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Hyesuk Seo, Ti Lu, Rahul M Nandre, Qiangde Duan, Weiping Zhang
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) producing type Ib heat-stable toxin (STa) are a top cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea, thus STa needs to be targeted in ETEC vaccine development. However, since this 19-amino acid STa is poorly immunogenic, the effort to genetically fuse or chemically couple to carrier proteins has been made to enhance STa immunogenicity. In this study, we selected one genetic fusion and one chemical conjugate to comparatively evaluate STa immunogenicity. The genetic fusion is 3xSTaN12S-mnLTR192G/L211A carrying three toxoid (STaN12S) genetically fused to a double mutant LT monomer (mnLTR192G/L211A); the chemical conjugate is BSA-STaA14T which has toxoid STaA14T chemically coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA)...
February 17, 2019: FEMS Microbiology Letters
A Lee, F Sim, P Mackie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2019: Public Health
L Squiers, M Lynch, S Dolina, S Ray, B Kelly, J Herrington, M Turner, D Chawla, S Becker-Dreps, L Stamm, L McCormack
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to understand what information the US media communicated about Zika virus (ZIKV) and travel in 2016 and 2017. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a content analysis of news coverage about ZIKV and travel from April 5, 2016 to March 31, 2017. METHODS: We obtained a stratified, random sample of English language, US print newspaper and television news coverage about ZIKV and travel. We developed a coding scheme to assess key messages in the news, including how ZIKV is transmitted, the symptoms and outcomes of ZIKV infection, and recommended prevention behaviors...
February 13, 2019: Public Health
D Spiliopoulos, M Panchal, D L Economides
AIM: To describe the experience of a single fetal medicine unit in evaluating pregnant women with potential exposure to Zika virus (ZIKV) following travel. METHOD: Between February 2016 and June 2017, a multidisciplinary team evaluated pregnant women by developing a local pathway based on Public Health England guidance. All pregnant women were offered serial fetal ultrasound scans (USS). If they presented with a history of clinical symptoms consistent with ZIKV infection during or within two weeks of travel or fetal USS was suggestive of microcephaly, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) and/or serology was used...
January 2019: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
Kyle A Cutting, Jay J Rotella, Sean R Schroff, Michael R Frisina, James A Waxe, Erika Nunlist, Bok F Sowell
Animals are expected to select habitats that maximize their fitness over evolutionary time scales. Yet in human-modified landscapes, habitat selection might not always lead to increased fitness because animals undervalue high-quality resources that appear less attractive than those of lower quality. In the American West, agriculture has modified landscapes, yet little is known about whether agricultural changes alter the reliability of the cues animals use to identify habitat quality; ultimately forming maladaptive breeding strategies where behavioral cues are mismatched with survival outcomes...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Christoph Thomas, Robert Tampé
Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules present peptides on the surface of most nucleated cells and allow the immune system to detect and eliminate infected or malignantly transformed cells. The peptides are derived from endogenous proteins by proteasomal degradation or aberrant translation, and are translocated from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), a central component of the peptide-loading complex (PLC). The peptides are subsequently processed by ER-resident aminopeptidases (ERAP1/2) and loaded onto MHC I...
February 13, 2019: Current Opinion in Immunology
Aileen Wyllie, Tracy Levett-Jones, Michelle DiGiacomo, Patricia Davidson
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the experiences of early career academic nurses as they shape their career path in one Australian university. BACKGROUND: The early years of academic career development can be challenging as individuals learn to adjust to the teaching, research and service mission of universities. Tertiary institutions have an obligation to provide future nursing leaders with relevant and timely support during the formative phase of career development, to be successful in a competitive global environment...
