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Cognitive skills infants

Deborah J Fidler, Emily Schworer, Mark A Prince, Elizabeth A Will, Amy W Needham, Lisa A Daunhauer
Infants learn about objects by exploring them. Typically developing infants actively explore objects through visual, manual, and oral modalities. Attenuated exploratory behavior has been observed in various neurodevelopmental disorders, including Down syndrome (DS), presumably limiting learning options. However, a direct link between exploration and overall developmental functioning has not been characterized. This study used a Latent Profile Analysis framework to examine within-syndrome variability in exploratory behavior in infants with DS and the developmental correlates of different exploratory behavior profiles...
February 18, 2019: Infant Behavior & Development
Joseph Alvin R Santos, Anthea Christoforou, Kathy Trieu, Briar L McKenzie, Shauna Downs, Laurent Billot, Jacqui Webster, Mu Li
BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) affect close to 1.9 billion people worldwide, and are a major public health concern in many countries. Among children, iodine deficiency is the main cause of potentially preventable deficits of central nervous system development and impairment of cognitive function, as well as goitre and hypothyroidism in people of all ages. Salt iodisation is the preferred strategy for IDD prevention and control, however, in some instances where salt is not the major condiment, alternate vehicles for iodine fortification have been considered...
February 12, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Stephanie So, Catherine Patterson, Anna Gold, Alaine Rogers, Christina Belza, Nicole de Silva, Yaron Avitzur, Paul W Wales
BACKGROUND: Survival rates of infants with intestinal failure (IF) are increasing, yet multiple medical factors may impact development. AIMS: This study examines neurodevelopmental outcomes at 12-15 and 26-32 months corrected age in a cohort of children with IF. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective single centre neurodevelopmental assessments of children admitted to an intestinal rehabilitation program between 2011 and 2013. Outcome measures include: Mullen Scales of Early Learning (12 and 26 months), and Vineland-II Adaptive Behaviour Scales - Caregiver Report (26 months)...
January 16, 2019: Early Human Development
Anna Gergely, Eszter Petró, Katalin Oláh, József Topál
We tested whether dogs and 14⁻16-month-old infants are able to integrate intersensory information when presented with conspecific and heterospecific faces and vocalisations. The looking behaviour of dogs and infants was recorded with a non-invasive eye-tracking technique while they were concurrently presented with a dog and a female human portrait accompanied with acoustic stimuli of female human speech and a dog's bark. Dogs showed evidence of both con- and heterospecific intermodal matching, while infants' looking preferences indicated effective auditory⁻visual matching only when presented with the audio and visual stimuli of the non-conspecifics...
January 7, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Karianne E Kraft, Suzanne E Verhage, Anne E den Heijer, Arend F Bos
BACKGROUND: Surviving preterm born children, postnatally exposed to high doses of dexamethasone, show an increased risk of neurodevelopmental impairments. Regarding treatment with low doses of dexamethasone, no data exist on outcomes at school age. AIM: To assess the functional outcome at school age of preterm-born children treated with low-dose dexamethasone. STUDY DESIGN: In this cohort study, twenty-seven very preterm-born infants treated with dexamethasone from eight days after birth, underwent neuropsychological assessments at age 6-13 years...
December 28, 2018: Early Human Development
Clara Aviles, Patricia Madariaga, Katya Reinbach Hoffman
INTRODUCTION: Monitoring of extremely preterm infants of school age reveals poor development of neuropsychological functions, compared to their full term peers. OBJECTIVE: To compare the neurop sychological functions of schoolchildren with history of extreme prematurity and full term children of the same age. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Non-experimental, cross-sectional research. Forty-three pre term children who born weighting less than 1,500 g and/or less than 32 weeks of gestational age and a control group made up of forty full-term children, classmates of the sample group were included...
August 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Marco Infante, Barry Sears, Angela Maria Rizzo, Daniela Mariani Cerati, Massimiliano Caprio, Camillo Ricordi, Andrea Fabbri
INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by abnormal development of cognitive, social, and communicative skills. Although ASD aetiology and pathophysiology are still unclear, various nutritional factors have been investigated as potential risk factors for ASD development, including omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and vitamin D deficiency. In fact, both omega-3 PUFAs and vitamin D are important for brain development and function...
December 13, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Josephine Nabugoomu, Gloria K Seruwagi, Kitty Corbett, Edward Kanyesigye, Susan Horton, Rhona Hanning
For adolescent mothers in rural Eastern Uganda, nutrition and health may be compromised by many factors. Identifying individual and environmental needs and barriers at local levels is important to inform community-based interventions. This qualitative study used interviews based on constructs from social cognitive theory. 101 adolescent mothers, family members, health-related personnel and community workers in Budondo sub-county (Jinja district), eastern Uganda were interviewed. Young mothers had needs, related to going back to school, home-based small businesses; social needs, care support and belonging to their families, employment, shelter, clothing, personal land and animals, medical care and delivery materials...
December 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jessica Bradshaw, Scott Gillespie, Cheryl Klaiman, Ami Klin, Celine Saulnier
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder and average IQ exhibit a widening discrepancy between lagging adaptive skills relative to their cognitive potential, but it is unknown when this discrepancy emerges in development. To address this important question, we measured adaptive and cognitive skills longitudinally, from 12-36 months, in 96 low-risk typically developing infants and 69 high-risk siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder who at 36 months were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder ( N = 21), the broader autism phenotype ( N = 19), or showed no concerns (unaffected; N = 29)...
