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Bong-Shin Kwak, Dahyun Hwang, Sue Jung Lee, Hyuk-Jun Choi, Ho-Young Park, Kwang-Soon Shin
To examine the anti-metastatic activities of polysaccharides in broccoli, purified polysaccharides (BCE-I, -II, and -III) were isolated by fractionation of broccoli enzyme extracts and subsequent ethanol precipitation. BCE-I mainly consisted of galactose and arabinose, whereas BCE-II mainly consisted of galacturonic acid and rhamnose, and BCE-III mainly consisted of rhamnose and galactose. Of the three fractions, stimulation of murine peritoneal macrophages by BCE-I showed the greatest enhancement of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-12, and IL-6 secretion...
March 21, 2019: Journal of Medicinal Food
Min-Kyeong Kim, Hye-Jeong Kang, Su Gwon Roh, Ji Sun Park, Seung Bum Kim
A novel actinobacterial strain producing an antifungal substance was isolated from a sample of acidic mine area soil, and its taxonomic position was evaluated. The novel strain, designated TW1S1T , formed white-grey aerial mycelium and yellow substrate mycelium on oatmeal agar. Growth occurred at 10-45 °C (optimum, 30 °C), pH 4-9 (pH 6-7) and in the presence of up to 8 % (w/v) NaCl. Melanin was produced on peptone-yeast extract-iron agar. Phylogenetic analysis based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the novel strain should be assigned to the genus Streptomyces, and the closest species was Streptomyces puniciscabiei S77T with 99...
March 21, 2019: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Damian Hertig, Andrea Felser, Gaëlle Diserens, Sandra Kurth, Peter Vermathen, Jean-Marc Nuoffer
The original version of this article contained an error in Table 2. The text in the second header line should read "GAL supernatant" and "GAL Medium" instead of "GLC supernatant" and "GLC Medium". The corrected Table 2 is given below. The original article has been corrected.
March 19, 2019: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Marzieh Rostami Dovom, Nazanin Moslehi, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani
INTRODUCTION: Rodent models and studies on women with galactosemia suggest the ovo-toxicity effect of galactose. However, the association between galactose intake from dietary sources and the ovarian function in women without galactosemia has not yet been described. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the associations between both dietary galactose and lactose intake, and ovarian dysfunction as the odds of early menopause in women without galactosemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 821 women without galactosemia, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), who experienced natural menopause...
2019: PloS One
Nemesio Villa-Ruano, Moisés Ramírez-Meraz, Reinaldo Méndez-Aguilar, L Gerardo Zepeda-Vallejo, Arturo Álvarez-Bravo, Nury Pérez-Hernández, Elvia Becerra-Martínez
Herein we report on the 1 H NMR-based metabolomics profiling of ten new races of Capsicum annuum cv. serrano, cultivated in Mexico. Forty eight metabolites (including sugars, amino acids, organic acids, polyphenolic acids and alcohols) were identified and quantified by 2D NMR and qNMR, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) separated the ten races into two clusters, from which citric acid, formic acid, fumaric acid, malic acid, glucose, fructose, sucrose and galactose were found as differential metabolites...
May 2019: Food Research International
Kui Du, Jian Liu, Runpu Shen, Pengfei Zhang
Design and synthesis of new fluorescence probes with good water-solubility is of great importance to better understanding the significant role of ions which are related to biology and the environment. As important ions, zinc ion (Zn2+ ) and dihydrogen phosphate ion (H2 PO4 - ) display essential roles in living systems, and quantitative detection of these ions in water is still a challenge. In order to consider the significant role of the galactose moiety in the design of a water-soluble fluorescence sensor, herein, we have developed a novel probe, Gal-AQTF, for the cascade detection of Zn2+ and H2 PO4 - with excellent selectivity in water...
March 14, 2019: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Minyue Tang, Fan Hou, Yanwen Wu, Yongguo Liu, Jie Ouyang
The present paper aimed to obtain the polysaccharides with potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity from chestnut kernel. The ultrasound extracted polysaccharide fractions 1-1 (UEP1-1) and UEP2-1 were obtained by successive ultrasound-assisted-extraction, DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum revealed that both UEP1-1 and UEP2-1 had the characteristic absorption peaks of polysaccharides. The degree of esterification of UEP1-1 (52.4%) and UEP2-1 (49.0%) was higher than that of the crude UEP (33...
