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Abbas Agaimy
A variety of soft tissue and visceral neoplasms have been associated with constitutional symptoms and signs including fever, fatigue, arthritis and laboratory abnormalities such as elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leukocytosis with marked neutrophilia, anemia, thrombocytosis and others. This review addresses three main neoplastic categories that are associated with specific paraneoplastic phenomena: (1) neoplasms having in common the presence of diffuse mixed inflammatory infiltration (closely simulating an inflammatory pseudotumor) and frequently associated with constitutional symptoms; (2) neoplasms with undifferentiated, anaplastic or rhabdoid cell morphology (frequently SWI/SNF-deficient) associated with diverse paraneoplastic manifestations; and (3) paraneoplasia associated with neoplasms carrying specific gene fusions such as solitary fibrous tumor (STAT6-NAB2 gene fusions), infantile fibrosarcoma and congenital mesoblastic nephroma (ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusions), and angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (EWSR1-CREB1 & EWSR1-ATF1 fusions)...
February 20, 2019: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Mark R Wick, James W Patterson
A variety of cutaneous abnormalities can be seen in patients with malignant diseases, some of which are infectious, with others representing direct involvement of the skin by the underlying disorder. Yet another group of lesions can be regarded as associated markers of the malignant process, and, as such, are termed "paraneoplastic." This review considers the latter collection of conditions, grouping them by the generic type of malignancy that is usually linked to the paraneoplasia. Some of the processes show a predominant association with alimentary tract malignancies (acanthosis nigricans, acrodermatitis paraneoplastica, florid cutaneous papillomatosis, necrolytic migratory erythema, palmoplantar keratoderma, pancreatic fat necrosis, and pityriasis rotunda)...
January 31, 2019: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Anna Maria Anderson, Tanja Todberg, Kristian Kofoed, Trine Zeeberg Iversen, Martin Andersen, Sofie Vetli Hjorth, Daniel El Fassi
A 59-year-old woman developed a rash and severe arthralgia, which primarily affected her fingers. She displayed digital arthritis and nodules on the hands, chest, face, and oral cavity. Blood samples were normal. Skin biopsies revealed histiocytic proliferation. The surface marker profile and clinical findings were consistent with multicentric reticulohistiocytosis, which may occur as a paraneoplastic phenomenon. On workup, she was diagnosed with an otherwise asymptomatic stage IVC fallopian tube cancer. She experienced little effect of prednisolone, but her condition improved on antineoplastic treatment...
January 1, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Sebastian Zundler, Deike Strobel, Bernhard Manger, Markus F Neurath, Dane Wildner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Polyarthritis can have numerous reasons and may thus constitute a challenge for differential diagnosis. One rare potential reason for sterile polyarthritis is underlying pancreatic disease with systemic hyperlipasemia, most often accompanied by painful skin lesions caused by a subcutaneous inflammatory process known as panniculitis. Systematic evidence on pancreatic panniculitis and polyarthritis is limited, particularly regarding its feature as facultative paraneoplasia with underlying intra- or even extra-pancreatic malignancy...
August 26, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
Joseph R Kallini, Khosro Sadeghani, Amor Khachemoune
Palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) is a dermatosis that presents as hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles. It may be acquired or heritable. Acquired PPK often occurs as a paraneoplastic response as well as a stigma of other dermatoses. We report a rare case of a 72-year-old woman with acquired PPK secondary to metastatic uterine adenocarcinoma. We also review other rare cases of cutaneous paraneoplasia secondary to uterine cancer and describe the salient features of acquired PPK. Acquired PPK most commonly presents as a paraneoplastic response to visceral malignancies that include localized esophageal, pulmonary, urinary/bladder, and gastric carcinomas, as well as myeloma...
March 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
Zeynep Özözen Ayas, Dilcan Kotan, Yeşim Güzey Aras
INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune neurological syndrome is a group of disorders caused by cancer affecting nervous system by different immunological mechanisms. In this study, we aim to study the clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings, autoantibody tests, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs and treatment outcome of patients with autoimmune syndromes. METHODS: In this study, 7 patients (4 male, 3 female) diagnosed with autoimmune neurological syndrome were retrospectively examined...