February 5, 2019: Nurse Education Today
Carlota Rodó, Anna Suy, Elena Sulleiro, Antoni Soriano-Arandes, Nerea Maiz, Itziar García-Ruiz, Silvia Arévalo, Ariadna Rando, Andrés Anton, Élida Vázquez Méndez, Marta Garrido, Antoinette Frick, Carlos Rodrigo, Tomás Pumarola, Elena Carreras
OBJECTIVES: to describe pregnancy outcomes after Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a non-endemic region. METHODS: according to the Spanish protocol issued after the ZIKV outbreak in Brazil in 2015, all pregnant women who had travelled to high-burden countries were screened for ZIKV. Serological and molecular tests were used to identify ZIKV-infected pregnant women. They were classified as confirmed ZIKV infection when reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tested positive, or probable ZIKV infection when ZIKV-immunoglobulin M and/or immunoglobulin G and ZIKV plaque reduction neutralization tests were positive...
February 13, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Brigitte Holt, Erin Whittey
OBJECTIVES: Lower limb diaphyseal geometry is often used to evaluate mobility in past populations. Diaphyseal dimensions such as high shape (IX /IY ) indices generally thought to reflect high mobility may also result from walking over rough terrain. This study investigates the possible effects of terrain on lower limb diaphyseal cross-sectional geometric dimensions. MATERIALS: The sample (N = 3,195) comprises adult skeletons from Europe, Africa, North America, and Asia, spanning from around 30,000 BP to mid-twentieth century...
February 16, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Lawrence D Frank, Jennifer L Kuntz, James E Chapman, Eric H Fox, John F Dickerson, Richard T Meenan, Brian E Saelens, Deborah R Young, Janne Boone-Heinonen, Stephen P Fortmann
BACKGROUND: The health impacts of community design have been studied extensively over the past two decades. In particular, public transportation use is associated with more walking between transit stops and shops, work, home and other destinations. Change in transit access has been linked with physical activity and obesity but seldom to health outcomes and associated costs, especially within a causal framework. Health related fiscal impacts of transit investment should be a key consideration in major transit investment decisions...
February 15, 2019: BMC Public Health
Richard Zhu, Kathryn Dean, Neel Mehta, Ajay Gupta, Jesse Gruber, Amitabh Gulati
INTRODUCTION: Determining safer techniques for lumbar injections is an important goal in pain medicine. This study aims to characterize the location of the T10-L5 spinal arteries using CT angiogram scans to define a safer approach for sympathetic and splanchnic blocks that minimizes intra-arterial injection. METHODS: CT angiograms of 68 patients were included this study. The path of the spinal arteries from the aorta origin along the vertebral body to the neural foramina was traced on axial CT images...
February 15, 2019: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
L C Ramsay, K Anyiwe, M Li, L Macdonald, P C Coyte, B Sander
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) causes acute liver infection and is spread through the fecal-oral route. Travel to countries in HAV-endemic regions (e.g., Asia and Latin America) is a well-described risk factor for infection. Currently, Ontario publicly funds hepatitis A vaccination for some populations at high risk of HAV infection but not for all travellers to endemic countries. The objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of expanding publicly funded HAV vaccination to people planning travel to HAV-endemic regions, from the Ontario healthcare payer perspective...
February 12, 2019: Vaccine
Ashley Sharp, Suzi Coles, Matthieu Pegorie, Ceryl Harwood, Siew-Lin Ngui, William Welfare, Sema Mandal, Koye Balogun, Mike Gent
In August 2015 two community outbreaks of hepatitis A virus (HAV) occurred in sub-urban communities in Northern England. Each was managed by an independent outbreak control team. In outbreak one, mass vaccination was deployed targeting a residential area and two schools, while in outbreak two, vaccination was reserved for household-type contacts of cases. The highest vaccination uptake was achieved in the school settings (82% and 95%). These case studies illustrate the range of approaches that can be used and the factors that influence decision-making in response to a hepatitis A community outbreak...
