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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30901468/autoimmunity-associated-gut-commensals-modulate-gut-permeability-and-immunity-in-humanized-mice
#1
Baskar Balakrishnan, David Luckey, Veena Taneja
OBJECTIVE: Although the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is unknown, recent studies have led to the concept that gut dysbiosis may be involved in onset. In this study, we aimed to determine if human gut commensals modulate the immune response and gut epithelial integrity in DQ8 mice. METHODS: DQ8 mice were orally gavaged with RA-associated (Eggerthella lenta or Collinsella aerofaciens) and non-associated (Prevotella histicola or Bifidobacterium sp.) on alternate days for 1 week in naïve mice...
March 1, 2019: Military Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30848791/separate-and-combined-effects-of-gip-and-glp-1-infusions-on-bone-metabolism-in-overweight-men-without-diabetes
#2
Natasha Chidekel Bergmann, Asger Lund, Lærke Smidt Gasbjerg, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Lene Jessen, Bolette Hartmann, Jens Juul Holst, Mikkel Bring Christensen, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip Krag Knop
CONTEXT: The gut-derived incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), have been suggested to play a role in bone metabolism. Exogenous administration of GIP inhibits bone resorption, while the effect of GLP-1 is less clear. Furthermore, the combined effect of exogenous GIP and GLP-1 on bone metabolism is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of separate and combined infusions of the incretin hormones GIP and GLP-1 on bone resorption and formation...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30837285/dss-induced-damage-to-basement-membranes-is-repaired-by-matrix-replacement-and-crosslinking
#3
Angela M Howard, Kimberly S LaFever, Aidan M Fenix, Cherie' R Scurrah, Ken S Lau, Dylan T Burnette, Gautam Bhave, Nicholas Ferrell, Andrea Page-McCaw
Basement membranes are an ancient form of animal extracellular matrix. As important structural and functional components of tissues, basement membranes are subject to environmental damage and must be repaired while maintaining functions. Little is known about how basement membranes get repaired. This paucity stems from a lack of suitable in vivo models for analyzing repair. Here we show that Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) directly damages the gut basement membrane when fed to adult Drosophila. DSS becomes incorporated into the basement membrane, promoting its expansion while decreasing its stiffness, which causes morphological changes to the underlying muscles...
March 5, 2019: Journal of Cell Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30803509/chlorogenic-acid-attenuates-high-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-induced-cardiovascular-liver-and-metabolic-changes-in-rats
#4
Nikhil S Bhandarkar, Lindsay Brown, Sunil K Panchal
Chlorogenic acid as a constituent of coffee is consumed regularly in the human diet. Chlorogenic acid intake has been associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that chlorogenic acid would improve cardiovascular, liver, and metabolic responses in a rat model of metabolic syndrome induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet. Male Wistar rats (8-9 weeks old, 335 ± 2 g, n = 48) were divided into 4 groups and fed with corn starch diet (16 weeks); corn starch diet with chlorogenic acid in food for the last 8 weeks; high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (16 weeks); or high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with chlorogenic acid (~100 mg/kg/d) in food for the last 8 weeks...
February 2019: Nutrition Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30795808/in-feed-resin-acids-reduce-matrix-metalloproteinase-activity-in-the-ileal-mucosa-of-healthy-broilers-without-inducing-major-effects-on-the-gut-microbiota
#5
Marisol Aguirre, Juhani Vuorenmaa, Eija Valkonen, Hannele Kettunen, Chana Callens, Freddy Haesebrouck, Richard Ducatelle, Filip Van Immerseel, Evy Goossens
The chicken gut is constantly exposed to harmful molecules and microorganisms which endanger the integrity of the intestinal wall. Strengthening intestinal mucosal integrity is a key target for feed additives that aim to promote intestinal health in broilers. Recently, dietary inclusion of resin-based products has been shown to increase broiler performance. However, the mode of action is still largely unexplored. Coniferous resin acids are known for their anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties, all properties that might support broiler intestinal health...
