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metabolism pathway

MacLean G Kohlmeier, Catherine E White, Jane E Fowler, Turlough M Finan, Ivan J Oresnik
The legume endosymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti can utilize a broad range of carbon compounds to support its growth. The linear, six-carbon polyol galactitol is abundant in vascular plants and is metabolized in S. meliloti by the contribution of two loci SMb21372-SMb21377 and SMc01495-SMc01503 which are found on pSymB and the chromosome, respectively. The data suggest that several transport systems, including the chromosomal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter smoEFGK, contribute to the uptake of galactitol, while the adjacent gene smoS encodes a protein for oxidation of galactitol into tagatose...
March 16, 2019: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Vanessa L Z Gordon-Dseagu, Andriy Derkach, Qian Xiao, Ishmael Williams, Joshua Sampson, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon
INTRODUCTION: Sleep is increasingly being viewed as an issue of public health concern, yet few epidemiologic studies have explored associations between sleep habits and metabolomic profile. OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between sleep and blood metabolites. METHODS: We examined the association between sleep and 891 fasting plasma metabolites in a subgroup of 106 participants from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium feeding trial (1997-1999)...
March 16, 2019: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Jessica R Holan, Catherine K King, Abigael H Proctor, Andrew R Davis
Stressors associated with climate change and contaminants, resulting from the activities of humans, are affecting organisms and ecosystems globally. Previous studies suggest that the unique characteristics of polar biota, such as slower metabolisms and growth, and the generally stable conditions in their natural environment, cause higher susceptibility to contamination and climate change than those in temperate and tropical areas. We investigated the effects of increased temperature and decreased salinity on copper toxicity in four subantarctic marine invertebrates using realistic projected conditions under a future climatic change scenario for this region...
February 25, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Natalia Bourguignon, Verónica Irazusta, Paula Isaac, Cristina Estévez, Daniela Maizel, Marcela A Ferrero
In the present study the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon removal and metabolic adaptation of Amycolatopsis tucumanensis DSM 45259 were investigated. Analysis of one-dimensional gel electrophoresis of crude cell extracts revealed differential synthesis of proteins which were identified by MALDI-TOF. To elucidate the phenanthrene metabolic pathway in A. tucumanensis DSM45259, two-dimensional electrophoresis and detection of phenanthrene degradation intermediates by GS-MS were performed. The presence of aromatic substrates resulted in changes in the abundance of proteins involved in the metabolism of aromatic compounds, oxidative stress response, energy production and protein synthesis...
March 14, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Zhengkun Zhang, Yang Lu, Wenjing Xu, Qian Du, Li Sui, Yu Zhao, Qiyun Li
Beauveria bassiana (B. bassiana) is a broad-spectrum entomopathogenic species of fungi which is a natural enemy of Ostrinia furnacalis (O. furnacalis). Nevertheless, the precise mechanism of pathogenicity difference of B. bassiana strains on O. furnacalis has not been investigated before. In this study, two B. bassiana strains isolated from the infected O. furnacalis and exhibited different pathogenicity were chose to analyze the gene expression using RNA-sequencing analysis. To investigate the significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of these two strains, total RNA was extracted and Cuffdiff software was applied to perform the significance analysis of the microarrays method...
March 13, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Arianna Pocaterra, Giulia Santinon, Patrizia Romani, Irene Brian, Andrea Dimitracopoulos, Andrea Ghisleni, Alejandro Carnicer-Lombarte, Mattia Forcato, Paola Braghetta, Marco Montagner, Francesca Galuppini, Mariaceleste Aragona, Gianmaria Pennelli, Silvio Bicciato, Nils Gauthier, Kristian Franze, Sirio Dupont
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In vitro, several data indicate that cell function can be regulated by the mechanical properties of cells and of the microenvironment. Cells measure these features by developing forces via their actomyosin cytoskeleton, and respond accordingly by transducing forces into biochemical signals that instruct cell behavior. Among these, the transcriptional coactivators YAP/TAZ recently emerged as key factors mediating multiple responses to actomyosin contractility. However, whether mechanical cues regulate adult liver tissue homeostasis, and whether this occurs through YAP/TAZ, remains largely unaddressed...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Hepatology
Xiaobo Wang, Ya Hou, Qiuyue Li, Xuanhao Li, Wenxiang Wang, Xiaopeng Ai, Tingting Kuang, Xiaorui Chen, Yi Zhang, Jing Zhang, Yao Hu, Xianli Meng
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rhodiola crenulata, a traditional Tibetan medicine, has shown promise in the treatment of hypobaric hypoxia (HH)-induced brain injury. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study investigated the protective effects of R. crenulata aqueous extract (RCAE) on HH-induced brain injury in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An animal model of high-altitude hypoxic brain injury was established in SD rats using an animal decompression chamber for 24 h...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Sara Rodríguez-Enríquez, Silvia Cecilia Pacheco-Velázquez, Álvaro Marín-Hernández, Juan Carlos Gallardo-Pérez, Diana Xochiquetzal Robledo-Cadena, Ileana Hernández-Reséndiz, Jorge Donato García-García, Javier Belmont-Díaz, Rebeca López-Marure, Luz Hernández-Esquivel, Rosina Sánchez-Thomas, Rafael Moreno-Sánchez
The resveratrol (RSV) efficacy to affect the proliferation of several cancer cell lines was initially examined. RSV showed higher potency to decrease growth of metastatic HeLa and MDA-MB-231 (IC50  = 200-250 μM) cells than of low metastatic MCF-7, SiHa and A549 (IC50  = 400-500 μM) and non-cancer HUVEC and 3 T3 (IC50 ≥600 μM) cells after 48 h exposure. In order to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms underlying RSV anti-cancer effects, the energy metabolic pathways and the oxidative stress metabolism were analyzed in HeLa cells as metastatic-type cell model...
