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Strength AND Training

Steven J Duhig, Matthew N Bourne, Robert L Buhmann, Morgan D Williams, Geoffrey M Minett, Llion A Roberts, Ryan G Timmins, Casey K E Sims, Anthony J Shield
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether five-weeks of concentric (CON) or eccentric (ECC) hamstring strength training have different effects on recovery from sprint running, eccentric strength and architecture of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH ). DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: Thirty males (age, 22.8±4.1y; height, 180.1±6.4cm; weight, 85.2±14.6kg) were allocated into either a CON or ECC group, both performing nine sessions of resistance training...
January 26, 2019: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Cristian Álvarez, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Alejandro Lucia, Alicia Alonso-Martínez, Harry Faúndez, Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Mikel Izquierdo
Our aim was to investigate the effects of 12-weeks of CT (i.e., high-intensity interval and resistance training) in Mapuche adults from Chile and in their peers of European descent. In total, 96 hyperglycemic adult women (mean age 46 years [95% confidence interval; 38, 53]) were divided in four groups: Mapuche CT (Map-CT, n=14) or control group (Map-CG, n=44), and European CT (Eur-CT, n=14) or control group (Eur-CG, n=23). The following endpoints were analyzed at baseline and after 12 weeks: anthropometric (body mass, body mass index, waist circumference), body composition (fat mass, muscle mass, lean mass), cardiovascular (systolic [SBP]/diastolic [DBP] blood pressure), metabolic (blood fasting glucose and total cholesterol), and muscle strength (handgrip of dominant/non-dominant arm)...
February 15, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
David Li, Kulamakan Kulasegaram, Brian D Hodges
Recently in medicine, the accuracy of machine learning models in predictive tasks has started to meet or exceed that of board certified specialists. The ability to automate cognitive tasks using software has raised new questions about the future role of human physicians in health care. Emerging technologies can displace people from their jobs, forcing them to learn new skills, so it is clear that this looming challenge needs to be addressed by the medical education system. While current medical education seeks to prepare the next generation of physicians for a rapidly evolving health care landscape to meet the needs of the communities they serve, strategic decisions about disruptive technologies should be informed by a deeper investigation of how machine learning will function in the context of medicine...
February 12, 2019: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Monika Ehrensberger, Daniel Simpson, Patrick Broderick, Catherine Blake, Frances Horgan, Paula Hickey, Joanne O'Reilly, Kenneth Monaghan
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of mirror-aided cross-education compared to cross-education alone in post-stroke upper limb recovery. DESIGN: A pilot randomized controlled parallel group study was carried out. Thirty-two chronic stroke patients followed a 4-week isometric strength-training programme performed with the less-affected upper limb 3 times per week. Participants in the mirror and strength training group observed the reflection of the exercising arm in the mirror; Participants in the strength training only group exercised without a mirror entirely...
February 13, 2019: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
L S Kox, P P F M Kuijer, J Opperman, G M J J Kerkhoffs, M Maas, M H W Frings-Dresen
Objectives Young athletes do not always seek medical help for overuse wrist injuries, risking invalidating long-term consequences resulting from late diagnosis. This study aimed to develop a questionnaire to identify overuse wrist injuries in young athletes. Methods According to the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) criteria, items were collected from literature and 6 focus groups of sports physicians and of young athletes with (previous) overuse wrist injuries...
February 15, 2019: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Sarpreet Kahlon, Kiah Brubacher-Cressman, Erica Caron, Keren Ramonov, Ruth Taubman, Katherine Berg, F Virginia Wright, Alicia J Hilderley
This study explored children's experiences of participating in one-to-one physical training programs to identify how programs can best promote physical activity participation for children with cerebral palsy. A qualitative descriptive design with self-determination theory was used. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 6 children with cerebral palsy, age 8-14 years, who participated in a fundamental-movement-skills or lower-limb strength-training program. A hybrid approach of deductive and inductive analysis was used...
