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Rapid malaria test

Francois Kiemde, Massa Dit Achille Bonko, Marc Christian Tahita, Petra F Mens, Halidou Tinto, Henk D F H Schallig, Michael Boele van Hensbroek
BACKGROUND: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) have limitations due to the persistence of histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) antigen after treatment and low sensitivity of Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) based RDTs. To improve the diagnosis of malaria in febrile children, two diagnostic algorithms, based on sequential interpretation of a malaria rapid diagnostic test detecting two different targets of Plasmodium species and followed by expert microscopy, were evaluated. METHODS: Two diagnostic algorithms were evaluated using 407 blood samples collected between April and October 2016 from febrile children and the diagnostic accuracy of both algorithms was determined...
2019: PloS One
Nopphol Witvorapong, Kolo Yaro Yakubu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a program of antimalarial interventions implemented in 2010-2013 in Niger State, Nigeria. DATA SOURCES: Utilization reports from 99 intervention and 51 non-intervention health facilities from the Niger State Malaria Elimination Program, supplemented by data on facility-level characteristics from the Niger State Primary Health Care Development Agency and Local Government Malaria Control units. STUDY DESIGN: Estimated with mixed-effects negative binomial modeling, a difference-in-differences method was used to quantify the impact of the program on the number of febrile illness cases and confirmed malaria cases...
February 10, 2019: Health Services Research
Tamaki Kobayashi, Jay Sikalima, Jonathan B Parr, Mike Chaponda, Jennifer C Stevenson, Philip E Thuma, Modest Mulenga, Steven R Meshnick, William J Moss, For The Southern And Central Africa International Centers Of Excellence For Malaria Research
We attempted to identify Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2/3 ( pfhrp2/3 ) deletions among rapid diagnostic test (RDT)-negative but PCR- or microscopy-positive P. falciparum -infected individuals in areas of low transmission (Choma District, 2009-2011) and high transmission (Nchelenge District, 2015-2017) in Zambia. Through community-based surveys, 5,167 participants were screened at 1,147 households by PfHRP2-based RDTs. Slides were made and dried blood spots were obtained for molecular analysis...
February 4, 2019: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Lian Xue, Da-Hua Shi, Jitendra R Harjani, Fei Huang, Julia Beveridge, Tamir Dingjan, Kung Ban, Sarah Diab, Sandra Duffy, Leonardo Lucantoni, Sabine Fletcher, Francis C K Chiu, Scott Alan Blundell, Katherine Ellis, Stuart A Ralph, Grennady Wirjanata, Silvia Teguh, Rintis Noviyanti, Marina Chavchich, Darren John Creek, Ric Price, Jutta Marfurt, Susan A Charman, Matthew Cuellar, Jessica Strasser, Jayme Dahlin, Michael A Walters, Mike Edstein, Vicky M Avery, Jonathan B Baell
A series of 3,3'-disubstituted 5,5'-bi(1,2,4-triazine) derivatives was synthesized and screened against the erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 line. The most potent dimer, 6k, with an IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) of 0.008 µM, had high in vitro potency against P. falciparum lines resistant to chloroquine (W2, IC50 = 0.0047 ± 0.0011 µM) and artemisinin (MRA1240, IC50 = 0.0086 ± 0.0010 µM). Excellent ex vivo potency of 6k was shown against clinical field isolates of both P. falciparum (IC50 = 0...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Aline Lamien-Meda, Hans-Peter Fuehrer, Harald Noedl
Plasmodium ovale spp. are two of the six species of apicomplexan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium commonly causing disease in humans. A recent phylogeny study has identified both Plasmodium ovale species (P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri) as two sympatric occurring species. The actual prevalence and clinical relevance of P. ovale spp. are likely underestimated due to low parasitemia and mixed infections, which pose a major challenge to microscopic diagnosis and are frequently undetectable using malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs)...
January 31, 2019: Acta Tropica
Gustavo Fontecha, Alejandra Pinto, Denis Escobar, Gabriela Matamoros, Bryan Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Malaria is an important disease in many tropical countries. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are valuable tools for diagnosing malaria in remote areas. The majority of RDTs used for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum are based on the detection of the specific histidine-rich proteins (PfHRP2 and PfHRP3). During the last decade, the threat posed by the lack of expression of these antigens and the variability of the proteins on the diagnosis of malaria has been widely discussed...
January 31, 2019: Malaria Journal
Tiengkham Pongvongsa, Daisuke Nonaka, Moritoshi Iwagami, Pheovaly Soundala, Phonepadith Khattignavong, Phonepadith Xangsayarath, Futoshi Nishimoto, Jun Kobayashi, Bouasy Hongvanthon, Paul T Brey, Shigeyuki Kano
Background: Although mobile and migrant populations are considered an important group in malaria elimination settings, there is currently a lack of understanding about foreign migrant workers in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). The present study aimed to document the migration characteristics, positive rate of malaria infection, and preventive and treatment-seeking behavior for malaria among foreign migrant workers in the malaria-endemic districts of Savannakhet province, Lao PDR...