March 13, 2019: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Rupali Vohra, Blanca I Aldana, Giorgia Bulli, Dorte M Skytt, Helle Waagepetersen, Linda H Bergersen, Miriam Kolko
Loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is a leading cause of blinding conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracellular L-lactate on RGC survival facilitated through lactate metabolism and ATP production. We identified lactate as a preferred energy substrate over glucose in murine RGCs, and showed that lactate metabolism and consequently increased ATP production are crucial components in promoting RGC survival during energetic crisis. Lactate was released to the extracellular environment in the presence of glucose, and detained intracellularly during glucose deprivation...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Molecular Biology
Ming-Jie Kuang, Wei-Hao Zhang, Wei-Wei He, Lei Sun, Jian-Xiong Ma, Dachuan Wang, Xin-Long Ma
PURPOSE: Glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (GIONFH) is a common disease following long-term use or large doses of glucocorticoids. The pathogenesis of GIONFH remains controversial, and abnormal bone metabolism caused by glucocorticoids(GCs) may be one of the important factors. Due to its positive effect on bone remodeling, naringin shows potential therapeutic effects in bone metabolism-related diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that naringin regulated bone metabolism in rat GIONFH via the Akt/Bad signal cascades...
March 13, 2019: Chemico-biological Interactions
Tsuyoshi Inoue, Hiroshi Maekawa, Reiko Inagi
Organelle damage can cause various kidney diseases. In particular, organelle stress such as decreased proteostatic activity in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and altered energy metabolism in mitochondria contribute to glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage, resulting in the progression and development of kidney diseases. The ER regulates protein quality control via the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. Pathogenic ER stress leads to dysregulation of this pathway, and a maladaptive UPR is highly deleterious to renal cell function, and thereby has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various kidney diseases...
March 4, 2019: Kidney International
Francisco Madrid-Gambin, Melanie Föcking, Sophie Sabherwal, Meike Heurich, Jane A English, Aoife O'Gorman, Tommi Suvitaival, Linda Ahonen, Mary Cannon, Glyn Lewis, Ismo Mattila, Caitriona Scaife, Sean Madden, Tuulia Hyötyläinen, Matej Orešič, Stanley Zammit, Gerard Cagney, David R Cotter, Lorraine Brennan
BACKGROUND: The identification of early biomarkers of psychotic experiences (PEs) is of interest because early diagnosis and treatment of those at risk of future disorder is associated with improved outcomes. The current study investigated early lipidomic and coagulation pathway protein signatures of later PEs in subjects from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort. METHODS: Plasma of 115 children (12 years of age) who were first identified as experiencing PEs at 18 years of age (48 cases and 67 controls) were assessed through integrated and targeted lipidomics and semitargeted proteomics approaches...