February 22, 2019: Veterinary Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30605228/a-novel-role-for-the-extracellular-matrix-glycoprotein-tenascin-x-in-gastric-function
#6
Rubina Aktar, Madusha Peiris, Asma Fikree, Simon Eaton, Stamatiki Kritas, Stephen J Kentish, Eduardo J A Araujo, Cristiano Bacarin, Amanda J Page, Nicol C Voermans, Qasim Aziz, L Ashley Blackshaw
KEY POINTS: Tenascin X (TNX) functions in the extracellular matrix of skin and joints to maintain correct intercellular connections and tissue architecture TNX is associated exclusively with vagal-afferent endings and some myenteric neurones in mouse and human stomach respectively. TNX-deficient mice have accelerated gastric emptying and hypersensitivity of gastric vagal mechanoreceptors that can be normalised by an inhibitor of vagal-afferent sensitivity. Cultured nodose ganglion neurones showed no changes in response to capsaicin, cholecystokinin and potassium chloride in TNX-deficient mice...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30561008/regeneration-of-the-acorn-worm-pygochord-with-the-implication-for-its-convergent-evolution-with-the-notochord
#7
Koji Yoshimura, Yoshiaki Morino, Hiroshi Wada
The origin of the notochord is a central issue in chordate evolution. This study examined the development of the acorn worm pygochord, a putative homologue of the notochord. Because the pygochord differentiates only after metamorphosis, the developmental was followed process by inducing regeneration after artificial amputation in Ptychodera flava. It was found that although the regeneration of the posterior part of the body did not proceed via formation of an obvious regeneration bud, pygochord regeneration was observed within a few weeks, possibly via trans-differentiation of endoderm cells...
December 18, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30370192/effect-of-bacillus-subtilis-c-3102-on-bone-mineral-density-in-healthy-postmenopausal-japanese-women-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-clinical-trial
#8
Takuou Takimoto, Misaki Hatanaka, Tomohiro Hoshino, Tsuyoshi Takara, Ko Tanaka, Atsushi Shimizu, Hiroto Morita, Teppei Nakamura
Gut microbiota influence the host immune system and are associated with various diseases. In recent years, postmenopausal bone loss has been suggested to be related to gut microbiota. In the present study, we investigated the treatment effect of the probiotic Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (C-3102) on bone mineral density (BMD) and its influence on gut microbiota in healthy postmenopausal Japanese women. Seventy-six healthy postmenopausal Japanese women were treated with a placebo or C-3102 spore-containing tablets for 24 weeks...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30335170/a-brief-review-of-recent-discoveries-in-human-anatomy
#9
Ashutosh Kumar, Sanjib K Ghosh, Muneeb A Faiq, Vishwajit R Deshmukh, Chiman Kumari, Vikas Pareek
In the last few years, a cluster of anatomical discoveries has been reported which overturned the long existing dogmas about the structure and function of human body. First to come was the discovery that established the existence of a lymphatic system pertaining to the central nervous system (CNS). CNS was believed to be anatomically immune privileged owing to the absence of any lymphatics and presence of the blood-brain barrier around it, but latest research has established beyond any reasonable doubt that true lymphatic channels carry immune cells in meninges thus challenging the existing theory...
