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Vascular tumors molecular pathology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30856466/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-inhibits-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-via-attenuating-inflammation-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-studies
#1
Fangzheng Chen, Heng Wang, Jie Zhao, Junjie Yan, Hanyan Meng, Huilu Zhan, Luowei Chen, Linbo Yuan
Inflammation in pulmonary arterioles initiates and maintains pathological processes in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and inhibition of it attenuates PAH development. Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) is believed to be effective in protecting vascular system via inhibiting inflammation, while its effect on pulmonary circulation remains inconclusive. In this study, we made observations in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rats and found decreases in mean pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary vessel resistance, right ventricular hypertrophy index, percentage of medial wall thickness, percentage of medial wall area, and lung weight of wet and dry tissue ratio after GSP administration in vivo...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774370/the-inhibitive-effect-of-sh-hif1a-as2-on-the-proliferation-invasion-and-pathological-damage-of-breast-cancer-via-targeting-mir-548c-3p-through-regulating-hif-1%C3%AE-vegf-pathway-in-vitro-and-vivo
#2
Xiao Guo, Shenghai Lee, Peilong Cao
Background: Breast cancer (BC) has been the commonest malignant tumor with a low survival rate among woman. Long non-coding RNA hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha antisense RNA-2 (HIF1A-AS2) was correlated with various cancers. Purpose: The study aimed to investigate the roles and related underlying molecular mechanisms of HIF1A-AS2 in BC. Material and methods: Target relationships were speculated by Targetscan 7.0 and confirmed by dual luciferase reporter assay...
2019: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762113/imaging-features-of-smarca4-deficient-thoracic-sarcomas-a-multi-centric-study-of-21-patients
#3
Amandine Crombé, Nicolas Alberti, Nicolas Villard, Frank Pilleul, Xavier Buy, François Le Loarer, Michèle Kind
OBJECTIVES: SMARCA4-deficient thoracic sarcoma (SMARCA4-DTS) is a recently identified aggressive subtype of sarcoma. The aim of this study was to characterize the CT imaging features of SMARCA4-DTS. METHODS: From June 2011 to May 2017, 21 adult patients with histologically proven SMARCA4-DTS were identified in the radiological database of 2 French sarcoma reference centers with at least one chest CT scan available. The locations, sizes, heterogeneity, margin definitions, and local extensions of the tumors were reported together with their impact on surrounding organs and regional and distant metastases...
February 14, 2019: European Radiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739805/sinonasal-glomangiopericytoma-a-clinicopathologic-study
#4
Farres Obeidin, Lawrence J Jennings, Borislav A Alexiev
Sinonasal glomangiopericytoma (SNGP) is a neoplasm arising in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses that shows perivascular myoid differentiation. The diagnosis of SNGP may be diagnostically challenging due to a large number of potential mimics. In the present study, we sought to characterize the histological and molecular features of six cases of SNGP found in prior surgical pathology records over a 15-year period. The average age at diagnosis was 48.5 years (range: 31-78 years), and the male-to-female ratio was 1:1...
February 3, 2019: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30736365/the-role-of-osteoprotegerin-and-its-ligands-in-vascular-function
#5
REVIEW
Luc Rochette, Alexandre Meloux, Eve Rigal, Marianne Zeller, Yves Cottin, Catherine Vergely
The superfamily of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors includes osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its ligands, which are receptor activators of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). The OPG/RANKL/RANK system plays an active role in pathological angiogenesis and inflammation as well as cell survival. It has been demonstrated that there is crosstalk between endothelial cells and osteoblasts during osteogenesis, thus establishing a connection between angiogenesis and osteogenesis...
February 6, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30694356/-mesenchymal-and-mixed-uterine-tumors-current-overview-and-practical-aspects
#6
REVIEW
S F Lax
Benign leiomyomas are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the uterus. In contrast, uterine sarcomas are very rare. Leiomyosarcomas are the most frequent sarcomas followed by endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS). Leiomyosarcomas are characterized by marked nuclear atypia and high mitotic count and may also show tumor cell necrosis and myometrial and vascular invasion. For cases of diagnostic uncertainty, the category of smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) may be considered but should be rarely used...
January 29, 2019: Der Pathologe
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30675196/tumor-immunohistochemistry-and-preoperative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-predict-local-recurrence-of-giant-cell-tumor-of-bone-following-intralesional-curettage
#7
Yifeng He, Yu Zhou, Ji Zhang, Fei Yuan, Jun Wang, Lianjun Du, Qi Zhou, Jing Liang, Xiaoyi Ding
Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is among the most prevalent types of tumor of the bone in East and Southeast Asia. The high rate of local recurrence following intralesional curettage poses a challenge for the clinical treatment of GCTB. In the present study, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) and RANK ligand (RANKL) in GCTB was investigated by immunohistochemical staining. A correlation between expression and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features was identified...
