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tumor niche

Ritu Jaiswal, Lisa M Sedger
Intercellular communication is a normal feature of most physiological interactions between cells in healthy organisms. While cells communicate directly through intimate physiology contact, other mechanisms of communication exist, such as through the influence of soluble mediators such as growth factors, cytokines and chemokines. There is, however, yet another mechanism of intercellular communication that permits the exchange of information between cells through extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are microscopic (50 nm-10 μM) phospholipid bilayer enclosed entities produced by virtually all eukaryotic cells...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Wolfgang Eisenreich, Thomas Rudel, Jürgen Heesemann, Werner Goebel
Viruses and intracellular bacterial pathogens (IBPs) have in common the need of suitable host cells for efficient replication and proliferation during infection. In human infections, the cell types which both groups of pathogens are using as hosts are indeed quite similar and include phagocytic immune cells, especially monocytes/macrophages (MOs/MPs) and dendritic cells (DCs), as well as nonprofessional phagocytes, like epithelial cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. These terminally differentiated cells are normally in a metabolically quiescent state when they are encountered by these pathogens during infection...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Mathieu J F Crupi, John C Bell, Ragunath Singaravelu
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have the capacity to self-renew and differentiate to give rise to heterogenous cancer cell lineages in solid tumors. These CSC populations are associated with metastasis, tumor relapse and resistance to conventional anti-cancer therapies. Here, we focus on the use of oncolytic viruses (OVs) to target CSCs as well as the OV-driven interferon production in the tumor microenvironment (TME) that can repress CSC properties. We explore the ability of OVs to deliver combinations of immune-modulating therapeutic transgenes, such as immune checkpoint inhibitor antibodies...
March 15, 2019: Stem Cells
Michela Colombo, Natalia Platonova, Domenica Giannandrea, Maria Teresa Palano, Andrea Basile, Raffaella Chiaramonte
Notch and its ligands on adjacent cells are key mediators of cellular communication during developmental choice in embryonic and adult tissues. This communication is frequently altered in the pathological interaction between cancer cells and healthy cells of the microenvironment due to the aberrant expression of tumor derived Notch receptors or ligands, that results in homotypic or heterotypic Notch signaling activation in tumor cells or surrounding stromal cells. A deadly consequence of this pathological communication is pharmacological resistance that results in patient's relapse...
2019: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jiamin Chen, Billy T Lau, Noemi Andor, Susan M Grimes, Christine Handy, Christina Wood-Bouwens, Hanlee P Ji
The diverse cellular milieu of the gastric tissue microenvironment plays a critical role in normal tissue homeostasis and tumor development. However, few cell culture model can recapitulate the tissue microenvironment and intercellular signaling in vitro. We used a primary tissue culture system to generate a murine p53 null gastric tissue model containing both epithelium and mesenchymal stroma. To characterize the microenvironment and niche signaling, we used single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) to determine the transcriptomes of 4,391 individual cells...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Chiara Gai, Margherita A C Pomatto, Cristina Grange, Maria Chiara Deregibus, Giovanni Camussi
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important mediators of intercellular communication in cancer and in normal tissues. EVs transfer biologically active molecules from the cell of origin to recipient cells. This review summarizes the studies on EVs derived from renal cell carcinoma and from a subpopulation of CD105-positive renal cancer stem cells. While EVs from renal cell carcinoma show mild biological activity, EVs from renal cancer stem cells enhance tumor angiogenesis and metastasis formation. The effect is probably due to the transfer of proangiogenic RNA cargo to endothelial cells, which acquire an activated angiogenic phenotype...
March 15, 2019: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Sonia Tugues, Laura Ducimetiere, Ekaterina Friebel, Burkhard Becher
As crucial players in innate immunity, Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILCs) have been distinctly associated with either tumor-promoting or tumor-inhibiting activities. This dichotomy arises from the high degree of heterogeneity and plasticity between the ILC family subsets. Also, the tissue microenvironment is crucial for the function of ILCs. Especially within the tumor niche, each of the ILC subsets participates in a complex network of interactions with other cells and molecules. Although extensive research has unraveled several aspects of the crosstalk ILCs establish with the tumor microenvironment (TME), numerous questions remain to be answered...