2019: Tropical Medicine and Health
Victor Yman, Michael T White, Muhammad Asghar, Christopher Sundling, Klara Sondén, Simon J Draper, Faith H A Osier, Anna Färnert
BACKGROUND: Antibodies against merozoite antigens are key components of malaria immunity. The naturally acquired antibody response to these antigens is generally considered short-lived; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Prospective studies of travellers with different levels of prior exposure, returning to malaria-free countries with Plasmodium infection, offer a unique opportunity to investigate the kinetics and composition of the antibody response after natural infection...
January 30, 2019: BMC Medicine
Massa Dit Achille Bonko, Francois Kiemde, Marc Christian Tahita, Palpouguini Lompo, Athanase M Some, Halidou Tinto, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Petra F Mens, Henk D F H Schallig
BACKGROUND: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are widely used in endemic areas in order to comply with the recommendation that malaria treatment should only be given after the clinical diagnosis has been confirmed by RDT or microscopy. However, the overestimation of malaria infection with the use of PfHRP2 based RDT, makes the management of febrile illnesses more challenging. This study aimed to assess the effect of the use of malaria RDT on antimicrobial prescription practices. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted among febrile children under-5 years of age attending four health facilities and the referral hospital in the Nanoro Health District (Burkina Faso)...
January 28, 2019: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Louis Essengue Bahina, Christian Jean Youmba, Rodrigue Biguioh Mabvouna, Joëlle Sobngwi
Malaria remains one of the major public health concerns in Cameroon. Its treatment is frequently initiated at home, most often with street drugs. The home management of malaria cases entails the prescription of Artemisinin-based combination (ACTs) as first-line therapy for treatment of uncomplicated malaria after having confirmed the malaria case using rapid diagnostic tests. But induced adverse reactions of this therapy are not well known in Cameroon. Thus, a prospective, observational, cohort study of adverse events associated with ACTs was conducted from January 2013 to November 2013 in the health district of Mfou...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Public Health in Africa
María Linares, María Postigo, Daniel Cuadrado, Alejandra Ortiz-Ruiz, Sara Gil-Casanova, Alexander Vladimirov, Jaime García-Villena, José María Nuñez-Escobedo, Joaquín Martínez-López, José Miguel Rubio, María Jesús Ledesma-Carbayo, Andrés Santos, Quique Bassat, Miguel Luengo-Oroz
BACKGROUND: Current World Health Organization recommendations for the management of malaria include the need for a parasitological confirmation prior to triggering appropriate treatment. The use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria has contributed to a better infection recognition and a more targeted treatment. Nevertheless, low-density infections and parasites that fail to produce HRP2 can cause false-negative RDT results. Microscopy has traditionally been the methodology most commonly used to quantify malaria and characterize the infecting species, but the wider use of this technique remains challenging, as it requires trained personnel and processing capacity...
January 24, 2019: Malaria Journal
Gitte N Hartmeyer, Silje V Hoegh, Marianne N Skov, Michael Kemp
Malaria is traditionally diagnosed by blood smear microscopy, which requires continuous resource-demanding training. In areas with only a few cases of malaria, a simple and rapid test that can reliably exclude malaria could significantly reduce the need for microscopy and training. We evaluated whether loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for screening malaria parasites could reduce the workload in the diagnosis of malaria. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification was used to analyze 38 EDTA blood samples from 23 patients who had previously been tested for malaria by microscopy, antigen-based rapid diagnostic test (antigen-RDT), and in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
January 21, 2019: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jemila Deida, Rachida Tahar, Yacoub Ould Khalef, Khadijetou Mint Lekweiry, Abdoullah Hmeyade, Mohamed Lemine Ould Khairy, Frédéric Simard, Hervé Bogreau, Leonardo Basco, Ali Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary
A malaria survey was conducted in Atar, the northernmost oasis city in Mauritania, during 2015-2016. All febrile patients in whom malaria was suspected were screened for malaria by using rapid diagnostic testing and microscopic examination of blood smears and later confirmed by PCR. Of 453 suspected malaria cases, 108 (23.8%) were positive by rapid diagnostic testing, 154 (34.0%) by microscopic examination, and 162 (35.7%) by PCR. Malaria cases were observed throughout the year and among all age groups. Plasmodium vivax was present in 120/162 (74...
