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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763984/urine-metabolic-profiles-in-paediatric-asthma
#1
Jia-Lei Tao, Yan-Zhen Chen, Qi-Gang Dai, Man Tian, Shou-Chuan Wang, Jin-Jun Shan, Jian-Jian Ji, Li-Li Lin, Wei-Wei Li, Bin Yuan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Asthma is a global problem and complex disease suited for metabolomic profiling. This study explored the candidate biomarkers specific to paediatric asthma and provided insights into asthmatic pathophysiology. METHODS: Children (aged 6-11 years) meeting the criteria for healthy control (n = 29), uncontrolled asthma (n = 37) or controlled asthma (n = 43) were enrolled. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was performed on urine samples of the patients to explore the different types of metabolite profile in paediatric asthma...
February 14, 2019: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763833/molecular-mechanisms-and-tissue-targets-of-brominated-flame-retardants-bde-47-and-tbbpa-in-embryo-larval-life-stages-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#2
Aoife Parsons, Anke Lange, Thomas H Hutchinson, Shinichi Miyagawa, Taisen Iguchi, Tetsuhiro Kudoh, Charles R Tyler
Brominated flame retardants are known to disrupt thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in several vertebrate species, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process and their effects on TH-sensitive tissues during the stages of early development are not well characterised. In this study, we exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo-larvae to 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) via the water for 96 h from fertilisation and assessed for lethality, effects on development and on the expression of a suite of genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis via both real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) on whole body extracts and whole mount in situ hybridisation (WISH) to identify tissue targets...
January 28, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763669/long-term-and-high-dose-dexamethasone-injection-decreases-the-expression-of-immunoglobulin-heavy-light-chain-variable-region-genes-igh-l-vs-in-the-mouse-spleen
#3
Yuanhui Qi, Qiying Yi, Yamin Liu, Yanxia Hu, Dongshen Ni, Jianing Liu, Qin Zhou, Yajun Xie
Glucocorticoid hormones have been widely used in clinical practice as potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. However, the underlying mechanisms of how they work remain unaddressed. Here, we used RNA-set to profile spleen gene expression in adult mice after consistent intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone. We identified 13565 genes in control (injected with 0.9% NaCl) and 13702 genes in dexamethasone-injected group, 12920 genes were expressed in both, but 645 genes were identified only in control and 782 genes were identified only in the dexamethasone group...
February 11, 2019: Gene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763603/emerging-roles-for-the-relaxin-rxfp1-system-in-cancer-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Thatchawan Thanasupawat, Aleksandra Glogowska, Sai Nivedita-Krishnan, Brian Wilson, Thomas Klonisch, Sabine Hombach-Klonisch
A role for the hormone relaxin in cancer was described well before the receptor was identified. Relaxin predominantly increases the growth and invasive potential in cancers of different origins. However, relaxin was also shown to promote cell differentiation and to act in a dose-and time-dependent manner in different cancer cell models used. Following the discovery of the relaxin like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) as the cellular receptor for RLN1 and RLN2, research has focussed on the ligand interaction with the large extracellular domain of RXFP1 and resulting molecular signaling mechanisms...