March 11, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yury V Malovichko, Kirill S Antonets, Anna R Maslova, Elena A Andreeva, Sergey G Inge-Vechtomov, Anton A Nizhnikov
Prions are infectious, self-perpetuating protein conformers. In mammals, pathological aggregation of the prion protein causes incurable neurodegenerative disorders, while in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , prion formation may be neutral or even beneficial. According to the prevailing contemporary point of view, prion formation is considered to be a functional inactivation of the corresponding protein whose conformational state shifts from the functional monomeric one to the infectious aggregated one. The Swi1 protein forms the [ SWI ⁺] prion and belongs to the nucleosome remodeler complex SWI/SNF controlling the expression of a significant part of the yeast genome...
March 12, 2019: Genes
Jin-Gang Hou, Byeong-Min Jeon, Yee-Jin Yun, Chang-Hao Cui, Sun-Chang Kim
The anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin is commonly used antineoplastic drug in breast cancer treatment. Like most chemotherapy, doxorubicin does not selectively target tumorigenic cells with high proliferation rate and often causes serve side effects. In the present study, we demonstrated the cellular senescence and senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP) of both breast tumor cell MDA-MB-231 and normal epithelial cell MCF-10A induced by clinical dose of doxorubicin (100 nM). Senescence was confirmed by flattened morphology, increased level of beta galactose, accumulating contents of lysosome and mitochondrial, and elevated expression of p16 and p21 proteins...
March 12, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ohm Prakash, Jana Führing, John Post, Sharon M Shepherd, Thomas C Eadsforth, David Gray, Roman Fedorov, Françoise H Routier
Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease that is caused by different species of the protozoan parasite Leishmania , and it currently affects 12 million people worldwide. The antileishmanial therapeutic arsenal remains very limited in number and efficacy, and there is no vaccine for this parasitic disease. One pathway that has been genetically validated as an antileishmanial drug target is the biosynthesis of uridine diphosphate-glucose (UDP-Glc), and its direct derivative UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal). De novo biosynthesis of these two nucleotide sugars is controlled by the specific UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP)...
March 12, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Weilu Kang, Xiaokang Li, Anqi Sun, Fubo Yu, Xiangang Hu
Although increasing attention has been paid to the nanotoxicity of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) due to their broad range of applications, the persistence and recoverability associated with GOQDs had been widely ignored. Interestingly, stress-response hormesis for algal growth was observed for Chlorella vulgaris as a single-celled model organism. Few physiological parameters, such as algal density, plasmolysis and levels of reactive oxygen species, exhibited facile recovery. In contrast, the effects on chlorophyll a levels, permeability and starch grain accumulation exhibited persistent toxicity...
March 14, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
Michelle Kilcoyne, Vaibhav Patil, Claire O'Grady, Ciara Bradley, Siobhan S McMahon
Glycosylation is ubiquitous throughout the central nervous system and altered following spinal cord injury (SCI). The glial scar that forms following SCI is composed of several chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, which inhibit axonal regrowth. Cyclosporin-A (CsA), an immunosuppressive therapeutic, has been proposed as a potential treatment after SCI. We investigated CsA treatment in the spinal cord of healthy, contusion injured, and injured CsA-treated rats. Lectin histochemistry using fluorescently labeled lectins, SBA, MAA, SNA-I, and WFA, was performed to identify the terminal carbohydrate residues of glycoconjugates within the spinal cord...
February 28, 2019: ACS Omega
Narentuya, Yoshiko Takeda-Uchimura, Tahmina Foyez, Zui Zhang, Tomoya O Akama, Hirokazu Yagi, Koichi Kato, Yukio Komatsu, Kenji Kadomatsu, Kenji Uchimura
Keratan sulfate (KS) is a carbohydrate side chain covalently attached to extracellular proteoglycans. KS is composed of disaccharide units of 6-sulfated N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and galactose. We have previously shown that GlcNAc-6-O-sulfotransferase (GlcNAc6ST) 1 encoded by Chst2 is an enzyme necessary for the synthesis of GlcNAc-6-sulfated KS chains that are required for neuronal plasticity in the visual cortex of the mouse brain during the critical period, but not in adulthood. Here, we show that GlcNAc-6-sulfated KS recognized by the R-10G anti-KS antibody, of which the minimum epitope structure is Galß1-4GlcNAc(6S)ß1-3Galß1-4GlcNAc(6S), distributes diffusely in neuropils and presents densely in close proximity to the perineuronal region of the perineuronal net (PNN)-positive neurons in the adult visual cortex...