February 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Kanika Deshpande Koirala, François Chappuis, Kristien Verdonck, Suman Rijal, Marleen Boelaert
Background & objectives: Although febrile illnesses are a frequent cause of consultation and hospitalization in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), research has mainly focused on acute febrile illnesses (AFIs). In contrast, there are limited data on the causes of persistent febrile illnesses (PFIs) in LMIC. Lack of clarity on the differential diagnosis of PFIs in the rural tropics leads to the absence of diagnostic guidance tools. Methods: In this study, a review of the potential causes of persistent fever defined as fever of more than seven days was done in Nepal, with a focus on nine pathogen-specific conditions...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
A Björkman, D Shakely, A S Ali, U Morris, H Mkali, A K Abbas, A-W Al-Mafazy, K A Haji, J Mcha, R Omar, J Cook, K Elfving, M Petzold, M C Sachs, B Aydin-Schmidt, C Drakeley, M Msellem, A Mårtensson
BACKGROUND: Substantial global progress in the control of malaria in recent years has led to increased commitment to its potential elimination. Whether this is possible in high transmission areas of sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. Zanzibar represents a unique case study of such attempt, where modern tools and strategies for malaria treatment and vector control have been deployed since 2003. METHODS: We have studied temporal trends of comprehensive malariometric indices in two districts with over 100,000 inhabitants each...
January 22, 2019: BMC Medicine
Florence Abravanel, Nadège Goutagny, Raphaelle Joffray, Emile Eichenlaub, Sylviane Baron, Alexandre Aversenq, Sandrine Bourg, Laurence Mercier, Audrey Larue Triolet, Didier Poirault, Marissa Loubet, Soizic Daniel, Francoise Luciani, Catherine Pothion, Carole Tourneur, Jean-Marc Dugua, Sébastien Lhomme, Jacques Izopet
BACKGROUND: Several unautomated anti-HEV diagnostic tests are presently available. OBJECTIVE: We have evaluated the performance of the new automated VIDAS® ANTI-HEV IgM and IgG assays. STUDY DESIGN: We assessed the reproducibility and cross-reactivity of both VIDAS assays and the analytical sensitivity and linearity of the VIDAS IgG assay. We also tested the VIDAS and comparator assays Wantai IgG and IgM on immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Ange Landela Luzolo, Dieudonné Mumba Ngoyi
Malaria remains of significant public health concern under the tropics, causing millions of deaths annually. The disease is caused by protozoans of the Plasmodium genus, of which harbors several distinct species. Human infection occurs during the blood meal of an infected female mosquito belonging to the Anopheles genus. It is estimated that around 1 % of children infected with Plasmodium falciparum develops a more severe form of malaria, which may eventually lead to cerebral complications including cerebral malaria (CM)...
January 15, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
Monica Regina Farias Costa, Ana Luísa Rubert Barcelos, Maria Angélica de Camargo, Gisely Cardoso de Melo, Anne Cristine Almeida, Allyson Guimarães da Costa, Jose Diego de Brito Sousa, Marly Marques de Melo, Maria das Graças Costa Alecrim, Marcus Vinicius Guimarães de Lacerda, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro
INTRODUCTION: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for detecting Plasmodium antigens have become increasingly common worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the Immuno-Rapid Malaria Pf/Pv RDT in detecting Plasmodium vivax infection compared to standard thick blood smear (TBS) under microscopy. METHODS: Hundred and eighty-one febrile patients from the hospital's regular admissions were assessed using TBS and RDT in a blinded experiment. RESULTS: RDT showed a sensitivity of 98...
January 14, 2019: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Anthony Kwarteng, Keziah L Malm, Lawrence Gyabaa Febir, Theresa Tawiah, George Adjei, Solomon Nyame, Francis Agbokey, Mieks Twumasi, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Daniel Amaning Danquah, Constance Bart-Plange, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Kwaku Poku Asante
The sale of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) by private licensed chemical shops (LCS) without testing is contrary to current policy recommendations. This study assessed the accuracy and perception of test-based management of malaria using malaria rapid diagnostic test (mRDT) kits at private LCS in two predominantly rural areas in the middle part of Ghana. Clients presenting at LCS with fever or other signs and symptoms suspected to be malaria in the absence of signs of severe malaria were tested with mRDT by trained attendants and treated based on the national malaria treatment guidelines...
January 14, 2019: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Makeba Shiroya-Wandabwa, Mark Kabue, Dyness Kasungami, Jonesmus Wambua, Dan Otieno, Charles Waka, Augustine Ngindu, Christine Ayuyo, Sanyu Kigondu, Julius Oliech, Isaac Malonza
Background: Shortages of healthcare workers is detrimental to the health of communities, especially children. This paper describes the process of capacity building Community Health Volunteers (CHVs) to deliver integrated preventive and curative package of care of services to manage common childhood illness in hard-to-reach communities in Bondo Subcounty, Kenya. Methods: A pre-test/post-test single-group design was used to assess changes in knowledge and skills related to integrated community case management (iCCM) among 58 Community Health Volunteers who received a six-day iCCM clinical training and an additional 3-week clinical coaching at health facilities...
October 24, 2018: International Journal of Integrated Care
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