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Apical rocking

Laura Rangel, Miguel Bernabé-Rubio, Jaime Fernández-Barrera, Javier Casares-Arias, Jaime Millán, Miguel A Alonso, Isabel Correas
The primary cilium is a single non-motile protrusion of the plasma membrane of most types of mammalian cell. The structure, length and function of the primary cilium must be tightly controlled because their dysfunction is associated with disease. Caveolin 1 (Cav1), which is best known as a component of membrane invaginations called caveolae, is also present in non-caveolar membrane domains whose function is beginning to be understood. We show that silencing of α and β Cav1 isoforms in different cell lines increases ciliary length regardless of the route of primary ciliogenesis...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
Yinlong Zhu, Hassan A Tahini, Zhiwei Hu, Jie Dai, Yubo Chen, Hainan Sun, Wei Zhou, Meilin Liu, Sean C Smith, Huanting Wang, Zongping Shao
Efficient electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction are key to realize clean hydrogen production through water splitting. As an important family of functional materials, transition metal oxides are generally believed inactive towards hydrogen evolution reaction, although many of them show high activity for oxygen evolution reaction. Here we report the remarkable electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction of a layered metal oxide, Ruddlesden-Popper-type Sr2 RuO4 with alternative perovskite layer and rock-salt SrO layer, in an alkaline solution, which is comparable to those of the best electrocatalysts ever reported...
January 11, 2019: Nature Communications
Emmanouil Poulidakis, Constantina Aggeli, Skevos Sideris, Eliza Sfendouraki, Iosif Koutagiar, Andreas Katsaros, Evangelos Giannoulis, Markos Koukos, Eleni Margioula, Stavroula Lagoudakou, Kostas Gatzoulis, Polychronis Dilaveris, Ioannis Kallikazaros, Stavroula Couloheri, Christodoulos Stefanadis, Dimitrios Tousoulis
Non-response cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) remains an issue, despite the refinement of selection criteria. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of stress echocardiography along with dyssynchrony parameters for identification of CRT responders or late responders. 106 symptomatic heart failure patients were examined before, 6 months and 2-4 years after CRT implementation. Inotropic contractile reserve (ICR) and inferolateral (IL) wall viability were studied by stress echocardiography...
January 8, 2019: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Kelsey M Greathouse, Benjamin D Boros, Josue F Deslauriers, Benjamin W Henderson, Kendall A Curtis, Erik G Gentry, Jeremy H Herskowitz
Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK) 1 and 2 are attractive drug targets for a range of neurologic disorders; however, a critical barrier to ROCK-based therapeutics is ambiguity over whether there are isoform-specific roles for ROCKs in neuronal structural plasticity. Here, we used a genetics approach to address this long-standing question by analyzing both male and female adult ROCK1+/- and ROCK2+/- mice compared to littermate controls. Individual pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were targeted for iontophoretic microinjection of fluorescent dye, followed by high-resolution confocal microscopy and neuronal 3D reconstructions for morphometry analysis...
December 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Eric D Bankaitis, Matthew E Bechard, Guoqiang Gu, Mark A Magnuson, Christopher V E Wright
During mouse pancreas organogenesis, endocrine cells are born from progenitors residing in an epithelial plexus niche. After a period in a lineage-primed Neurog3 LO state, progenitors become endocrine committed via upregulation of Neurog3 We find that the Neurog3 LO to Neurog3 HI transition is associated with distinct stages of an epithelial egression process: narrowing the apical surface of the cell, basalward cell movement and eventual cell-rear detachment from the apical lumen surface to allow clustering as nascent islets under the basement membrane...
September 21, 2018: Development
Zhihong Du, Zijia Zhang, Anna Niemczyk, Anna Olszewska, Ning Chen, Konrad Swierczek, Hailei Zhao
The effects of A-site substitutions on the interstitial oxygen formation energy and the migration energy in layered A2-xA'xNiO4+δ (A = selected lanthanides, A' = Ba, Sr, Ca) are investigated by first principles calculations. The interstitial oxygen formation energy is negative, in the range of -4.81 eV to -3.45 eV, strongly supporting easiness of formation of the interstitial oxygen defects in the (A,A')O rock salt plane. The Pr2NiO4+δ compound shows the lowest formation energy, indicating the highest amount of interstitial oxygen...
August 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Charlotte A Kelley, Alison C E Wirshing, Ronen Zaidel-Bar, Erin J Cram
We identify the Caenorhabditis elegans myosin light-chain kinase, MLCK-1, required for contraction of spermathecae. During contraction, MLCK-1 moves from the apical cell boundaries to the basal actomyosin bundles, where it stabilizes myosin downstream of calcium signaling. MLCK and ROCK act in distinct subsets of cells to coordinate the timing of contraction.
