either side which reflect light perpendicularly. When the visual input is combined with the magnification of a smartphone camera...
February 1, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Rebecca L Pearl, Thomas A Wadden, Ariana M Chao, Naji Alamuddin, Robert I Berkowitz, Olivia Walsh, Kelly C Allison, Jena Shaw Tronieri
Obesity is a complex disease caused by a wide array of behavioral, biological, and environmental factors. However, obesity is often attributed to oversimplified and stigmatizing causal factors such as laziness, lack of willpower, and failure to take personal responsibility for one's health. Understanding of the causal factors that contribute to obesity among people with obesity may affect their weight management efforts. The current study explored associations between causal attributions for obesity and long-term weight loss, as well as examined potential changes in attributions with weight reduction...
January 18, 2019: Behavioral Medicine
Neil McHugh, Rachel Baker, Olga Biosca, Fatma Ibrahim, Cam Donaldson
BACKGROUND: Health inequalities in the UK have proved to be stubborn, and health gaps between best and worst-off are widening. While there is growing understanding of how the main causes of poor health are perceived among different stakeholders, similar insight is lacking regarding what solutions should be prioritised. Furthermore, we do not know the relationship between perceived causes and solutions to health inequalities, whether there is agreement between professional stakeholders and people living in low-income communities or agreement within these groups...
January 14, 2019: BMC Health Services Research
Margarida Faria, Ricardo Marín, Marija Popović, Ivan Maza, Antidio Viguria
Exploring large, unknown, and unstructured environments is challenging for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), but they are valuable tools to inspect large structures safely and efficiently. The Lazy Theta* path-planning algorithm is revisited and adapted to generate paths fast enough to be used in real time and outdoors in large 3D scenarios. In real unknown scenarios, a given minimum safety distance to the nearest obstacle or unknown space should be observed, increasing the associated obstacle detection queries, and creating a bottleneck in the path-planning algorithm...
January 5, 2019: Sensors
Bartosz Ogórek
This study finds that a positive association between stature and academic performance measured by the grades for various subjects, the height-school premium, was present in a historical sample of 147 school boys attending a gymnasium (public secondary school) in Cracow, Poland, between the wars. This effect persists when controlling for a set of demographic and socio-economic variables, though the strength of the relationship is modest (0.018 higher average grade for Polish, 0.014 for mathematics, 0.016 for art, and 0...
December 21, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
Ankit Sachan, Shyam Kamal, Devender Singh, Xiaogang Xiong
A new approach for asymptotic stabilization of a general input-affine nonlinear system is presented. This relies upon the results of Matrosov's theorem to decompose the nth dimensional space. The construction of the [K,KL] sector for a nonlinear system is done with the suitable choice of control-Lyapunov function. The study of a nonlinear system is viewed from the perspective of comparison function for uniformity in solution. By means of designed sector, we design a switching controller which is well suited in the condition that shows its presence only outside of [K,KL] sector...
December 14, 2018: ISA Transactions
Stephen R Latham
Early in 2018, the Trump administration's Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services issued a guidance letter outlining a new and controversial kind of Medicaid waiver proposal. The administration invited states to propose waivers that would impose work (or other "community engagement") requirements as a condition of eligibility for Medicaid. The Trump administration and state proponents of work requirements want to force able-bodied Medicaid beneficiaries into the workplace. Critics allege that this is because they mistakenly believe that low-income individuals are not working because they're lazy or because aid programs provide them with a disincentive to work...
November 2018: Hastings Center Report
Yu-Zu Wu, Jia-Yi Lin, Pei-Ling Wu, Ying-Fen Kuo
AIM: Physical inactivity can cause physical frailty and sarcopenia. We investigated the effects of a hybrid intervention combining commercial exergaming with physical therapy, and clarified the reasons for physical inactivity among older adults. METHODS: This was a pilot study of older participants recruited from a long-term care facility assigned to either an experimental or a control group. The experimental group received a 90-min hybrid intervention twice a week for 12 weeks, whereas the control group received only assessment...
December 6, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Mathias Roberto Loch, Paulo Henrique Guerra
This essay aims to suggest food for thought on discrepancies between scientific evidence on physical inactivity and the associated factors and determinants and information communicated by the media on this topic. We specifically examine a case in which "laziness" was used as the "explanatory" factor for the high levels of physical inactivity in the Brazilian population. We use as examples a scientific article published in Nature and two news stories published in mainstream Brazilian media channels (Veja magazine and O Globo newspaper) that commented on the former...
November 29, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Ahmad B A Hassanat
Big data classification is very slow when using traditional machine learning classifiers, particularly when using a lazy and slow-by-nature classifier such as the k-nearest neighbors algorithm (KNN). This paper proposes a new approach which is based on sorting the feature vectors of training data in a binary search tree to accelerate big data classification using the KNN approach. This is done using two methods, both of which utilize two local points to sort the examples based on their similarity to these local points...