February 2019: Oncology Letters
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30657619/roles-of-epha1-a2-and-ephrin-a1-in-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Katsuaki Ieguchi, Yoshiro Maru
The biological functions of the Eph/ephrin system have been intensively investigated and well documented so far since its discovery in 1987. Although the Eph/ephrin system has been implicated in pathological settings such as Alzheimer's disease and cancer, the molecular mechanism of the Eph/ephrin system in those diseases is not well understood. Especially in cancer, recent studies have demonstrated that most of Eph and ephrin are up- or down-regulated in various types of cancer, and have been implicated in tumor progression, tumor malignancy, and prognosis...
January 18, 2019: Cancer Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30536289/malignant-vascular-tumors-of-the-liver-in-adults
#9
Venancio Avancini Ferreira Alves, Jordi Rimola
Hepatic angiosarcoma and epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) might be clinically considered a spectrum since, although more frequently presenting indolent behavior, EHE occasionally evolves to high-grade neoplasms. However, in most circumstances, pathological and immunohistochemical patterns define this differential diagnosis. More recently, molecular pathways for angiosarcoma and for EHE from other organs and from soft tissue have been proved different, paving the way for future morpho-molecular assessment of their hepatic counterpart...
February 2019: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30417961/-integrated-diagnosis-of-pilocytic-astrocytoma-molecular-diagnostic-procedure-for-an-unusual-case
#10
Yusuke Ishida, Masumi Tsuda, Yutaka Sawamura, Kyoko Fujii, Hiroshi Murai, Naruyoshi Horiuchi, Yasuko Orba, Hirofumi Sawa, William W Hall, Kazuo Nagashima, Shinya Tanaka
A 24 year-old female presented with a mass lesion in the right temporal lobe. This case was difficult to diagnose using histological and immunological methods and therefore molecular analyses were applied to provide a definitive diagnosis. The tumor was well-demarcated, partially cystic, and irregularly-enhanced on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Pathologically, a large part of the tumor consisted of cells with fine cytoplasmic processes on a myxoid and mucinous background. Cells formed a microcystic structure around the mucinous tissue...
November 12, 2018: Pathology International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30382607/immunohistochemical-correlates-of-recurrent-genetic-alterations-in-sarcomas
#11
REVIEW
William J Anderson, Jason L Hornick
Sarcomas encompass a broad group of malignant mesenchymal neoplasms, whose accurate diagnosis and classification relies on the integration of clinical, histopathological and molecular features. Our understanding of the latter has increased dramatically in recent years with the widespread application of high-throughput sequencing. Concomitantly, the role of immunohistochemistry has continued to expand, as many genomic alterations have been exploited by the development of novel diagnostic markers that act as surrogates for their detection...
November 1, 2018: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30349543/long-pentraxin-3-modulates-the-angiogenic-activity-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-2
#12
REVIEW
Marco Presta, Eleonora Foglio, Ander Churruca Schuind, Roberto Ronca
Angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation from pre-existing ones, plays a key role in various physiological and pathological conditions. Alteration of the angiogenic balance, consequent to the deranged production of angiogenic growth factors and/or natural angiogenic inhibitors, is responsible for angiogenesis-dependent diseases, including cancer. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) represents the prototypic member of the FGF family, able to induce a complex "angiogenic phenotype" in endothelial cells in vitro and a potent neovascular response in vivo as the consequence of a tight cross talk between pro-inflammatory and angiogenic signals...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30233771/investigation-of-ccr7-marker-expression-using-immunohistochemical-method-and-its-association-with-clinicopathologic-properties-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#13
Laleh Vahedi, Maryam Ghasemi, Jamshid Yazdani, Samaneh Ranjbar, Banafshe Nouri, Ahad Alizadeh, Parvaneh Afshar
Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women in the world, especially in Iran. There are large numbers of molecular and genomic factors causing breast cancer as well as many markers associated with tumor invasion. Chemokines are small proteins that primarily regulate leukocyte trafficking in the homeostatic conditions and specific immune responses. Chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) belongs a class A subtype 7-span transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor. CCR7 plays a role in the migration of tumor cells such as immune cells into lymphoid organs through binding to its only two ligands CCL19/CCL21...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30166919/roles-of-some-antioxidants-in-modulation-of-cardiac-myopathy-induced-by-sodium-nitrite-via-down-regulation-of-mrna-expression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-bax-and-flt-1-and-suppressing-dna-damage
#14
Laila Mohamed Fadda, Hala A Attia, Nouf Mohamed Al-Rasheed, Hanaa Mahmoud Ali, Nawal Mohamed Al-Rasheed
The underlying pathology of cardiac damage involves various molecular and signaling pathways. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the role of Quercetin (Querc), alone or in combination with Melatonin (Melat) against cardiac damage induced by sodium nitrite (Sod nit), as well as to elucidate different signaling pathways. Querc and Melat were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.), followed by induction of hypoxia in rats by using a single dose of Sod nit (60 mg/kg, s.c.). Treatment with Sod nit significantly decreased hemoglobin (Hb) levels in blood...