October 18, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30329034/vedolizumab-in-refractory-microscopic-colitis-an-international-case-series
#10
Pauline Rivière, Andreas Münch, Pierre Michetti, Nilesh Chande, Gert de Hertogh, Patrick Schoeters, Marc Ferrante, Séverine Vermeire, Gert Van Assche
Background: Evidence for second line therapy in patients with microscopic colitis (MC) failing budesonide is scarce, although anti-tumor necrosing factors (anti-TNFs), methotrexate and azathioprine have been reported to be effective in small cohort studies. Vedolizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting α4β7-integrin, prevents homing of T-cells to the gut. We evaluated clinical remission with vedolizumab in budesonide-refractory MC patients. Methods: We solicited gastroenterologists in Europe and Canada for cases of MC treated with vedolizumab...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30286437/-1-h-nmr-based-dynamic-metabolomics-delineates-the-therapeutic-effects-of-baoyuan-decoction-on-isoproterenol-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy
#11
Zhiyong Du, Ran Wen, Qian Liu, Jinlong Wang, Yingyuan Lu, Mingbo Zhao, Xiaoyu Guo, Pengfei Tu, Yong Jiang
Cardiac hypertrophy (CH) is a major risk factor for many serious heart diseases. Sustained CH is catastrophic, resulting in cardiac dysfunction that eventually leads to heart failure (HF). Baoyuan decoction (BYD) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula for supplementing and reinforcing Qi, clinically used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the therapeutic effects of BYD on CH remain unidentified. We herein investigated the effect of BYD on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced CH in rats and the underlying mechanisms by comprehensive pharmacodynamics and 1 H NMR-based dynamic metabolomics analysis of the plasma and urine samples...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30283339/urolithin-a-inhibits-the-catabolic-effect-of-tnf%C3%AE-on-nucleus-pulposus-cell-and-alleviates-intervertebral-disc-degeneration-in-vivo
#12
Huiyong Liu, Honglei Kang, Chao Song, Zuowei Lei, Li Li, Jianfeng Guo, Yong Xu, Hanfeng Guan, Zhong Fang, Feng Li
Low back pain (LBP) is a common worldwide disease that causes an enormous social economic burden. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is considered as a major cause of LBP. The process of IDD is complicated and involves both inflammation and senescence. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and interleukin (IL)-1β, is increased in the degenerating intervertebral disc, inducing extracellular matrix degradation. Urolithin A (UA) is a metabolite compound resulting from the degradation of ellagitannins by gut bacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30282052/micro-patterned-endogenous-stroma-equivalent-induces-polarized-crypt-villus-architecture-of-human-small-intestinal-epithelium
#13
Vincenza De Gregorio, Giorgia Imparato, Francesco Urciuolo, Paolo A Netti
The small intestine is the major site for digestion, drug and nutrient absorption, as well as a primary site for many diseases. Current in vitro gut models fail in reproducing the complex intestinal extracellular matrix (ECM) network of the lamina propria and the peculiar architecture of the crypt-villus axis. Here we proposed a novel in vitro human intestine model that mimics the intestinal stromal topography and composition and strictly reproduces the tissue polarity with the crypt-villus architecture. First we developed a 3D human intestinal stromal equivalent (3D-ISE) composed of human intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs) embedded in their own extracellular matrix...
September 30, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30272033/bioaccessibility-of-shore-magic-%C3%A2-collagen-a-low-molecular-weight-collagen-supplement-in-different-in-vitro-barrier-models
#14
Marcel Benadiba, Raphael Serruya, Yehoshua Maor
Hydrolyzed collagen consists of peptides, which exert important biological functions in different body systems. This study aimed at testing the biological effects of a low molecular weight collagen (LMWC), namely Shore Magic® Collagen (SMC), in a series of in vitro assays and three different in vitro barrier models with translational significance. We also compared SMC's biological activities with its trypsinized form (TSMC). SMC enhanced migration in both epithelial and endothelial cells; and increased the adhesion of epithelial cells, but surprisingly not of endothelial cells...
September 2018: Heliyon
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30256442/a-biomimetic-human-gut-on-a-chip-for-modeling-drug-metabolism-in-intestine
#15
Yaqiong Guo, Zhongyu Li, Wentao Su, Li Wang, Yujuan Zhu, Jianhua Qin
Drug metabolism in the intestine is considered to substantially contribute to the overall first-pass metabolism, which has been neglected for a long time. It is highly desirable to develop a reliable model to evaluate drug metabolism in the intestine in vitro. In this work, we made the first attempt to develop a biomimetic human gut-on-a-chip for modeling drug metabolism in intestine. In this chip, constant flow, together with porous nitrocellulose membrane and collagen I, mimics an in vivo-like intestinal microenvironment...