October 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Taimour Alam, Alexander StJ E Barker, James J P Alix, Marios Hadjivassiliou, Dasappaiah G Rao
BACKGROUND: Sensory ganglionopathy (SG) is characterised by asymmetrical sensory fibre degeneration, with the primary pathology occurring at the level of the dorsal root ganglion. It is seen in the context of autoimmune, paraneoplastic, and degenerative disorders. There is limited literature examining the electrophysiological correlate of the trigeminal ganglion and associated pathways, the blink reflex (BR), in cases of SG. Previous work has suggested that the BR is preserved in cases of SG associated with paraneoplasia...
May 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Denis Miyashiro, Jose A Sanches
Paraneoplastic disorders are manifestations of internal malignancies without the direct action of the tumor. Its pathogenesis involves production of substances that interfere with cellular activity of distant tissues. Paraneoplasias may be the first sign of cancer, and clinicians should be familiarized with its manifestations in order to perform an early diagnosis of the underlying neoplasm. The aim of this review was to describe most common paraneoplastic skin diseases.
February 2016: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Frank A Giordano, Grit Welzel, Yasser Abo-Madyan, Frederik Wenz
Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) with total doses of 20-30 Gy reduces the incidence of brain metastasis (BM) and increases survival of patients with limited and extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) that showed any response to chemotherapy. PCI is currently not applied in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) since it has not proven to significantly improve OS rates in stage IIIA/B, although novel data suggest that subgroups that could benefit may exist. Here we briefly review potential toxicities of PCI which have to be considered before prescribing PCI...
December 2012: Translational Lung Cancer Research
L Kofler, H Kofler
BACKGROUND: Bazex's syndrome is a rare paraneoplasia that is usually associated with cancer. DIAGNOSIS: Characteristic for the disease are diffuse, psoriasis-like, acral erythema, distal hyperkeratosis and onychodystrophy. Differential diagnoses comprise psoriasis, eczema and tinea. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 73-year-old man with acral hyperkeratosis, onychodystrophy, and diffuse palmar erythema. Gastric carcinoma was diagnosed by gastroscopy...
July 2015: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Kayo Okada, Yuichiro Endo, Akihiro Fujisawa, Miki Tanioka, Kenji Kabashima, Yoshiki Miyachi
Seborrheic dermatitis is an inflammatory eruption that tends to distribute on the sebaceous areas of the body and is rarely described as a paraneoplasia. Here we report a case with a responsive seborrheic dermatitis-like eruption of the head which resulted in generalized erythroderma. Intensive examinations detected concurrent malignant lymphoma.
September 2014: Case Reports in Dermatology
Louis Chesler
Paraneoplasia literally means conditions adjacent to, or associated with, abnormal cancerous tissue growth. In this Comment article, I discuss what the immune-mediated paraneoplasias teach us about the immune response and cancer development.
July 2014: Nature Reviews. Cancer
A Summa, A Squarcia, F Ormitti, E Ventura, D Cerasti, A Todeschini, G Crisi
Acute cerebellitis is an inflammatory process commonly involving both cerebellar hemispheres. Bilateral cerebellar hemispheres involvement is the most common finding. It typically occurs as a primary infectious, post-infectious or post-vaccination disorder, but is also a disease entity with heterogeneous pathogenesis including paraneoplasia. Acute cerebellitis is usually a benign, self-limiting and rarely fatal disease. Typically, cerebellar atrophy is a late consequence of the syndrome. We describe the radiological features of a case of pseudotumoural hemicerebellitis with emphasis on MRI and spectroscopy findings as non-invasive diagnostic tools to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures...
