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Gut microbe percentage

Elena Biagi, Arianna Aceti, Sara Quercia, Isadora Beghetti, Simone Rampelli, Silvia Turroni, Matteo Soverini, Angelo Vittorio Zambrini, Giacomo Faldella, Marco Candela, Luigi Corvaglia, Patrizia Brigidi
Mother's own milk represents the optimal source for preterm infant nutrition, as it promotes immune defenses and gastrointestinal function, protects against necrotizing enterocolitis, improves long-term clinical outcome and is hypothesized to drive gut microbiota assembly. Preterm infants at birth usually do not receive their mother's milk directly from the breast, because active suckling and coordination between suckling, swallowing and breathing do not develop until 32-34 weeks gestational age, but actual breastfeeding is usually possible as they grow older...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Weipeng Zhang, Hiromi Kayama Watanabe, Wei Ding, Yi Lan, Ren-Mao Tian, Jin Sun, Chong Chen, Lin Cai, Yongxin Li, Kazumasa Oguri, Takashi Toyofuku, Hiroshi Kitazato, Jeffrey C Drazen, Douglas Bartlett, Pei-Yuan Qian
Hadal environments sustain diverse microorganisms. A few studies have investigated hadal microbial communities consisting of free-living or particle-associated bacteria and archaea. However, animal-associated microbial communities in hadal environments remain largely unexplored, and comparative analyses of animal gut microbiota between two isolated hadal environments have never been done so far. In the present study, 228 gigabases of gut metagenomes of the giant amphipod Hirondellea gigas from two hadal trenches, the Mariana Trench and Japan Trench, were sequenced and compared...
October 26, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Minmin Cai, Shiteng Ma, Ruiqi Hu, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Linda S Thomashow, Longyu Zheng, Wu Li, Ziniu Yu, Jibin Zhang
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manure are an environmental concern due to naturally occurring bacteria being exposed to these wastes and developing multidrug resistance. The bioconversion of manure with fly larvae is a promising alternative for recycling these wastes while attenuating ARGs. We investigated the impact of black soldier fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens) larval bioconversion of chicken manure on the persistence of associated ARGs. Compared to traditional composting or sterile larval treatments (by 48...
October 15, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Aline F O Ramos, Stephanie A Terry, Devin B Holman, Gerhard Breves, Luiz G R Pereira, André G M Silva, Alexandre V Chaves
Tucumã oil is sourced from the fruit pulp of the tucumã tree and contains high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids. Due to these properties it may have the potential to decrease enteric methane (CH4 ) from ruminants when included in the diet. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of oil mechanically extracted from the fruit pulp of tucumã on fermentation characteristics, CH4 production and the microbial community using the rumen stimulation technique. Treatments consisted of a control diet (forage:concentrate; 70:30), and tucumã oil included at 0...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jessica L Sanchez, Joel C Trexler
Herbivory is thought to be an inefficient diet, but it independently evolved from carnivorous ancestors in many metazoan groups, suggesting that plant-eating is adaptive in some circumstances. In this study, we tested two hypotheses to explain the adaptive evolution of herbivory: (i) the Heterotroph Facilitation hypothesis (herbivory is adaptive because herbivores supplement their diets with heterotrophic microbes); and (ii) the Lipid Allocation hypothesis (herbivory is adaptive because algae, which have high lipid concentrations, are nutritionally similar to carnivory)...
June 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Jennifer L Kaczmarek, Salma Ma Musaad, Hannah D Holscher
Background: Preclinical research has shown that the gastrointestinal microbiota exhibits circadian rhythms and that the timing of food consumption can affect the composition and function of gut microbes. However, there is a dearth of knowledge on these relations in humans. Objective: We aimed to determine whether human gastrointestinal microbes and bacterial metabolites were associated with time of day or behavioral factors, including eating frequency, percentage of energy consumed early in the day, and overnight-fast duration...