August 8, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Shichao Liu, Gerelchimeg Bou, Jianchao Zhao, Shimeng Guo, Jia Guo, Xiaogang Weng, Zhi Yin, Zhonghua Liu
Upregulation of Cdx2 expression in outer cells is a key event responsible for cell lineage segregation between the inner cell mass and the trophoderm (TE) in mouse morula-stage embryos. In TE cells, polarization can regulate Hippo and Rho-associated kinase (Rho-ROCK) signaling to induce the nuclear location of YAP, which has been demonstrated to further induce the expression of Cdx2. However, we found that CDX2 expression could not be detected in the outer cells of porcine morula-stage embryos but only in some TE cells at the early blastocyst stage...
May 2, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Chanaporn Sutthinun, Jean-Luc Gattolliat, Boonsatien Boonsoong
Platybaetis bishopi Müller-Liebenau, 1980 was originally described from Malaysia only at the larval stage. We provide the first description of the imaginal stage of P. bishopi based on materials from Thailand. The imago of this species can be separated from the known species by coloration of abdominal terga and coloration of wings. A new species, Platybaetis nayokensis sp. nov., is described based on male and female imagos and larvae from Thailand. The larva of this species is mainly distinguished by medium acute spines on the posterior margin of the abdominal terga and two apical setae on the glossa, which seem to be shorter than in other species...
February 7, 2018: Zootaxa
A R Vivekananda Pai, Varun Arora
A metallic obstruction in the canal orifice of a maxillary right canine could not be bypassed during endodontic treatment. Aids such as ultrasonics and retrieval kits were not available for the removal of the obstruction. Therefore, a novel approach using a disposable syringe needle was employed. A 22-gauge needle was inserted into the orifice and turned in an arc with a gentle apical pressure and alternate rocking motion around the obstruction. This procedure was repeated few times to cut dentin and successfully dislodge and remove the obstruction using the sharp beveled tip of the needle...
March 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Ahmed S Beela, Serkan Ünlü, Jürgen Duchenne, Agnieszka Ciarka, Ana Maria Daraban, Martin Kotrc, Marit Aarones, Mariola Szulik, Stefan Winter, Martin Penicka, Aleksandar N Neskovic, Tomasz Kukulski, Svend Aakhus, Rik Willems, Wolfgang Fehske, Lothar Faber, Ivan Stankovic, Jens-Uwe Voigt
Aim: To determine if incorporation of assessment of mechanical dyssynchrony could improve the prognostic value of patient selection based on current guidelines. Methods and results: Echocardiography was performed in 1060 patients before and 12 ± 6 months after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) implantation. Mechanical dyssynchrony, defined as the presence of apical rocking or septal flash was visually assessed at the baseline examination. Response was defined as ≥15% reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume at follow-up...
February 22, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Ting Zhou, Zhihong Yu, Ming-Yuan Jian, Israr Ahmad, Carol Trempus, Brant M Wagener, Jean-Francois Pittet, Saurabh Aggarwal, Stavros Garantziotis, Weifeng Song, Sadis Matalon
Acid (HCl) aspiration during anesthesia may lead to acute lung injury. There is no effective therapy. We hypothesized that HCl instilled intratracheally in C57BL/6 mice results in the formation of low-molecular weight hyaluronan (L-HA), which activates RhoA and Rho kinase (ROCK), causing airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and increased permeability. Furthermore, instillation of high-molecular weight hyaluronan (H-HA; Yabro) will reverse lung injury. We instilled HCl in C57BL/6 wild-type (WT), myeloperoxidase gene-deficient (MPO-/- ) mice, and CD44 gene-deficient (CD44-/- ) mice...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Stella Gomes Rodrigues, André R Senna, Adriana Quadra, Alessandra Angélica DE Pádua Bueno
A new species of the freshwater amphipod Hyalella Smith, 1874 is described for the plateau of the Itatiaia National Park, located between the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. This is the first Brazilian species of Hyalella found at more than 2,200 meters of altitude. The specimens were found in a small stream, buried under rocks, in the higher area of the Park. The main morphological characteristics that differentiate the new species are the extreme reduction of the size of the uropod 3, absence of apical setae on telson, absence of comb-scales on gnatopods 1 and 2, absence of curved seta on inner ramus of uropod 1 and sternal gills tubular on pereonites 3 to 7...
November 6, 2017: Zootaxa
Shoko Ito, Satoru Okuda, Masako Abe, Mari Fujimoto, Tetsuo Onuki, Tamako Nishimura, Masatoshi Takeichi
Normal epithelial cells are stably connected to each other via the apical junctional complex (AJC). AJCs, however, tend to be disrupted during tumor progression, and this process is implicated in cancer dissemination. Here, using colon carcinoma cells that fail to form AJCs, we investigated molecular defects behind this failure through a search for chemical compounds that could restore AJCs, and found that microtubule-polymerization inhibitors (MTIs) were effective. MTIs activated GEF-H1/RhoA signaling, causing actomyosin contraction at the apical cortex...