2018: PloS One
Eri Ishikawa, Yasuhiro Takahashi, Hirohiko Kakizaki
The Lazy-T procedure is used to correct moderate-to-severe punctal ectropion in the lower eyelid. It includes full-thickness wedge resection of the medial lower eyelid and horizontal tarso-conjunctival diamond excision inferior to the lower punctum. However, the skin wound vertical to the relaxed skin tension lines is often conspicuous and horizontal excision of a part of the tarsus may impair function of the meibomian gland. In this study, the authors developed a modified Lazy-T procedure, which includes subciliary incision, pentagonal tarso-conjunctival resection, and medial spindle excision for submerging the vertical wound after suturing the pentagonal tarso-conjunctival resection under the skin flap and minimizing damage to the tarsus...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Carolina Corchuelo-Maíllo, Irene Cienfuegos-Belmonte, Enrique Argüelles-Salido, Pedro Campoy-Martínez, Rafael Antonio Medina-López
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patient compliance with treatment for urinary lithiasis and to detect differences in adherence, causes of this behavior and associated factors. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 93 patients with positive urinary metabolic study (UMS) for lithogenic pathology, diagnosed between 2013 and 2015, gathering data from the digital medical records and a structured telephonic questionnaire in 75 of them. Results were analyzed using the X2 test...
November 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Ali Asghar Habibi, Mahdia Gholami, Ahmad Reza Shamshiri
OBJECTIVES: Nowadays traditional training methods for promotion of oral health behaviors cannot meet the demand of the society and there is a need for effective new methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of social marketing approach versus the traditional method on promotion of tooth brushing habits in primary school students of Kahak and Jafariyeh, Qom, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted in the 2016-2017 academic year. First, the reasons for lack of interest in proper tooth brushing were evaluated...
2018: PloS One
Gail Geller, Paul A Watkins
Context: Negative bias toward patients with obesity is an ethical challenge in patient care. Several interventions to mitigate medical students' negative weight bias have been tried but none with an explicit focus on ethics. Here we describe first-year medical students' attitudes toward obesity and our effort to improve their attitudes through an innovative ethics session embedded within the required course, "Obesity, Nutrition, and Behavior Change," at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine...
October 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Yijun Wang, Yali Wang, Jia Zhao, Jiayu Huang, Yining Shi, Dexiang Deng
We report coding and long noncoding RNAs in maize upon phytohormone gibberellin stimulation. Plant hormone gibberellin (GA) orchestrates various facets of biological processes. Dissection the transcriptomic dynamics upon GA stimulation has biological significance. Feature of maize transcriptome in response to GA application remains largely elusive. Herein, two types of plants, one was with normal height, the other was GA-sensitive dwarfism, were selected from advanced backcross population for GA3 treatment with different concentrations...
November 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Nghia Tuan Duong, Jayasubba Reddy Yarava, Julien Trébosc, Yusuke Nishiyama, Jean-Paul Amoureux
The combination of cross-polarization (CP) with flip-back (FB) pulse has enabled in NMR the enhancement of 13C sensitivity and the decrease of the recycling delay at both moderate and fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) frequencies. However, only continuous-wave (CW) decoupling is presently compatible with FB-pulse (FB-CW), and depending on the CW radio-frequency (rf) field, either an insignificant sensitivity gain or an acquisition time-dependent gain and a low 13C resolution are obtained. In this study, we propose a new FB-pulse method in which radio frequency-driven recoupling (RFDR) is used as the 1H-13C decoupling scheme to overcome these drawbacks...
October 17, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Josephine Changole, Ursula Kafulafula, Johanne Sundby, Viva Thorsen
It is well-documented that obstetric fistula, a severe birth injury, is caused by a prolonged obstructed labour that has not been relieved on time. Lay people often understand causation differently. This study sought to explore the awareness and local meanings attached to obstetric fistula in the rural parts of Malawi. We conducted interviews with key informants and focus group discussions with community members in purposively selected communities in the central region of Malawi. We categorised data using Nvivo 10 and conducted a thematic analysis...
October 3, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
H Reddon, Y Patel, M Turcotte, M Pigeyre, D Meyre
The recent global obesity epidemic is attributed to major societal and environmental changes, such as excessive energy intake and sedentary lifestyle. However, exposure to 'obesogenic' environments does not necessarily result in obesity at the individual level, as 40-75% of body mass index variation in population is attributed to genetic differences. The thrifty genotype theory posits that genetic variants promoting efficient food sequestering and optimal deposition of fat during periods of food abundance were evolutionarily advantageous for the early hunter-gatherer and were positively selected...
September 27, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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