November 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Eleni Gentekaki, Bruce A Curtis, Courtney W Stairs, Vladimír Klimeš, Marek Eliáš, Dayana E Salas-Leiva, Emily K Herman, Laura Eme, Maria C Arias, Bernard Henrissat, Frédérique Hilliou, Mary J Klute, Hiroshi Suga, Shehre-Banoo Malik, Arthur W Pightling, Martin Kolisko, Richard A Rachubinski, Alexander Schlacht, Darren M Soanes, Anastasios D Tsaousis, John M Archibald, Steven G Ball, Joel B Dacks, C Graham Clark, Mark van der Giezen, Andrew J Roger
Blastocystis is the most prevalent eukaryotic microbe colonizing the human gut, infecting approximately 1 billion individuals worldwide. Although Blastocystis has been linked to intestinal disorders, its pathogenicity remains controversial because most carriers are asymptomatic. Here, the genome sequence of Blastocystis subtype (ST) 1 is presented and compared to previously published sequences for ST4 and ST7. Despite a conserved core of genes, there is unexpected diversity between these STs in terms of their genome sizes, guanine-cytosine (GC) content, intron numbers, and gene content...
September 2017: PLoS Biology
Kai-Yu Xu, Geng-Hong Xia, Jun-Qi Lu, Mu-Xuan Chen, Xin Zhen, Shan Wang, Chao You, Jing Nie, Hong-Wei Zhou, Jia Yin
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The present study aimed to investigate the gut microbiota and blood trimethylamine-N-oxide concentration (TMAO) in Chinese CKD patients and explore the underlying explanations through the animal experiment. The median plasma TMAO level was 30.33 μmol/L in the CKD patients, which was significantly higher than the 2.08 μmol/L concentration measured in the healthy controls. Next-generation sequence revealed obvious dysbiosis of the gut microbiome in CKD patients, with reduced bacterial diversity and biased community constitutions...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hea-Jong Chung, Jae G Yu, In-Ah Lee, Ming-Jie Liu, Yan-Fei Shen, Satya P Sharma, Mohammad A H M Jamal, Jun-Hyun Yoo, Hyeon-Jin Kim, Seong-Tshool Hong
Recent findings on the association of gut microbiota with various diseases, including obesity, prompted us to investigate the possibility of using a certain type of gut bacteria as a safe therapeutic for obesity. Lactobacillus mutants with enhanced capacity in absorption of free fatty acids (FFAs) were isolated to show reduced absorption of FFAs by the administered host, attributing to inhibition of body weight gain and body fat accumulation as well as amelioration of blood profiles. Consequently, high throughput screening of natural FFAs-absorbing intestinal microbes led to the isolation of Lactobacillus reuteri JBD30 l...
January 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Matteo Valzano, Valentina Cecarini, Alessia Cappelli, Aida Capone, Jovana Bozic, Massimiliano Cuccioloni, Sara Epis, Dezemona Petrelli, Mauro Angeletti, Anna Maria Eleuteri, Guido Favia, Irene Ricci
BACKGROUND: Malaria control strategies are focusing on new approaches, such as the symbiotic control, which consists in the use of microbial symbionts to prevent parasite development in the mosquito gut and to block the transmission of the infection to humans. Several microbes, bacteria and fungi, have been proposed for malaria or other mosquito-borne diseases control strategies. Among these, the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus has been recently isolated from the gut of Anopheles mosquitoes, where it releases a natural antimicrobial toxin...
January 11, 2016: Malaria Journal
Lin-Tao Zhang, Ren-Rong Tian, Hong-Yi Zheng, Guo-Qing Pan, Xiao-Yu Tuo, Hou-Jun Xia, Xue-Shan Xia, Wei Pang, Yong-Tang Zheng
Human/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infection can cause severe depletion of CD4(+) T cells in both plasma and mucosa; it also results in damage to the gut mucosa barrier, which makes the condition more conducive to microbial translocation. In this study, we used SIV-infected Chinese rhesus macaques to quantify the extent of microbial translocation and the function of immune cells in the entire gastrointestinal tract and to compare their differences between rapid and slow progressors. The results showed that in the slow progressors, microbial products translocated considerably and deeply into the lamina propria of the gut; the tissue macrophages had no significant differences compared with the rapid progressors, but there was a slightly higher percentage of mucosal CD8(+) T cells and a large amount of extracellular microbial products in the lamina propria of the intestinal mucosa of the slow progressors...
