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Crow And Monkey

Jennifer L Zick, Rachael K Blackman, David A Crowe, Bagrat Amirikian, Adele L DeNicola, Theoden I Netoff, Matthew V Chafee
We employed multi-electrode array recording to evaluate the influence of NMDA receptors (NMDAR) on spike-timing dynamics in prefrontal networks of monkeys as they performed a cognitive control task measuring specific deficits in schizophrenia. Systemic, periodic administration of an NMDAR antagonist (phencyclidine) reduced the prevalence and strength of synchronous (0-lag) spike correlation in simultaneously recorded neuron pairs. We employed transfer entropy analysis to measure effective connectivity between prefrontal neurons at lags consistent with monosynaptic interactions and found that effective connectivity was persistently reduced following exposure to the NMDAR antagonist...
June 27, 2018: Neuron
Matthew V Chafee, David A Crowe
In this issue, Loonis et al. (2017) provide the first description of unique synchrony patterns differentiating implicit and explicit forms of learning in monkey prefrontal networks. Their results have broad implications for how prefrontal networks integrate the two learning mechanisms to control behavior.
October 11, 2017: Neuron
Dmitry Balakhonov, Jonas Rose
The present study compares the 'bandwidth of cognition' between crows and primates. Working memory is the ability to maintain and manipulate information over short periods of time - a core component of cognition. The capacity of working memory is tightly limited, in humans correlated with individual intelligence and commonly used synonymously with cognitive capacity. Crows have remarkable cognitive skills and while birds and mammals share neural principles of working memory, its capacity has not been tested in crows...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rachael K Blackman, David A Crowe, Adele L DeNicola, Sofia Sakellaridi, Angus W MacDonald, Matthew V Chafee
UNLABELLED: Cognitive control is the ability to modify the behavioral response to a stimulus based on internal representations of goals or rules. We sought to characterize neural mechanisms in prefrontal cortex associated with cognitive control in a context that would maximize the potential for future translational relevance to human neuropsychiatric disease. To that end, we trained monkeys to perform a dot-pattern variant of the AX continuous performance task that is used to measure cognitive control impairment in patients with schizophrenia (MacDonald, 2008;Jones et al...
April 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Thomas Bugnyar, Stephan A Reber, Cameron Buckner
Recent studies purported to demonstrate that chimpanzees, monkeys and corvids possess a basic Theory of Mind, the ability to attribute mental states like seeing to others. However, these studies remain controversial because they share a common confound: the conspecific's line of gaze, which could serve as an associative cue. Here, we show that ravens Corvus corax take into account the visual access of others, even when they cannot see a conspecific. Specifically, we find that ravens guard their caches against discovery in response to the sounds of conspecifics when a peephole is open but not when it is closed...
2016: Nature Communications
John T Bates, Jennifer A Pickens, Jennifer E Schuster, Monika Johnson, Sharon J Tollefson, John V Williams, Nancy L Davis, Robert E Johnston, Nancy Schultz-Darken, James C Slaughter, Frances Smith-House, James E Crowe
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are major causes of illness among children, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. No vaccine has been licensed for protection against either of these viruses. We tested the ability of two Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus-based viral replicon particle (VEE-VRP) vaccines that express the hRSV or hMPV fusion (F) protein to confer protection against hRSV or hMPV in African green monkeys. Animals immunized with VEE-VRP vaccines developed RSV or MPV F-specific antibodies and serum neutralizing activity...
February 10, 2016: Vaccine
Barry B McGuire, Richard S Matulewicz, Rian Zuccarino-Crowe, Robert B Nadler, Kent T Perry
INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence would suggest a low rate of metabolic assessment in stone formers, even in those deemed as high risk. We wished to assess the attitudes and practice patterns of metabolic work up in North American members of the Endourological Society as part of the management of stone-forming patients. METHODS: A 12-question online multiple-choice questionnaire (using Survey Monkey(®)) was distributed to all members of the Endourological Society through e-mail...
April 2016: Journal of Endourology
Anna Smirnova, Zoya Zorina, Tanya Obozova, Edward Wasserman
Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually...
January 19, 2015: Current Biology: CB
Emiko Uchino, Shigeru Watanabe
Recognition of a self-image in a mirror is investigated using the mark test during which a mark is placed onto a point on the body that is not directly visible, and the presence or absence of self-directed behaviors is evaluated for the mirror-observing subjects. Great apes, dolphins, possibly elephants, and magpies have all passed the mark test, that is, displayed self-directed behaviors, whereas monkeys, crows, and other animals have failed the test even though they were able to use a mirror to find a not-directly-visible object...
November 2014: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
David A Crowe, Wilbert Zarco, Ramon Bartolo, Hugo Merchant
We determined the encoding properties of single cells and the decoding accuracy of cell populations in the medial premotor cortex (MPC) of Rhesus monkeys to represent in a time-varying fashion the duration and serial order of six intervals produced rhythmically during a synchronization-continuation tapping task. We found that MPC represented the temporal and sequential structure of rhythmic movements by activating small ensembles of neurons that encoded the duration or the serial order in rapid succession, so that the pattern of active neurons changed dramatically within each interval...