January 30, 2019: Biological Psychiatry
Samuel Bernardo-Bermejo, Elena Sánchez-López, María Castro-Puyana, Selma Benito, Francisco Javier Lucio-Cazaña, María Luisa Marina
Diabetes mellitus is a major health concern nowadays. It is estimated that 40% of diabetics are affected by diabetic nephropathy, one of the complications derived from high glucose blood levels which can lead to chronic loss of kidney function. It is now clear that the renal proximal tubule plays a critical role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy but research focused on studying the molecular mechanisms involved is still needed. The aim of this work was to develop a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry platform to carry out, for the first time, the untargeted metabolomic analysis of high glucose-induced changes in cultured human proximal tubular HK-2 cells...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. A
S L Andersen, F B S Briggs, J H Winnike, Y Natanzon, S Maichle, K J Knagge, L K Newby, S G Gregory
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic delays are common for multiple sclerosis (MS) since diagnosis typically depends on the presentation of nonspecific clinical symptoms together with radiologically-determined central nervous system (CNS) lesions. It is important to reduce diagnostic delays as earlier initiation of disease modifying therapies mitigates long-term disability. Developing a metabolomic blood-based MS biomarker is attractive, but prior efforts have largely focused on specific subsets of metabolite classes or analytical platforms...
March 9, 2019: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Ahmad Ghasemi, Jafar Saeidi, Mohsen Azimi-Nejad, Seyed Isaac Hashemy
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates that obesity is associated with tumor development and progression. Leptin is an adipocyte-related hormone with a key role in energy metabolism and whose circulating levels are elevated in obesity. The effect of leptin on cancer progression and metastasis and its underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Leptin can impact various steps in tumor metastasis, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM), and proteolysis of ECM components...
March 15, 2019: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Dan Wu, Ming Zhou, Liang Li, Xiangfeng Leng, Zheng Zhang, Ning Wang, Yanwei Sun
Patients with severe burns are susceptible to infectious complications including burn-site infections and sepsis. The purpose of this study was to explore the pathologic development of burn injury in a mouse model and to screen genes dysregulated at different time points on the basis of gene expression microarrays. Differential expression analysis identified a total 223 genes that related to only time progression independent of burn injury and 214 genes with aberrant expression due to burn injury. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of the 214 genes obtained seven gene modules which named as red, blue, turquoise, green, brown, yellow, and gray module, and the blue module was found to be significantly associated with severe burn injury progression, and in which several genes were previously reported being associated with inflammation and immune response, such as interleukin IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1b...
March 16, 2019: Inflammation
Yota Tsuge, Naoto Kato, Shogo Yamamoto, Masako Suda, Toru Jojima, Masayuki Inui
Strain development is critical for microbial production of bio-based chemicals. The stereo-complex form of polylactic acid, a complex of poly-L- and poly-D-lactic acid, is a promising polymer candidate due to its high thermotolerance. Here, we developed Corynebacterium glutamicum strains producing high amounts of L- and D-lactic acid through intensive metabolic engineering. Chromosomal overexpression of genes encoding the glycolytic enzymes, glucokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphofructokinase, triosephosphate isomerase, and enolase, increased L- and D-lactic acid concentration by 146% and 56%, respectively...
March 15, 2019: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ali A Kermani, Rana Roy, Chai Gopalasingam, Klaudia I Kocurek, Trushar R Patel, Luke J Alderwick, Gurdyal S Besra, Klaus Fütterer
A growing body of evidence implicates the mycobacterial capsule - the outermost layer of the mycobacterial cell envelope - in modulation of the host immune response and virulence of mycobacteria. Mycobacteria synthesize the dominant capsule component, α(1→4)-linked glucan, via three interconnected, and potentially redundant metabolic pathways. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Mycobacterium smegmatis TreS-Pep2 complex, containing trehalose synthase (TreS) and maltokinase (Pep2), which convert trehalose to maltose-1-phosphate as part of the TreS-Pep2-GlgE pathway...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Vivek Kumar Pandey, Alpana Mathur, Mohammad Fareed Khan, Poonam Kakkar
Hyperglycemia associated ER stress has been found as a critical contributor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, reports regarding molecular mechanisms involved are limited. This study was aimed to identify the role of ER stress in regulating hepatic glucose metabolism and its link with oxidative stress. Further, this study explores the novel role of Morin, a flavonol, in modulating ER stress in STZ/nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic male Wistar rats. Results demonstrate that hyperglycemia induced ER stress in rats and significantly lowered the expression of glucose transporter proteins resulting in impaired glucose metabolism during diabetes...
March 12, 2019: Cellular Signalling
Xiaoxia Wu, Liu Liu, Jianke Li, Fumin Chi
Ovalbumin peptides are food protein-derived fragments comprised of amino acid residues. The bioactive properties of the peptides are determined by the inherent amino acid composition and sequence of the peptide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the proteomics characteristics in Tibetan chicken egg ovalbumin peptides, compared to ordinary eggs, using isobaric tags for the relative and absolute quantification labelling technique (iTRAQ). The results showed that 165 proteins were identified and 56 proteins were significantly changed including 34 significantly upregulated and 22 significantly downregulated proteins...
March 12, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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