April 2016: Immunology
Mary Beth Hall
Starch, glycogen, maltooligosaccharides, and other α-1,4- and α-1,6-linked glucose carbohydrates, exclusive of resistant starch, are collectively termed "dietary starch". This nutritionally important fraction is increasingly measured for use in diet formulation for animals as it can have positive or negative effects on animal performance and health by affecting energy supply, glycemic index, and formation of fermentation products by gut microbes. AOAC Method 920.40 that was used for measuring dietary starch in animal feeds was invalidated due to discontinued production of a required enzyme...
March 2015: Journal of AOAC International
Irina Grishina, Anne Fenton, Sumathi Sankaran-Walters
As the "baby boomers" age, the percentage of the population over sixty-five years of age is increasing rapidly. Chronic disease management is an important component in the care of the elderly. The effects of aging on different organ systems are also pertinent; such as the weakening homeostatic response to injury in the older individuals. Mucosal surfaces have the largest combined surface area in the body and are the site of important host microbe interactions, especially in the gut which is prone to injury, both from local and systemic insult...
April 2014: Aging and Disease
James Gaertner, Phil E Wheeler, Shola Obafemi, Jessica Valdez, Michael R J Forstner, Timothy H Bonner, Dittmar Hahn
Sediment, water, and fish gut samples taken at three sites near the headwaters of the San Marcos River, Texas, were analyzed for salmonellae Salmonella spp. by culture and molecular techniques. While enrichment cultures from sediment and water samples from the two uppermost sites were negative for salmonellae in polymerase chain reaction analyses, both sediment and water samples were positive at the downstream site. At all sites, salmonellae were present in the guts of different fishes (e.g., largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus)...
September 2008: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Sou Ohkawara, Hideki Furuya, Kousuke Nagashima, Narito Asanuma, Tsuneo Hino
Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, a butyrate-producing ruminal bacterium, was evaluated for use as a probiotic to prevent colorectal cancer. Oral administration to Jcl:ICR mice of a new strain of B. fibrisolvens (MDT-1) that produces butyrate at a high rate (10(9) cfu/dose) increased the rate of butyrate production by fecal microbes, suggesting that MDT-1 can grow in the gut. The number of colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF), putative preneoplastic lesions induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, was reduced after MDT-1 administration (10(9) cfu/dose, 3 times/wk for 4 wk)...
December 2005: Journal of Nutrition
Seppo Peuranen, Kirsti Tiihonen, Juha Apajalahti, Anu Kettunen, Markku Saarinen, Nina Rautonen
The effects of various dietary fibres on gut health have been studied extensively but their combined effects are scarcely documented. In the present study the effects of 2 % (w/w) polydextrose (PDX), 2 % (w/w) disaccharide lactitol, or 2 % (w/w) PDX+2 % (w/w) lactitol on gut microflora, microbial metabolism and gut immune responses were investigated in rats. Both PDX and lactitol alone had an effect on many of the studied parameters, but their combination had stronger than additive effects in some parameters...
June 2004: British Journal of Nutrition
Erin E Mosley, Gary L Powell, Melissa B Riley, Thomas C Jenkins
Ruminant products are significant sources of dietary trans fatty acids. Trans fatty acids, including various conjugated linoleic acid isomers, have been shown to act as metabolic modifiers of lipid metabolism. Trans fatty acids originate from biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids by gut microbes; however, the exact synthetic pathways are unclear. It was our goal to examine the biohydrogenation pathway for oleic acid, where oleic acid is hydrogenated directly to stearic acid. Our objective in this study was to trace the time course of appearance of 13C in labeled oleic acid to determine if trans monoenes are formed from the 13C-labeled oleic acid or if the 13C appears only in stearic acid as described in reviews of earlier work...
February 2002: Journal of Lipid Research
H Kubesová, D Bobulová, J Mayer, J Vorlícek
The authors analyzed the course of 100 cycles of chemotherapy administered on account of haematological oncological disease: 66 cycles with administration of selective decontamination and 34 without its administration. Based on an analysis of the gut flora they provided evidence of the necessity of concurrent administration of originally separately administered antibiotics and of the necessity to replace nystatin by amphotericin B. They found a significant reduction of the incidence of infectious complications, the number of days with a body temperature above 38 and reduced consumption of antibiotics...
April 1993: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
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