March 11, 2019: Seminars in Immunology
Xina Zhang, Buqing Sai, Fan Wang, Lujuan Wang, Yuhui Wang, Leliang Zheng, Guiyuan Li, Jingqun Tang, Juanjuan Xiang
BACKGROUND: Metastasis is the main cause of lung cancer mortality. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a component of the cancer microenvironment and contribute to cancer progression. Intratumoral hypoxia affects both cancer and stromal cells. Exosomes are recognized as mediators of intercellular communication. Here, we aim to further elucidate the communication between BMSC-derived exosomes and cancer cells in the hypoxic niche. METHODS: Exosomal miRNA profiling was performed using a microRNA array...
March 13, 2019: Molecular Cancer
Fuhao Qiao, Peng Pan, Jiaping Yan, Jing Sun, Yan Zong, Zhiyong Wu, Xiaoqin Lu, Na Chen, Rui Mi, Yongbin Ma, Yuan Ji
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including micro‑vesicles and exosomes, are heterogeneous small membranous vesicles shed from the surface of myriad cells and are crucial in mediating intercellular communication. The vertical trafficking of cargo to the plasma membrane and subsequent redistribution of surface lipids may contribute to EV formation. Tumor‑derived extracellular vesicles (TD‑EVs) can carry complex, bioactive cargo, such as nucleic acids and proteins, during tumor metastasis. Paracrine information gets relayed by TD‑EVs to adjacent tumor cells and this allows a crosstalk between malignant cells...
March 12, 2019: International Journal of Oncology
Jinjie Wu, Haiyan Li, Hongyu Xie, Xianrui Wu, Ping Lan
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex and heterogeneous malignant cancer characterized by its high prevalence and poor prognosis. Among different etiologies, impairment of immune surveillance and dysbiosis are important events to mediate the invasion and metastasis of CRC. Although aberrant distribution of macrophages and microbiota exhibits distinct properties to modulate the malignant behaviors of CRC, the crosstalk among macrophages, microbiomes and tumor cells remains unclear. Exosomes are intercellular messengers carrying different cargo to regulate the biological and pathologic changes of recipient cells...
March 13, 2019: Carcinogenesis
Saeid Shahrabi, Zeinab D Zayeri, Narges Ansari, Elham H Hadad, Elham Rajaei
Natural killer (NK) cells play an essential role in the immune response to infections, inflammations, and malignancies. Recent studies suggest that NK cell surface receptors and cytokines are the key points of the disease development and protection. We hypothesized that the interactions between NK cell receptors and targeted cells construct an eventual niche, and this niche has an eventual profile in various autoimmune diseases and cancers. The NK cells preactivated with cytokines, such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18 can have higher cytotoxicity; however, the toxic side effect of IL-2 should be considered...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Suchitra Natarajan, Kaitlyn M Foreman, Michaela I Soriano, Ninna S Rossen, Hussein Shehade, Daniel R Fregoso, Joshua T Eggold, Venkatesh Krishnan, Oliver Dorigo, Adam J Krieg, Sarah C Heilshorn, Subarna Sinha, Katherine C Fuh, Erinn B Rankin
Peritoneal metastases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Accumulating evidence suggests that mesothelial cells are an important component of the metastatic microenvironment in HGSOC. However, the mechanisms by which mesothelial cells promote metastasis are unclear. Here we report that the HGSOC tumor-mesothelial niche was hypoxic and hypoxic signaling enhanced collagen I deposition by mesothelial cells. Specifically, hypoxic signaling increased expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX) in mesothelial and ovarian cancer cells to promote collagen crosslinking and tumor cell invasion...
March 12, 2019: Cancer Research
Said M Afify, Masaharu Seno
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) also known as cancer-initiating cells (CIC), are responsible for the sustained and uncontrolled growth of malignant tumors and are proposed to play significant roles in metastasis and recurrence. Several hypotheses have proposed that the events in either stem and/or differentiated cells, such as genomic instability, inflammatory microenvironment, cell fusion, and lateral gene transfer, should be considered as the possible origin of CSCs. However, until now, the exact origin of CSC has been obscure...