February 15, 2019: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly: APAQ
Marialuisa Gandolfi, Nicola Valè, Eleonora Kirilova Dimitrova, Stefano Mazzoleni, Elena Battini, Mirko Filippetti, Alessandro Picelli, Andrea Santamato, Michele Gravina, Leopold Saltuari, Nicola Smania
Background: The combined use of Robot-assisted UL training and Botulinum toxin (BoNT) appear to be a promising therapeutic synergism to improve UL function in chronic stroke patients. Objective: To evaluate the effects of Robot-assisted UL training on UL spasticity, function, muscle strength and the electromyographic UL muscles activity in chronic stroke patients treated with Botulinum toxin. Methods: This single-blind, randomized, controlled trial involved 32 chronic stroke outpatients with UL spastic hemiparesis...
2019: Frontiers in Neurology
Michał Wilk, Małgorzata Michalczyk, Artur Gołaś, Michał Krzysztofik, Adam Maszczyk, Adam Zając
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of carbohydrate-protein supplementation with whey protein (CHO-PROw) after resistance training, and casein protein (PROc) before bedtime on the concentration of growth hormone (GH), insulin (I) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), as well as serum creatine kinase (CK) activity. Twelve strength trained male subjects (age: 25.8 ± 4.7 years; training experience 6.1 ± 0.79 years; body mass 75.9 ± 2.7 kg; body height 171.8 ± 13.3 cm) were recruited for the study...
December 2018: Biology of Sport
Masahiro Horiuchi, Junko Endo, Takashi Sato, Koichi Okita
This study investigated whether jump training with blood flow restriction (BFR) improves jump performance compared to jump training without BFR under similar exercise intensity in healthy young humans. The participants were twenty healthy males who were assigned to either jump training with BFR (n = 10) or jump training without BFR [control (CON); n = 10] groups. All subjects completed five sets of 10 repetitions with one-minute intervals of half-squat jumps (SJ) at maximal effort, four days a week for four weeks...
December 2018: Biology of Sport
Bethany Jill Williams, Dharshana Jayewardene, Darren Treanor
AIMS: To consider the value proposition of digitisation of clinical immunohistochemistry services, and to develop an approach to digital immunohistochemistry implementation and validation in a large clinical laboratory. METHODS: A methodology for slide scanning in the laboratory was developed, in addition to a novel validation exercise, to allow pathologists to identify the strengths and weaknesses of digital immunohistochemistry reporting, and train in digital immunohistochemistry slide assessment...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Tesfaye Hambisa Mekonnen, Dawit Getachew Yenealem, Beyene Mindaye Tolosa
BACKGROUND: Occupational skin diseases are the second most common occupational diseases and are responsible for an estimated 25% of all lost work days. Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) comprises 70-90% of all occupational skin diseases. In Ethiopia, information about the prevalence and factors which determine developments of contact dermatitis is not recognized. The objective of this study was to investigate prevalence and factors influencing the occurrences of occupational-related contact dermatitis among healthcare workers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia...
February 14, 2019: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Ailbhe Ruane, Alan Carr, Valerie Moffat, Tania Finn, Angela Murphy, Orla O'Brien, Hilary Groarke, Roisin O'Dwyer
The central aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Group Stepping Stones Triple P (GSSTP) in an Irish context for families of children with both developmental disabilities and internalising and externalising behavioural problems. Parents of 84 children (mean age = 5.73; SD = 2.06) with developmental disabilities and co-occurring behaviour problems attending Irish public health services were randomly assigned to a 9-week GSSTP group or a waiting list control (WLC) group. All parents completed self-report measures before (Time 1) and after (Time 2) the programme and parents in the GSSTP group were assessed at 3- to 5-month follow-up (Time 3)...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Aaron Stares, Mona Bains
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The role of creatine supplementation in young athletes and bodybuilders is well established including ergogenic properties of muscular hypertrophy, strength, power, and endurance. Whether the benefits of creatine supplementation translate to an aging population with moderate training stimulus remains unclear especially in regard to gender, creatine dose, and duration. This systematic review assessed whether creatine supplementation combined with exercise results in additive improvements in indices of skeletal muscle, bone, and mental health over exercise alone in healthy older adults...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
Michael T Brasch, Kevin L Neeld, Kristen F Konkol, Robert W Pettitt
This study examined the relationship between subjective ratings of overall wellness and neuromuscular performance throughout a 6-week intensive offseason strength and conditioning program. Thirty experienced NCAA Division II baseball players completed all phases of the program. A comprehensive wellness rating and 5 countermovement jumps (CMJ5) were measured and averaged for 4 phases of training. Pre- and post-testing measures of strength and speed also were evaluated. Internal consistency of the wellness rating for each phase ranged α = 0...