February 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30142879/roles-of-the-tgf-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-vegf-c-pathway-in-fibrosis-related-lymphangiogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Hiroshi Kinashi, Yasuhiko Ito, Ting Sun, Takayuki Katsuno, Yoshifumi Takei
Lymphatic vessels drain excess tissue fluids to maintain the interstitial environment. Lymphatic capillaries develop during the progression of tissue fibrosis in various clinical and pathological situations, such as chronic kidney disease, peritoneal injury during peritoneal dialysis, tissue inflammation, and tumor progression. The role of fibrosis-related lymphangiogenesis appears to vary based on organ specificity and etiology. Signaling via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, VEGF-D, and VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-3 is a central molecular mechanism for lymphangiogenesis...
August 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30139561/dna-profile-components-predict-malignant-outcomes-in-select-cases-of-intraductal-papillary-mucinous-neoplasm-with-negative-cytology
#16
Rachel E Simpson, Nathan J Cockerill, Michele T Yip-Schneider, Eugene P Ceppa, Michael G House, Nicholas J Zyromski, Attila Nakeeb, Mohammad A Al-Haddad, C Max Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Predicting malignancy in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm remains challenging. Integrated molecular pathology combines pancreatic fluid DNA and clinical factors into a malignant potential score. We sought to determine the utility of DNA components alone in predicting high-grade dysplasia/invasive disease. METHODS: We reviewed prospectively the records from 1,106 patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. We excluded non-intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm cases and cases with definitive malignant cytology...
August 20, 2018: Surgery
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30049513/arp3-promotes-tumor-metastasis-and-predicts-a-poor-prognosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
Jiale Lv, Jinxia Liu, Mingbin Xiao, Hui Xu, Chenzhou Xu, Xuening Zhang, Lei Tang, Feng Jiang, Yifan Zhou, Zijuan Zhang, Lishuai Qu, Cuihua Lu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Therefore, the study of the precise molecular mechanism underlying hepatocarcinogenesis has profound significance. In this study, we found that the expression of ARP3 was significantly up-regulated in HCC tissues and cell lines. Studies in liver cancer specimens showed that the expression of ARP3 is closely related to the pathological grade, distant metastasis and vascular invasion of HCC. According to the results of multivariate analysis, ARP3 is an independent prognostic factor for HCC patients...
September 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30014686/immunotherapy-and-potential-molecular-targets-for-the-treatment-of-pituitary-adenomas-resistant-to-standard-therapy-a-critical-review-of-potential-therapeutic-targets-and-current-developments
#18
Tamara Maghathe, William K Miller, Luke Mugge, Tarek R Mansour, Jason Schroeder
INTRODUCTION: Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors, accounting for as much as 25% of intracranial neoplasms. Although existing remedies show success in treating most PAs, treatment of invasive and non-functioning PAs, in addition to functioning PAs unresponsive to standard therapy, remains challenging. With the continually increasing understanding of biochemical pathways involved in tumorigenesis, immunotherapy stands as a promising alternative therapy for pituitary tumors that are resistant to standard therapy...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29948548/the-pathology-of-soft-tissue-sarcomas
#19
REVIEW
Marta Sbaraglia, Angelo P Dei Tos
Soft tissue sarcomas represent a heterogeneous group of rare malignancies exhibiting mesenchymal differentiation with an overall incidence of around 5/100,000/year. Rarity and morphologic heterogeneity significantly affect diagnostic accuracy; therefore, expertise can be achieved only through access to large number of cases. Soft tissue sarcomas are currently classified on the basis of the 2013 WHO classification of soft tissue tumors that integrate conventional morphology with immunohistochemistry and molecular genetics...
June 12, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29928359/increased-tumor-vascularization-is-associated-with-the-amount-of-immune-competent-pd-1-positive-cells-in-testicular-germ-cell-tumors
#20
Lukas Jennewein, Georg Bartsch, Kilian Gust, Hans-Michael Kvasnicka, Axel Haferkamp, Roman Blaheta, Michel Mittelbronn, Patrick N Harter, Jens Mani
Testicular germ cell cancer in a metastatic state is curable with a cisplatin-based first line chemotherapy. However, 10-15% of these patients are resistant to first line chemotherapy and are thus left with only palliative options. Immunotherapies and inhibition of angiogenesis used in multiple types of cancer; however, the molecular context of angiogenesis and immune checkpoints in the development and progression of testicular cancers is still unknown. Therefore, the present study performed tissue micro array based analysis of 84 patients with immunohistochemistry of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) of testicular cancer and corresponding normal appearing testis tissue, matching the results with clinical data...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
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