September 3, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Hugo Merchant, David A Crowe, Antonio F Fortes, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
Traditionally, the neurophysiological mechanisms of cognitive processing have been investigated at the single cell level. Here we show that the dynamic, millisecond-by-millisecond, interactions between neuronal events measured by local field potentials are modulated in an orderly fashion by key task variables of a space categorization task performed by monkeys. These interactions were stronger during periods of higher cognitive load and varied in sign (positive, negative). They were observed both within area 7a of the posterior parietal cortex and between symmetric 7a areas of the two hemispheres...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Zhi-Pang Huang, Xiao-Guang Qi, Paul A Garber, Tong Jin, Song-Tao Guo, Sheng Li, Bao-Guo Li
There exists very limited information on the set of scavengers that feed on the carcasses of wild primates. Here, we describe, based on information collected using a remote camera trap, carnivores consuming/scavenging the carcass of a wild golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Laohegou Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China. During a 3 month behavioral and ecology study of a band of golden snub-nosed monkeys (March through May 2013), we encountered the carcass of an adult male (male golden snub-nosed monkeys weigh approximately 12-16 kg)...
2014: PloS One
J A J Gowlett
Elongation is a commonly found feature in artefacts made and used by humans and other animals and can be analysed in comparative study. Whether made for use in hand or beak, the artefacts have some common properties of length, breadth, thickness and balance point, and elongation can be studied as a factor relating to construction or use of a long axis. In human artefacts, elongation can be traced through the archaeological record, for example in stone blades of the Upper Palaeolithic (traditionally regarded as more sophisticated than earlier artefacts), and in earlier blades of the Middle Palaeolithic...
November 19, 2013: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
David A Crowe, Shikha J Goodwin, Rachael K Blackman, Sofia Sakellaridi, Scott R Sponheim, Angus W MacDonald, Matthew V Chafee
Prefrontal cortex influences behavior largely through its connections with other association cortices; however, the nature of the information conveyed by prefrontal output signals and what effect these signals have on computations performed by target structures is largely unknown. To address these questions, we simultaneously recorded the activity of neurons in prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices of monkeys performing a rule-based spatial categorization task. Parietal cortex receives direct prefrontal input, and parietal neurons, like their prefrontal counterparts, exhibit signals that reflect rule-based cognitive processing in this task...
October 2013: Nature Neuroscience
Matthew V Chafee, David A Crowe
Perhaps the simplest and most complete description of the cerebral cortex is that it is a sensorimotor controller whose primary purpose is to represent stimuli and movements, and adaptively control the mapping between them. However, in order to think, the cerebral cortex has to generate patterns of neuronal activity that encode abstract, generalized information independently of ongoing sensorimotor events. A critical question confronting cognitive systems neuroscience at present therefore is how neural signals encoding abstract information emerge within the sensorimotor control networks of the brain...
2012: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Anja Zielonka, Alma Gedvilaite, Jochen Reetz, Uwe Rösler, Hermann Müller, Reimar Johne
Polyomaviruses are aetiological agents of fatal acute diseases in various bird species. Genomic analysis revealed that avian polyomavirus (APyV), crow polyomavirus (CPyV), finch polyomavirus (FPyV) and goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPyV) are closely related to each other, but nevertheless form separate viral species; however, their serological relationship was previously unknown. As only APyV can be grown efficiently in tissue culture, virus-like particles (VLPs) were generated by expression of the genomic regions encoding the major structural protein VP1 of these viruses in yeast; these were used to elicit type-specific antibodies in rabbits and as antigens in serological reactions...
December 2012: Journal of General Virology
Hugo Merchant, David Andrew Crowe, Melissa S Robertson, Antonio Francisco Fortes, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
In the present study we characterized the strength and time course of category-selective responses in prefrontal cortex and area 7a of the posterior parietal cortex during a match-to-sample spatial categorization task. A monkey was trained to categorize whether the height of a horizontal sample bar, presented in rectangular frame at one of three vertical locations, was "high" or "low," depending on whether its position was above or below the frame's midline. After the display of this sample bar, and after a delay, choice bars were sequentially flashed in two locations: at the top and at the bottom of the frame ("choice" epoch)...
2011: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Yukiko Kikuchi, Barry Horwitz, Mortimer Mishkin
Connectional anatomical evidence suggests that the auditory core, containing the tonotopic areas A1, R, and RT, constitutes the first stage of auditory cortical processing, with feedforward projections from core outward, first to the surrounding auditory belt and then to the parabelt. Connectional evidence also raises the possibility that the core itself is serially organized, with feedforward projections from A1 to R and with additional projections, although of unknown feed direction, from R to RT. We hypothesized that area RT together with more rostral parts of the supratemporal plane (rSTP) form the anterior extension of a rostrally directed stimulus quality processing stream originating in the auditory core area A1...
September 29, 2010: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
David A Crowe, Bruno B Averbeck, Matthew V Chafee
We characterized the temporal dynamics of population activity in parietal cortex of monkeys as they solved a spatial cognitive problem posed by an object construction task. We applied pattern classification techniques to characterize patterns of activity coding object-centered side, a task-defined variable specifying whether an object component was located on the left or right side of a reference object, regardless of its retinocentric position. During a period in which the value of object-centered side, as defined by task events, remained constant, parietal cortex represented this variable using a dynamic neural code by activating neurons with the same spatial preference in rapid succession so that the pattern of active neurons changed dramatically while the spatial information they collectively encoded remained stable...
September 1, 2010: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Roberto Caminiti, Matthew V Chafee, Alexandra Battaglia-Mayer, Bruno B Averbeck, David A Crowe, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
In human and nonhuman primates parietal cortex is formed by a multiplicity of areas. For those of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) there exists a certain homology between man and macaques. As a consequence, optic ataxia, a disturbed visual control of hand reaching, has similar features in man and monkeys. Establishing such correspondence has proven difficult for the areas of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL). This difficulty depends on many factors. First, no physiological information is available in man on the dynamic properties of cells in the IPL...
June 2010: European Journal of Neuroscience
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