February 11, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763338/tailored-neoadjuvant-epirubicin-cyclophosphamide-and-nanoparticle-albumin-bound-paclitaxel-for-breast-cancer-the-phase-ii-neonab-trial-clinical-outcomes-and-molecular-determinants-of-response
#5
Caitlin Murphy, Andrea Muscat, David Ashley, Violet Mukaro, Linda West, Yang Liao, David Chisanga, Wei Shi, Ian Collins, Sally Baron-Hay, Sujata Patil, Geoffrey Lindeman, Mustafa Khasraw
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the feasibility of achieving high response rates in stage II or III breast cancer by tailoring neoadjuvant therapy using clinical and histopathological features and the Oncotype DX Breast Recurrence Score. Genomic determinants of response and resistance were also explored. PATIENTS AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Fifty-one patients were enrolled. The primary cohort comprised 40 patients: 15 human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-amplified; 15 triple-negative (TNBC); and ten hormone receptor (HR)-positive, HER2-non-amplified tumours; with recurrence scores ≥25...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763324/molecular-dynamic-md-studies-on-gln233arg-rs1137101-polymorphism-of-leptin-receptor-gene-and-associated-variations-in-the-anthropometric-and-metabolic-profiles-of-saudi-women
#6
Maha Daghestani, Rituraj Purohit, Mazin Daghestani, Mamoon Daghistani, Arjumand Warsy
The Gln233Arg (A>G; rs1137101) polymorphism of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR) has been investigated extensively and is reported to be associated with different metabolic states. In this investigation, we aimed to study the frequency of Gln233Arg genotypes and alleles in a group of Saudi women stratified by their body mass index (BMI), to correlate the LEPR genotypes with variations in anthropometric, lipid and hormonal parameters and to investigate conformational and structural variations in the mutant LEPR using molecular dynamic (MD) investigations...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763112/evaluation-of-a-novel-pb-203-labeled-lactam-cyclized-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-peptide-for-melanoma-targeting
#7
Jianquan Yang, Jingli Xu, Lina Cheuy, Rene Gonzalez, Darrell R Fisher, Yubin Miao
The purpose of this study is to examine the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) targeting and specificity of 203Pb-DOTA-GGNle-CycMSHhex in melanoma cells and tumors to facilitate its potential therapeutic application when labeled with 212Pb. The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R)-specific targeting and imaging properties of 203Pb-DOTA-GGNle-CycMSHhex were determined on B16/F1 and B16/F10 murine melanoma cells, and in B16/F1 flank melanoma-, B16/F10 flank melanoma- and B16/F10 pulmonary metastatic melanoma-bearing C57 mice...
February 14, 2019: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761839/determining-the-insulin-secretion-potential-for-certain-specific-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-min6-pancreatic-beta-cells
#8
Hasan Gençoğlu, Kazim Şahin, Peter M Jones
Background/aim: The polypeptide hormone insulin is essential for the maintenance of whole-body fuel homeostasis, and defects in insulin secretion and/or action are associated with the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the role of some G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), GPR54, GPR56, and GPR75, and cannabinoid receptors CB1R and CB2R, in the regulation of pancreatic β-cell function. Materials and methods: Insulin secretion from mouse insulinoma β-cell line (MIN6) monolayers was assessed via insulin radioimmu-noassay (RIA)...
February 11, 2019: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761678/expression-of-proteins-related-to-thyroid-hormone-function-in-the-uterus-is-down-regulated-at-the-day-of-implantation-in-hypothyroid-pregnant-rats
#9
Naguib Salleh, Abu Sadat Md Sayem, Nelli Giribabu, Si Lay Khaing
Hypothyroidism has been linked to infertility, but the mechanisms underlying infertility-related hypothyroidism have yet to be fully elucidated. Therefore, in this study, effects of hypothyroidism on expression of the proteins related to thyroid hormone function in the uterus, which were thought to play a role implantation, including thyroid hormone receptor (TR), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and extracellular kinase (ERK) were identified. Pregnant female rats were rendered hypothyroid by giving methimazole (MMI), orally...
February 13, 2019: Cell Biology International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761182/the-secret-life-of-translation-initiation-in-prostate-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Greco Hernández, Jorge L Ramírez, Abraham Pedroza-Torres, Luis A Herrera, Miguel A Jiménez-Ríos
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most prevalent cancer in men worldwide. Despite the advances understanding the molecular processes driving the onset and progression of this disease, as well as the continued implementation of screening programs, PCa still remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, in particular in low-income countries. It is only recently that defects of the translation process, i.e., the synthesis of proteins by the ribosome using a messenger (m)RNA as a template, have begun to gain attention as an important cause of cancer development in different human tissues, including prostate...