December 7, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Jean R Lowe, Janell F Fuller, Barbara T Do, Betty R Vohr, Abhik Das, Susan R Hintz, Kristi L Watterberg, Rosemary D Higgins
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship of parent-reported child behaviors on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to cognition, language, and motor skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - III (Bayley-III) in toddlers born extremely preterm. STUDY DESIGN: Toddlers born extremely preterm (gestational ages 22 0/7 to 26 6/7 weeks) were tested at 22-26 months corrected age with Bayley-III while parents completed the CBCL. Socio-demographic variables and medical history were recorded...
December 3, 2018: Early Human Development
Namirembe J Kazibwe, Phani S Veeranki, Karen E Smith
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate for decline in cognitive scores from 12 to 24 months of age for preterm infants ≤32 weeks gestational age for those with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia. STUDY DESIGN: In an observational retrospective study, detailed medical data was collected from the electronic medical records of preterm infants born between January 2009 and December 2015 who had cognitive evaluations using Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd ed (BISD-3) at 12 months corrected gestational age and 24 months chronological age...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Sudha M Srinivasan, Anjana N Bhat
Our study compared means-end exploration in infants at risk (AR) for autism and typically developing (TD) infants using a nested box paradigm. Sixteen AR and 16 TD infants were observed at 9, 12, and 15 months with follow-up at 18 and 24 months. We collected video data on three tasks involving retrieval of a small toy by opening (a) an opaque box, (b) a transparent box, and (c) two nested boxes. Dependent variables included hand bias, time to completion, bilateral hand use, problem-solving strategies used, and tester assistance required...
December 3, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Forgive Avorgbedor, Susan Silva, Elizabeth Merwin, James A Blumenthal, Diane Holditch-Davis
OBJECTIVE: To compare the health, physical growth, and developmental outcomes in preterm infants of women with and without hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of health outcomes; physical growth (head circumference, height, and weight) collected at birth and 2 months, corrected for prematurity; and cognitive, language, and motor skills of preterm infants of women with and without HDP. SETTING: Four NICUs in the United States...
January 2019: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
Courtney E Venker
Numerous experimental studies have shown that infants and children can discover word meanings by using co-occurrences between labels and objects across individually ambiguous contexts-a phenomenon known as cross-situational learning. Like typically developing children, high-functioning school aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are capable of cross-situational learning. However, it is not yet clear whether cross-situational learning is similarly available to children with ASD who are younger and show a broader range of language and cognitive abilities...
November 20, 2018: Cognition
D J Fidler, E Schworer, E A Will, L Patel, L A Daunhauer
BACKGROUND: While delays in cognitive development are detectable during early development in Down syndrome, the neuropsychological and biomedical underpinnings of cognitive skill acquisition in this population remain poorly understood. METHOD: To explore this issue, 38 infants with Down syndrome [mean chronological age = 9.65 months; SD = 3.64] completed the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III and a set of laboratory tasks that measured sustained attention (duration of visual attention during a 1-min object exploration task), attention shifting (mean latency to shift attention on an alternating object presentation task) and visual short-term memory (dishabituation to a novel object on a change preference task)...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Christophe Emmanuel de Bézenac, Rachel Ann Swindells, Rhiannon Corcoran
While distinguishing between the actions and physical boundaries of self and other (non-self) is usually straightforward there are contexts in which such differentiation is challenging. For example, self-other ambiguity may occur when actions of others are similar or complementary to those of the self. Even in the absence of such situational challenges, individuals experiencing hallucinations have difficulties with this distinction, often experiencing thoughts or actions of self as belonging to other agents...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Dani Levine, Daphna Buchsbaum, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Roberta M Golinkoff
Event segmentation is a fundamental process of human cognition that organizes the continuous flux of activity into discrete, hierarchical units. The mechanism of event segmentation in infants seems to parallel the mechanism studied in adults, which centers on action predictability. Statistical learning appears to bootstrap infants' event segmentation by generating action predictions without relying on prior knowledge. Infants' first-hand experiences with goal-directed actions further enhance their prediction of others' actions...
November 6, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Lorraine E Bahrick, James Torrence Todd, Kasey C Soska
Multisensory attention skills provide a crucial foundation for early cognitive, social, and language development, yet there are no fine-grained, individual difference measures of these skills appropriate for preverbal children. The Multisensory Attention Assessment Protocol (MAAP) fills this need. In a single video-based protocol requiring no language skills, the MAAP assesses individual differences in three fundamental building blocks of attention to multisensory events-the duration of attention maintenance, the accuracy of intersensory (audiovisual) matching, and the speed of shifting-for both social and nonsocial events, in the context of high and low competing visual stimulation...
December 2018: Developmental Psychology
Jessica B Girault, Emil Cornea, Barbara D Goldman, Rebecca C Knickmeyer, Martin Styner, John H Gilmore
White matter (WM) integrity has been related to cognitive ability in adults and children, but it remains largely unknown how WM maturation in early life supports emergent cognition. The associations between tract-based measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial and radial diffusivity (AD, RD) shortly after birth, at age 1, and at age 2 and cognitive measures at 1 and 2 years were investigated in 447 healthy infants. We found that generally higher FA and lower AD and RD across many WM tracts in the first year of life were associated with better performance on measures of general cognitive ability, motor, language, and visual reception skills at ages 1 and 2, suggesting an important role for the overall organization, myelination, and microstructural properties of fiber pathways in emergent cognition...
October 24, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Lorraine E Bahrick, Kasey C Soska, James Torrence Todd
Detecting intersensory redundancy guides cognitive, social, and language development. Yet, researchers lack fine-grained, individual difference measures needed for studying how early intersensory skills lead to later outcomes. The intersensory processing efficiency protocol (IPEP) addresses this need. Across a number of brief trials, participants must find a sound-synchronized visual target event (social, nonsocial) amid five visual distractor events, simulating the "noisiness" of natural environments...
December 2018: Developmental Psychology
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