2019: International Journal of Exercise Science
Anna Nelson, Clayton L Camic, Carl Foster, Brooke Zajac, Kaela Hoecherl, Jacob Erickson, Andrew R Jagim
Multiple ingredient pre-workout supplements (MIPS) are purported to offer favorable acute metabolic changes potentially leading to improvements in body composition and training adaptations over time. However, there is limited information available regarding the long-term benefits and safety of consuming MIPS, specifically in female populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-workout ingestion on body composition, training adaptations and select markers of clinical health in recreationally active females after 7 weeks of supplementation and resistance training...
2019: International Journal of Exercise Science
Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D Faigenbaum, Kathleen F Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T Pianosi, Matthew B Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland, Alex V Rowlands
This commentary highlights 23 noteworthy publications from 2018, selected by leading scientists in pediatric exercise science. These publications have been deemed as significant or exciting in the field as they (a) reveal a new mechanism, (b) highlight a new measurement tool, (c) discuss a new concept or interpretation/application of an existing concept, or (d) describe a new therapeutic approach or clinical tool in youth. In some cases, findings in adults are highlighted, as they may have important implications in youth...
February 13, 2019: Pediatric Exercise Science
Jacopo Antonino Vitale, Giuseppe Banfi, Marco Sias, Antonio La Torre
The correct expression of circadian rhythmicity is crucial for the body homeostasis. The rest-activity circadian rhythms (RARs) are involved in the control of the sleep-wake cycle and altered RARs could lead to a compromised health status. Many studies focused on examining sleep behavior and circadian rhythms in physically active subjects or athletes but, unexpectedly, no data on RARs are available. Therefore, we studied the existence of the RAR in athletes and the possible difference in RAR's characteristics among sport disciplines...
February 14, 2019: Chronobiology International
Amy X Yin, Ellen Geminiani, Bridget Quinn, Michael Owen, Susan Kinney, Tara McCrystal, Andrea Stracciolini
BACKGROUND: Adolescent ballet dancers have a higher incidence of injury than adult professional dancers. It is unclear which factors, including biomechanical changes related to intense dance training and/or the growth process itself, contribute to increased injury risk in this population. OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in strength, flexibility, and functional performance in adolescent ballet dancers during a summer intensive dance program. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study...
November 29, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Christoph Höchsmann, Denis Infanger, Christopher Klenk, Karsten Königstein, Steffen P Walz, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss
BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity (PA) is an essential component of a successful type 2 diabetes treatment. However, despite the manifest evidence for the numerous health benefits of regular PA, most patients with type 2 diabetes remain inactive, often due to low motivation and lack of PA enjoyment. A recent and promising approach to help overcome these PA barriers and motivate inactive individuals to change their PA behavior is PA-promoting smartphone games. While short-term results of these games are encouraging, the long-term success in effectively changing PA behavior has to date not been confirmed...
February 13, 2019: JMIR Serious Games
Gabriel Lozano-Berges, Ángel Matute-Llorente, Alejandro Gómez-Bruton, Víctor Alfaro-Santafé, Alex González-Agüero, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez, José A Casajús
BACKGROUND: Mechanical loads exerted by soccer-specific actions increase bone remodeling activity. Nevertheless, little is known about the relationship between plantar pressure and bone structure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare bone geometry and strength between soccer players who exhibited different maximum values of the average pressures (MP) when performing a combination of soccer-specific tasks. METHODS: Forty male adolescent soccer players (mean age 13...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
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