2019: Frontiers in Genetics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760878/correction-polymorphisms-at-phase-i-metabolizing-enzyme-and-hormone-receptor-loci-influence-the-response-to-anti-tnf-therapy-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients
#11
Luz M Canet, Jose M Sánchez-Maldonado, Rafael Cáliz, Ana Rodríguez-Ramos, Carmen B Lupiañez, Helena Canhão, Manuel Martínez-Bueno, Alejandro Escudero, Juana Segura-Catena, Signe B Sorensen, Merete L Hetland, María José Soto-Pino, Miguel A Ferrer, Antonio García, Bente Glintborg, Ileana Filipescu, Eva Pérez-Pampin, Alfonso González-Utrilla, Miguel Ángel López Nevot, Pablo Conesa-Zamora, Alfons den Broeder, Salvatore De Vita, Sven Erik Hobe Jacobsen, Eduardo Collantes-Estevez, Luca Quartuccio, Federico Canzian, João E Fonseca, Marieke J H Coenen, Vibeke Andersen, Juan Sainz
The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Ana Rodríguez-Ramos, which was incorrectly given as Ana Rodríguez Ramos. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
February 14, 2019: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760847/function-and-mechanisms-of-enteroendocrine-cells-and-gut-hormones-in-metabolism
#12
REVIEW
Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann
Gut hormones have many key roles in the control of metabolism, as they target diverse tissues involved in the control of intestinal function, insulin secretion, nutrient assimilation and food intake. Produced by scattered cells found along the length of the intestinal epithelium, gut hormones generate signals related to the rate of nutrient absorption, the composition of the luminal milieu and the integrity of the epithelial barrier. Gut hormones already form the basis for existing and developing therapeutics for type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity, exemplified by the licensed glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) mimetics and dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors that enhance GLP1 receptor activation...
February 13, 2019: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760120/genetic-and-pharmacological-targeting-of-transcriptional-repression-in-resistance-to-thyroid-hormone-alpha
#13
Bernard Freudenthal, Samiksha Shetty, Natalie C Butterfield, John G Logan, Cho Rong Han, Xu-Guang Zhu, Inna Astapova, Anthony N Hollenberg, Sheue-Yann Cheng, J H Duncan Bassett, Graham Williams
Background Thyroid hormones act in bone and cartilage via thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα). In the absence of T3, TRα interacts with co-repressors, including nuclear receptor co-repressor-1 (NCoR1), which recruit histone deacetylases (HDACs) and mediate transcriptional repression. Dominant-negative mutations of TRα cause resistance to thyroid hormone α (RTHα; OMIM 614450), characterized by excessive repression of T3 target genes leading to delayed skeletal development, growth retardation and bone dysplasia...
February 14, 2019: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760067/toxicity-of-pexacerfont-a-corticotropin-releasing-factor-type-1-receptor-antagonist-in-rats-and-dogs
#14
Melvin R White, Michael J Graziano, Thomas P Sanderson
Pexacerfont is a corticotropin-releasing factor subtype 1 receptor antagonist that was developed for the treatment of anxiety- and stress-related disorders. This report describes the results of repeat-dose oral toxicity studies in rats (3 and 6 months) and dogs (3 months and 1 year). Pexacerfont was well tolerated in all of these studies at exposures equal to or greater than areas under the curve in humans (clinical dose of 100 mg). Microscopic changes in the liver (hepatocellular hypertrophy), thyroid glands (hypertrophy/hyperplasia and adenomas of follicular cells), and pituitary (hypertrophy/hyperplasia and vacuolation of thyrotrophs) were only observed in rats and were considered adaptive changes in response to hepatic enzyme induction and subsequent alterations in serum thyroid hormone levels...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760053/effects-of-hcg-on-reduced-numbers-of-hcg-receptors-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-cerebellum-of-rat-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
M Jahanshahi, M Saeidi, E Nikmahzar, F Babakordi, G Bahlakeh
Age-associated changes in the levels of luteinizing hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are potential risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD); hCG concentration is related to the incidence of AD. The highest density of hCG receptors is in zones of the brain that are vulnerable to AD and streptozotocin (STZ) can decrease the density of this receptor. We investigated the effects of different doses of hCG on hCG receptor density in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum in a rat model of STZ-induced AD...