March 11, 2019: Cancers
Di Liu, Qian Lu, Xing Wang, Jun Wang, Ning Lu, Zefei Jiang, Xiaopeng Hao, Jianbin Li, Jing Liu, Pengbo Cao, Guilin Peng, Yuandong Tao, Dianyuan Zhao, Fuchu He, Li Tang
Macrophages have been suggested to contribute to constructing a cancer stem cell (CSC) niche. However, whether and how macrophages regulate the activity of CSCs through juxtacrine signaling are poorly understood. Here we report LSECtin, a transmembrane protein highly expressed on tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), enhances stemness of breast cancer cells (BCCs). We identified BTN3A3, a B7 family member with previously unknown functions as the receptor for LSECtin on BCCs responsible for stemness-promoting effect of LSECtin...
March 11, 2019: Cell Research
Yaxin Guo, Xiang Ji, Jinbo Liu, Dandan Fan, Quanbo Zhou, Chen Chen, Weiwei Wang, Guixian Wang, Haijiang Wang, Weitang Yuan, Zhenyu Ji, Zhenqiang Sun
A pre-metastatic niche is a microenvironment prepared for the colonization of circulating tumor cells in specific organs. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles with a variety of biological functions. Exosomes play an irreplaceable role in the development of pre-metastatic niches, and mainly function as communication medium. In this review, we analyzed the effects of exosomes on pre-metastatic niches from various perspectives, including inflammation, immune response, angiogenesis, organotropism, matrix remodeling and biomarker expression...
March 11, 2019: Molecular Cancer
Jay Lopez, Divya Ramchandani, Linda Vahdat
Copper is an essential trace element that plays a critical role in a variety of basic biological functions, and serves as a key component in a number of copper-dependent enzymes that regulate such processes as cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and motility. A growing body of preclinical work has demonstrated that copper is essential to metastatic cancer progression, and may have a role in tumor growth, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and the formation of the tumor microenvironment and pre-metastatic niche...
January 14, 2019: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
Mayumi Fujita, Veena Somasundaram, Debashree Basudhar, Robert Y S Cheng, Lisa A Ridnour, Harumi Higuchi, Kaori Imadome, Jae Hong No, Gaurav Bharadwaj, David A Wink
Pancreatic cancer is a highly metastatic tumor with an extremely low 5-year survival rate. Lack of efficient diagnostics and dearth of effective therapeutics that can target the cancer as well as the microenvironment niche are the reasons for limited success in treatment and management of this disease. Cell invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) involves the complex regulation of adhesion to and detachment from ECM and its understanding is critical to metastatic potential of pancreatic cancer. To understand the characteristics of these cancer cells and their ability to metastasize, we compared human pancreatic cancer cell line, PANC-1 and its invading phenotype (INV) collected from transwell inserts...
March 6, 2019: Redox Biology
Sidra Asghar, Fahed Parvaiz, Sobia Manzoor
Platelets, the derivatives of megakaryocytes, pose dynamic biological functions such as homeostasis and wound healing. The mechanisms involved in these processes are utilized by cancerous cells for proliferation and metastasis. Platelets through their activation establish an aggregate termed as Tumor cell induced platelet aggregation (TCIPA) that aids in establishing a niche for the primary tumor at secondary site while recruiting granulocytes and monocytes. The study of these close interactions between the tumor and the platelets can be exploited as biomarkers in liquid biopsy for early cancer detection, thereby increasing the life expectancy of cancer patients...
February 26, 2019: Thrombosis Research
Vincenzo Ingangi, Michele Minopoli, Concetta Ragone, Maria Letizia Motti, Maria Vincenza Carriero
Disseminating Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) initiate growth in specific niches of the host tissues, the cellular and molecular components of which sustain signaling pathways that support their survival, self-renewal dormancy and reactivation. In the metastatic niche, tumor cells may enter in a dormant state to survive and, consequently, the metastasis can remain latent for years. Despite the clinical importance of metastatic latency, little is known about what induces CSCs to enter a dormant state and what allows them to remain viable for years in this state...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Claire Lamaison, Karin Tarte
Stromal cells have been considered for a long time essentially as a structural component organizing tissue architecture, including those of secondary lymphoid organs. More recently, highly specialized stromal cell subsets were shown to differentially organize immune cell recruitment, survival, and differentiation within lymph nodes. In particular, mature B cells interact with different lymphoid stromal cell networks through bidirectional interactions involving cell-cell contact and soluble factors. Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the paradigm of a B-cell malignancy dependent on a lymphoid-like microenvironment supporting tumor cell growth, drug resistance, and clonal evolution...
March 4, 2019: Immunology Letters
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