August 29, 2009: Neuroradiology Journal
E Scholz, D Trebing, S Knipping
BACKGROUND: Malignant tumors occur in up to 15 % of patients with paraneoplastic syndromes. The temporal association between malignancy and paraneoplasia is variable. Dermatomyositis belongs to the facultative cutaneous paraneoplasia. CASE REPORT: A patient presented with a cervical swelling and preexisting dermatomyositis. Staging revealed a tonsillar carcinoma with cervical, mediastinal and bone metastasis, and meningeal carcinomatosis. Systemic intrathecal chemotherapy was initiated...
April 2014: HNO
Sven Gläsker, Marie T Krüger, Jan-Helge Klingler, Marcin Wlodarski, Julia Klompen, Bawarjan Schatlo, Beate Hippchen, Hartmut P H Neumann, Vera Van Velthoven
BACKGROUND: Neurogenic polyglobulia occurs with central nervous system hemangioblastomas. Among the suggested mechanisms are extramedullary hematopoiesis in the tumor tissue and germline mutations of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and driving mechanisms of polyglobulia in central nervous system hemangioblastomas. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of pre- and postoperative (at 3 and 12 months) hemoglobin levels in a consecutive series of patients with hemangioblastomas operated on in our institution from 1996 to 2009...
June 2013: Neurosurgery
Jean-Christophe Antoine, Jean-Philippe Camdessanché
Paraneoplastic disorders of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are the most frequent manifestation of paraneoplasia. As with the central nervous system, two categories of immune mechanisms are distinguished. On one side, antibodies toward intracellular antigens (HuD and CV2-CRMP5) occur with subacute sensory neuronopathy or sensorimotor neuropathy probably depending on a T cell mediated disorder (group 1). On the other side, the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (PNH) occur with antibodies to cell membrane antigens, respectively, the voltage gated calcium channel and CASPR2 proteins, which are responsible for the disease (group 2)...
April 2013: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Caterina Fabroni, Antonia Gimma, Carla Cardinali, Giovanni Lo Scocco
Tripe palms (TP) is a rare dermatologic condition. TP alone, or associated with malignant acanthosis nigricans (MAN), in most cases is a cutaneous paraneoplastic disorder and its recognition should prompt a full diagnostic work-up for an underlying malignancy. We report a case of a patient in whom the correct identification of TP and MAN has allowed early diagnosis of gastric cancer. Paraneoplasias are frequently the first sign of an underlying malignant tumor. Although relatively rare, they need to be recognized by dermatologists to make an early diagnosis and improve the prognosis related to the neoplasia...
November 15, 2012: Dermatology Online Journal
R Bouchentouf, A Benjelloun, M A Aitbenasser
Digital ulcers usually reflect focal ischemia due to a microangiopathy, its causes are diverse. In women, it first suggests a connective tissue disease whereas in men, a diffuse arteriopathy. Acral ischemia till necrosis is a rare form of a paraneoplasia. We report about a man with a metastatic lung cancer revealed by digital ulcers. In front of digital necrosis, haemopathy or cancer must be searched in the absence of iatrogenic cause, occupational diseases, atherosclerosis or systemic disease.
December 2012: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
B B Okel, C E Thirkill, K Anderson
Paraneoplastic syndromes pose some of the most baffling clinical presentations encountered in medicine. Brain degenerations with accompanying dementia, peripheral neuritis and the Eaton-Lambert myasthenia gravis syndrome comprise a few examples of the clinical conditions which manifest as remote expressions of cancer. The uncontrolled expression of key proteins by cancers is thought responsible for inciting autoimmune reactions which affect the corresponding component within the host. Paraneoplastic retinopathies have been reported to occur in association with a variety of different types of cancer...
1995: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
C Stelzner, F Zimmermann, S M Schellong
HISTORY AND ADMISSION FINDINGS: A 59-year-old man was admitted with an acral necrosis of the left 3rd finger, which had developed during several weeks. Furthermore, the patient complained of diarrhoea. INVESTIGATIONS: Acral light plethysmography showed critical ischemia of digitus II and V, and impaired distal perfusion of digitus I and IV. Duplex sonography revealed atherosclerotic plaques in the supraaortal vessels with stenosis of the left axillary artery which was confirmed by ultrasound...
April 2012: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
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