March 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Norbert Sprenger, Aristea Binia, Sean Austin
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are elongations of the milk sugar lactose by galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, fucose; and sialic acid. The HMO composition of breast milk is strongly influenced by polymorphisms of the maternal fucosyltransferases, FUT2 and FUT3, and by the stage of lactation. Clinical observational studies with breastfed infant-mother dyads associate specific HMOs with infant gut microbiota, morbidity, infectious diarrhea, and allergies. Observational and basic research data suggest that HMOs influence the establishment of early-life microbiota and mucosal immunity and inhibit pathogens, thereby contributing to protection from infections...
2019: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Li-Li Liu, Yong Lin, Wei Chen, Man-Li Tong, Xi Luo, Li-Rong Lin, Hui-Lin Zhang, Jiang-Hua Yan, Jian-Jun Niu, Tian-Ci Yang
The mechanism underlying the stealth property of neurosyphilis is still unclear. Global metabolomics analysis can provide substantial information on energy metabolism, physiology and possible diagnostic biomarkers and intervention strategies for pathogens. To gain better understanding of the metabolic mechanism of neurosyphilis, we conducted an untargeted metabolomics analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 18 neurosyphilis patients and an identical number of syphilis/non-neurosyphilis patients and syphilis-free patients using the Agilent, 1290 Infinity LC system...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Manish Kumar, Madan Kumar, Ashok Pandey, Indu Shekhar Thakur
In the present study, genomic analysis of a previously reported carbon dioxide (CO2 ) sequestering bacterium Serratia sp. ISTD04 was performed along with exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. Genomic analysis identified key and accessory enzymes responsible for CO2 sequestration. EPS synthesis genes were discovered in the genome and identified 8 putative clusters responsible for lipopolysaccharide, stewartan, emulsan, polysaccharide B, capsular polysaccharide and fatty acid-saccharide production. The production of EPS was found to be 0...
March 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Yui Sasaki, Zhoujie Zhang, Tsuyoshi Minami
Herein, a very simple colorimetric chemosensor array is reported for saccharides (D -glucose, D -fructose, D -xylose, D -galactose, D -mannose, L -rhamnose, and N -acetyl-D -gluosamine). While various types of chemosensors for saccharides have been investigated extensively to-this-date, tremendous additional efforts are still required on a regular basis for the syntheses of new chemosensors. Complicated syntheses would be a bottleneck, given that artificial receptor-based chemosensing systems are not so popular in comparison to biomaterial-based (e...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Jia Ma, Huaxin Wang, Bing Liu, Yujia Shan, Huimin Zhou, Xia Qi, Wenguo Wu, Li Jia
Aging is spontaneous and inevitable processes that lead to changes in biological systems. The present paper was designed to investigate the anti-aging roles of chick embryo (CE) and nutrient mixture (NM) in aging rats. Aging was induced by administration of D-galactose (D-gal, 500 mg/kg/day for 90 days). CE and NM were administered to aging rats through different dose gavage once a day. Cognitive function assessment was performed using the Morris water maze test. At the end of experiment, serum and tissues were collected for immunity and antioxidation function...
March 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Nelson K Chepkwony, Cécile Berne, Yves V Brun
Bacterial adhesion is affected by environmental factors such as ionic strength, pH, temperature, and shear forces. Therefore, marine bacteria must have developed adhesins with different composition and structures than their freshwater counterparts to adapt to their natural environment. The dimorphic α-proteobacterium Hirschia baltica is a marine budding bacterium in the Caulobacterales clade. H. baltica uses a polar adhesin, the holdfast, located at the cell pole opposite the reproductive stalk for surface attachment and cell-cell adhesion...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Bacteriology
Hanqing Li, Juan Su, Jiaye Jiang, Yuan Li, Zhongyuan Gan, Yan Ding, Yaqing Li, Jiaqi Liu, Shunchun Wang, Yan Ke
In this study, we purified a water-soluble polysaccharide, SBPW3, from the whole plant of Scutellaria barbata D. Don through ethanol precipitation, deproteinization, lyophilization, dialysis and separation using a DEAE cellulose column and a Superdex 200 gel filtration chromatography column. SBPW3 is a homogeneous polysaccharide with a molecular weight of 10.2 kDa and is composed of rhamnose (2.51%), arabinose (25.68%), xylose (10.94%), mannose (12.56%), glucose (20.59%) and galactose (27.72%). FT-IR spectrum analysis of the polysaccharide showed that SBPW3 contained a pyranose ring...
March 8, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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