September 5, 2018: Artificial Organs
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30191979/endotoxin-regulates-matrix-genes-increasing-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-by-intercellular-communication-between-palmitate-treated-hepatocyte-and-stellate-cell
#16
Waleska Dornas, Denise Glaise, Aude Bodin, Ahmad Sharanek, Audrey Burban, Dounia Le Guillou, Sacha Robert, Stephanie Dutertre, Caroline Aninat, Anne Corlu, Vincent Lagente
Previous studies have shown that gut-derived bacterial endotoxins contribute in the progression of simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, although the mechanism(s) remains inaccurate to date. As hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play a pivotal role in the accumulation of excessive extracellular matrix (ECM), leading to collagen deposition, fibrosis, and perpetuation of inflammatory response, an in vitro model was developed to investigate the crosstalk between HSC and hepatocytes (human hepatoma cell) pretreated with palmitate...
January 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30183743/no-effect-of-rifaximin-on-soluble-cd163-mannose-receptor-or-type-iii-and-iv-neoepitope-collagen-markers-in-decompensated-cirrhosis-results-from-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#17
Nina Kimer, Natasja Stæhr Gudmann, Julie Steen Pedersen, Søren Møller, Mette Juul Nielsen, Diana Julie Leeming, Morten Asser Karsdal, Holger Jon Møller, Flemming Bendtsen, Henning Grønbæk
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Macrophages play a significant role in chronic liver disease as reflected by elevated soluble (s)CD163 and mannose receptor (sMR) levels and associated with liver disease severity and prognosis. Extracellular matrix remodelling associated with fibrogenesis may be affected by systemic inflammation induced by bacterial translocation. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of rifaximin-α, an antibiotic with effect on gut bacteria, on sCD163, sMR, and collagen metabolites...
2018: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30180841/no-changes-in-levels-of-bone-formation-and-resorption-markers-following-a-broad-spectrum-antibiotic-course
#18
Kristian H Mikkelsen, Tina Vilsbøll, Jens J Holst, Bolette Hartmann, Filip K Knop, Morten Frost
BACKGROUND: Intestinal bacteria influence bone remodeling in rodents, and antibiotic manipulation of the rodent gut microbiota increases bone formation and prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss. In theory, these effects may be mediated by changes in sex hormone biotransformation in the gut, gut serotonin secretion or nutrition-induced secretion of glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic hormone (GIP). Antibiotics change the human gut microbiota, but the effect of antibiotic treatment on human bone turnover is unknown...
September 4, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30175152/ghrelin-ameliorates-angiotensin-ii-induced-myocardial-fibrosis-by-upregulating-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-in-young-male-rats
#19
Qian Wang, Xin Sui, Rui Chen, Pei-Yong Ma, Yong-Liang Teng, Tao Ding, Dian-Jun Sui, Ping Yang
Angiotensin (Ang) II contributes to the formation and development of myocardial fibrosis. Ghrelin, a gut peptide, has demonstrated beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we explored the effect and related mechanism of Ghrelin on myocardial fibrosis in Ang II-infused rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 6 groups: Control, Ang II (200ng/kg/min, microinfusion), Ang II+Ghrelin (100 μ g/kg, subcutaneously twice daily), Ang II+Ghrelin+GW9662 (a specific PPAR- γ inhibitor, 1 mg/kg/d, orally), Ang II+GW9662, and Ghrelin for 4 wks...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30168625/evaluation-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-in-mdx-mice-an-experimental-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#20
David Feder, Mariana Ierardi, Ana Laura Covre, Giuliana Petri, Alzira Alves de Siqueira Carvalho, Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca, Bruno Machado Bertassoli
This study describes the functional and morphological alterations in the intestines of mdx mice (n = 4) compared with the intestinal features of C57BL/10 mice (n = 7) at 2 months of age. The whole gut transit time (carmine red) and the upper gut transit time (activated charcoal) were measured, and light microscopy was utilized to view stained sections (H&E and picrosirius red) for histological analysis. No significant difference in mean evacuation time for the whole gut was observed between the two groups, but a significant delay in activated charcoal passage was observed in the mdx mice...
August 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
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