February 14, 2019: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759864/tarbp2-enhanced-resistance-during-tamoxifen-treatment-in-breast-cancer
#16
Ming-Yang Wang, Hsin-Yi Huang, Yao-Lung Kuo, Chiao Lo, Hung-Yu Sun, Yu-Jhen Lyu, Bo-Rong Chen, Jie-Ning Li, Pai-Sheng Chen
Tamoxifen is the most widely used hormone therapy in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, which accounts for approximately 70% of all breast cancers. Although patients who receive tamoxifen therapy benefit with respect to an improved overall prognosis, resistance and cancer recurrence still occur and remain important clinical challenges. A recent study identified TAR (HIV-1) RNA binding protein 2 (TARBP2) as an oncogene that promotes breast cancer metastasis. In this study, we showed that TARBP2 is overexpressed in hormone therapy-resistant cells and breast cancer tissues, where it enhances tamoxifen resistance...
February 12, 2019: Cancers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759554/enantioselective-thyroid-disruption-in-zebrafish-embryo-larvae-via-exposure-to-environmental-concentrations-of-the-chloroacetamide-herbicide-acetochlor
#17
Chao Xu, Xiaohui Sun, Lili Niu, Wenjing Yang, Wenqing Tu, Liping Lu, Shuang Song, Weiping Liu
Acetochlor (ACT) is a chiral chloroacetamide pesticide that has been heavily used around the world, resulting in its residues being frequently found in surface waters. It has been reported that ACT is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) with strong thyroid hormone-disrupting activity in aquatic organisms. However, the enantioselectivity underlying thyroid disruption has yet to be understood. In this study, using a zebrafish embryo-larvae model, the enantioselective thyroid disruption of ACT was investigated at a series of environmentally relevant concentrations (1, 2, 10 and 50 μg/L)...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759490/reduced-gene-expression-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-coactivator-1%C3%AE-in-whole-blood-in-euthyroid-patients-one-year-after-hemithyroidectomy-for-benign-euthyroid-goiter
#18
Tina Toft Kristensen, Palle Lyngsie Pedersen, Jacob Larsen, Anne-Dorthe Feldthusen, Søren Jelstrup, Christina Ellervik
We have previously reported decreased thyroid function within the laboratory reference range and changes in mitochondrial function after hemithyroidectomy. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and coactivator-1β (PGC-1β) are key regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. The aim was to examine the influence of hemithyroidectomy on the longitudinal change in mRNA expression of these genes. In addition, we measured longitudinal changes in mRNA expressions of the mitochoncrial-related genes nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NFE2L2), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and sodium dismutase 2 (SOD2)...
February 2019: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759373/what-doesn-t-kill-you-makes-you-stranger-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-cd26-proteolysis-differentially-modulates-the-activity-of-many-peptide-hormones-and-cytokines-generating-novel-cryptic-bioactive-ligands
#19
Ahmed M Elmansi, Mohamed E Awad, Nada H Eisa, Dmitry Kondrikov, Khaled A Hussein, Alexandra Aguilar-Pérez, Samuel Herberg, Sudharsan Periyasamy-Thandavan, Sadanand Fulzele, Mark W Hamrick, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Carlos M Isales, Brian F Volkman, William D Hill
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is an exopeptidase found either on cell surfaces where it is highly regulated in terms of its expression and surface availability (CD26) or in a free/circulating soluble constitutively available and intrinsically active form. It is responsible for proteolytic cleavage of many peptide substrates. In this review we discuss the idea that DPP4-cleaved peptides are not necessarily inactivated, but rather can possess either a modified receptor selectivity, modified bioactivity, new antagonistic activity, or even a novel activity relative to the intact parent ligand...
February 10, 2019: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759349/a-follistatin-based-molecule-increases-muscle-and-bone-mass-without-affecting-the-red-blood-cell-count-in-mice
#20
Andreas Lodberg, Bram C J van der Eerden, Bianca Boers-Sijmons, Jesper Skovhus Thomsen, Annemarie Brüel, Johannes P T M van Leeuwen, Marco Eijken
Inhibitors of the activin receptor signaling pathway (IASPs) have become candidate therapeutics for sarcopenia and bone remodeling disorders because of their ability to increase muscle and bone mass. However, IASPs utilizing activin type IIA and IIB receptors are also potent stimulators of erythropoiesis, a feature that may restrict their usage to anemic patients because of increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Based on the endogenous TGF-β superfamily antagonist follistatin (FST), a molecule in the IASP class, FSTΔHBS -mFc, was generated and tested in both ovariectomized and naive BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice...
February 13, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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