November 28, 2017: Nature Communications
Alexander X Cartagena-Rivera, Christina M Van Itallie, James M Anderson, Richard S Chadwick
Maintenance of epithelial tissue integrity requires coordination between cell-cell adherens junctions, tight junctions (TJ), and the perijunctional actomyosin cytoskeleton. Here we addressed the hypothesis that alterations in TJ structure and remodeling of the actomyosin cytoskeleton modify epithelial mechanics. Current methods to measure supracellular mechanical properties disrupt intact monolayers, therefore, we developed a novel method using noncontact acoustic frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) and tested it on MDCK polarized monolayers...
October 18, 2017: Nature Communications
Ivan Stankovic, Aleksandra Janicijevic, Aleksandra Dimic, Milica Stefanovic, Radosav Vidakovic, Biljana Putnikovic, Aleksandar N Neskovic
OBJECTIVES: Bundle branch blocks (BBB)-related mechanical dyssynchrony and dispersion may improve patient selection for device therapy, but their effect on the natural history of this patient population is unknown. METHODS: A total of 155 patients with LVEF ≤ 35% and BBB, not treated with device therapy, were included. Mechanical dyssynchrony was defined as the presence of either septal flash or apical rocking. Contraction duration was assessed as time interval from the electrocardiographic R-(Q-)wave to peak longitudinal strain in each of 17 left ventricular segments...
March 2018: Annals of Medicine
Ivan Stankovic, Ann Belmans, Christian Prinz, Agnieszka Ciarka, Ana Maria Daraban, Martin Kotrc, Marit Aarones, Mariola Szulik, Stefan Winter, Aleksandar N Neskovic, Tomasz Kukulski, Svend Aakhus, Rik Willems, Wolfgang Fehske, Martin Penicka, Lothar Faber, Jens-Uwe Voigt
Aims: Clinical experience indicates that limited or no reverse left ventricular (LV) remodelling may not necessarily imply non-response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We investigated the association of the extent of LV remodelling, mechanical dyssynchrony, and survival in patients undergoing CRT. Methods and results: In 356 CRT candidates, three blinded readers visually assessed the presence of mechanical dyssynchrony (either apical rocking and/or septal flash) before device implantation and also its correction by CRT 12 ± 3 months post-implantation...
October 1, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Win Pin Ng, Kevin D Webster, Caroline Stefani, Eva M Schmid, Emmanuel Lemichez, Patricia Bassereau, Daniel A Fletcher
The endothelium serves as a protective semipermeable barrier in blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. Leukocytes and pathogens can pass directly through the endothelium by opening holes in endothelial cells, known as transcellular tunnels, which are formed by contact and self-fusion of the apical and basal plasma membranes. Here we test the hypothesis that the actin cytoskeleton is the primary barrier to transcellular tunnel formation using a combination of atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy of live cells...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Xiang Qin, Byung Ouk Park, Jiaying Liu, Bing Chen, Valerie Choesmel-Cadamuro, Karine Belguise, Won Do Heo, Xiaobo Wang
Pulsatile actomyosin contractility, important in tissue morphogenesis, has been studied mainly in apical but less in basal domains. Basal myosin oscillation underlying egg chamber elongation is regulated by both cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesions. However, the mechanism by which these two adhesions govern basal myosin oscillation and tissue elongation is unknown. Here we demonstrate that cell-matrix adhesion positively regulates basal junctional Rho1 activity and medio-basal ROCK and myosin activities, thus strongly controlling tissue elongation...
April 13, 2017: Nature Communications
Ivan Stankovic, Christian Prinz, Agnieszka Ciarka, Ana Maria Daraban, Yujing Mo, Marit Aarones, Mariola Szulik, Stefan Winter, Aleksandar N Neskovic, Tomasz Kukulski, Svend Aakhus, Rik Willems, Wolfgang Fehske, Martin Penicka, Lothar Faber, Jens-Uwe Voigt
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the volumetric response and the long-term survival after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with intrinsic left bundle branch block (LBBB) versus chronic right ventricular pacing (RVP) with respect to the presence of mechanical dyssynchrony (MD). BACKGROUND: Chronic RVP induces an iatrogenic LBBB and asynchronous left ventricular contraction that is potentially reversible by upgrading to CRT. METHODS: A total of 914 patients eligible for CRT (117 with conventional pacemakers and 797 with intrinsic LBBB) were included in the study...
October 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
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