February 12, 2019: Vaccine
Keunhyun Park, Dong-Ah Choi, Guang Tian, Reid Ewing
Urban design literature says that public open space in a station area could promote walking and other types of physical activity, enhance place attractiveness, and increase property values. In the context of station areas, however, there is a lack of empirical studies on the relationship between the presence of parks and sustainable travel behavior, which is one of the primary goals of transit-oriented developments (TODs). This study examined the impact of park provision on transit users' mode choice in three U...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Muhammad Tauhidur Rahman, Kh Md Nahiduzzaman
Rapid urban expansion and population growth in Saudi cities over the past four decades have increased vehicular accidents and traffic congestion and have impacted the daily walking conditions of the residents. Walking has various health and environmental benefits. In North American and European countries, three factors have been found to motivate a resident to walk within their community: their accessibility to community social and business facilities, their perception and willingness, and the safety conditions of the roads and sidewalks within their community for walking...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
S K Ries, V Piai, D Perry, S Griffin, K Jordan, R Henry, R T Knight, M S Berger
Human language is organized along two main processing streams connecting posterior temporal cortex and inferior frontal cortex in the left hemisphere, travelling dorsal and ventral to the Sylvian fissure. Some views propose a dorsal motor versus ventral semantic division. Others propose division by combinatorial mechanism, with the dorsal stream responsible for combining elements into a sequence and the ventral stream for forming semantic dependencies independent of sequential order. We acquired data from direct cortical stimulation in the left hemisphere in 17 neurosurgical patients and subcortical resection in a subset of 10 patients as part of awake language mapping...
February 11, 2019: Brain and Language
S Stalin, R Ramakrishnan, M Senthilvelan, M Lakshmanan
It is known that the Manakov equation which describes wave propagation in two mode optical fibers, photorefractive materials, etc., can admit solitons which allow energy redistribution between the modes on collision that also leads to logical computing. In this Letter, we point out that the Manakov system can admit a more general type of nondegenerate fundamental solitons corresponding to different wave numbers, which undergo collisions without any energy redistribution. The previously known class of solitons which allows energy redistribution among the modes turns out to be a special case corresponding to solitary waves with identical wave numbers in both the modes and traveling with the same velocity...
February 1, 2019: Physical Review Letters
F Lemery, P Piot, G Amatuni, P Boonpornprasert, Y Chen, J Good, B Grigoryan, M Groß, M Krasilinikov, O Lishilin, G Loisch, A Oppelt, S Philipp, H Qian, Y Renier, F Stephan, I Zagorodnov
Temporally modulated electron beams have a wide array of applications ranging from the generation of coherently enhanced electromagnetic radiation to the resonant excitation of electromagnetic wakefields in advanced-accelerator concepts. Likewise producing low-energy ultrashort microbunches could be useful for ultrafast electron diffraction and new accelerator-based light-source concepts. In this Letter we propose and experimentally demonstrate a passive microbunching technique capable of forming a picosecond bunch train at ∼6  MeV...
February 1, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Hua Zhang, D N Wang
A fiber in-line reflective Mach-Zehnder interferometer is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, which is based on a tilted in-fiber beam splitter inscribed by a femtosecond laser. The beam splitter splits the incident light beam into two parts; one is directed to the fiber cladding-air interface, where it experiences total internal reflection and is directed to the fiber core. The other part of the light beam keeps traveling in the fiber core. The two parts of the light beams are recombined in the fiber core to generate interference before being reflected at the fiber cut end face...
February 15, 2019: Optics Letters
C B Hayes, M P O'Shea, C Foley-Nolan, M McCarthy, J M Harrington
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the implementation of school based diet and physical activity interventions with respect to the barriers and facilitators to adoption, implementation and sustainability; supportive actions required for implementation and recommendations to overcome identified barriers. Two interventions rolled out nationally in Ireland were chosen; Food Dudes, a programme to encourage primary school children to consume more fruit and vegetables and Green Schools Travel (GST), an active travel to school programme in primary and secondary schools...
February 15, 2019: BMC Public Health
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