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Resistance AND Training

A Keihanian, H Arazi, M Kargarfard
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8 weeks of aerobic versus resistance training programs on serum fetuin-A, fetuin-B, and fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) levels in males with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Participants (n = 34) were randomly assigned to a resistance training group (RTG; n = 12), an aerobic training group (ATG; n = 11), or a control group (n = 11). The ATG completed 30-45 min of aerobic running training at 65%-75% of the maximum heart rate. The RTG completed three sets of 10 repetitions maximum of leg press, bench press, knee extension, seated cable row, knee flexion, military press, and calf rise...
March 19, 2019: Physiology International
Zachary S Gillis, Sara E Morrison
During Pavlovian conditioning, if a cue (e.g., lever extension) predicts reward delivery in a different location (e.g., a food magazine), some individuals will come to approach and interact with the cue, a behavior known as sign tracking (ST), and others will approach the site of reward, a behavior known as goal tracking (GT). In rats, the acquisition of ST versus GT behavior is associated with distinct profiles of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), but it is unknown whether it is associated with different patterns of accumbens neural activity...
March 2019: ENeuro
Muhammad Tahir Khan, Aman Chandra Kaushik, Linxiang Ji, Shaukat Iqbal Malik, Sajid Ali, Dong-Qing Wei
Background: The global burden of tuberculosis (TB) and antibiotic resistance is attracting the attention of researchers to develop some novel and rapid diagnostic tools. Although, the conventional methods like culture are considered as the gold standard, they are time consuming in diagnostic procedure, during which there are more chances in the transmission of disease. Further, the Xpert MTB/RIF assay offers a fast diagnostic facility within 2 h, but due to low sensitivity in some sample types may lead to more serious state of the disease...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Heyran Choi, Sun Young Park, Yong Beom Kim, Junyong In, Hong Seuk Yang, Jeong-Seok Lee, Sanghyun Kim, Suyeon Park
Background: The facilitator effects of steroids on neuromuscular transmission may cause resistance to neuromuscular blocking agents. Additionally, steroids may hinder sugammadex reversal of neuromuscular blockade, but these findings remain controversial. Therefore, we explored the effect of dexamethasone and hydrocortisone on rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade and their inhibitory effect on sugammadex. Methods: we explored the effects of steroids in vitro using a phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm rat model...
March 19, 2019: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
João P Magalhães, Xavier Melo, Inês R Correia, Rogério T Ribeiro, João Raposo, Hélder Dores, Manuel Bicho, Luís B Sardinha
BACKGROUND: Exercise, when performed on a regular basis, is a well-accepted strategy to improve vascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the exercise intensity that yields maximal adaptations on structural and functional indices in patients with type 2 diabetes remains uncertain. Our objective was to analyze the impact of a 1-year randomized controlled trial of combined high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with resistance training (RT) vs. a combined moderate continuous training (MCT) with RT on structural and functional arterial indices in patients with type 2 diabetes...
March 18, 2019: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Stefano Benítez-Flores, André R Medeiros, Fabrício Azevedo Voltarelli, Eliseo Iglesias-Soler, Kenji Doma, Herbert G Simões, Thiago Santos Rosa, Daniel A Boullosa
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the combined effects of resistance and sprint training, with very short efforts (5 s), on aerobic and anaerobic performances, and cardiometabolic health-related parameters in young healthy adults. METHODS: Thirty young physically active individuals were randomly allocated into four groups: resistance training (RTG), sprint interval training (SITG), concurrent training (CTG), and control (CONG). Participants trained 3 days/week for 2 weeks in the high-intensity interventions that consisted of 6-12 "all out" efforts of 5 s separated by 24 s of recovery, totalizing ~ 13 min per session, with 48-72 h of recovery between sessions...
March 16, 2019: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Rodrigo Martins Pereira, Kellen Cristina da Cruz Rodrigues, Chadi Pellegrini Anaruma, Marcella Ramos Sant'Ana, Thaís Dantis Pereira de Campos, Rodrigo Stellzer Gaspar, Raphael Dos Santos Canciglieri, Diego Gomes de Melo, Rania A Mekary, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, Dennys Esper Cintra, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli, Leandro Pereira de Moura
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a positive correlation with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). The aerobic training is an important tool in combating NAFLD. However, no studies have demonstrated the molecular effects of short-term strength training on the accumulation of hepatic fat in obese mice. This study aimed to investigate the effects of short-term strength training on the mechanisms of oxidation and lipid synthesis in the liver of obese mice. The short duration protocol was used to avoid changing the amount of adipose tissue...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Endocrinology
Joanna Grzesiak, Katarzyna Kryściak, Hanna Drzymała-Celichowska, Jan Celichowski
Effects of a sudden decrease in the stimulation frequency for motor unit force were studied in rat medial gastrocnemius. For 161 functionally isolated single motor units of three types (S, FR, FF), unfused tetanic contractions were evoked by three-phase trains of stimuli (low-high-low frequency). The course of the tetanus at the onset of the third phase of the force recording was analyzed in tetani with variable fusion degree. For 78 units within the third phase of tetanus, a transitory force decrease to a level lower than in the first phase (identical frequency), was observed...
March 2, 2019: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Jeremy W Pettit, Michele Bechor, Yasmin Rey, Michael W Vasey, Rany Abend, Daniel S Pine, Yair Bar-Haim, James Jaccard, Wendy K Silverman
OBJECTIVE: Randomized clinical trials of augmentation strategies for youth with treatment-resistant anxiety disorders do not exist. We present findings from an efficacy trial of attention bias modification treatment (ABMT) as an augment for this population, in comparison with attention control training (ACT). METHOD: Sixty-four youths (34 boys; M age=11.7 years) who continued to meet for anxiety diagnoses after completing cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) were randomized to either ABMT or ACT...
March 12, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Susan Högg, Manfred Holzgraefe, Insa Wingendorf, Jan Mehrholz, Christoph Herrmann, Mark Obermann
BACKGROUND: Stroke patients are often affected by arm paresis, have functional impairments and receive help from professional or informal caregivers. Progressive resistance training is a common intervention for functional impairments after paresis. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) showed benefits for functional recovery after resistance training. However, there is a lack of evidence for strength training in subacute stroke patients. The aim of this study is to investigate safety and effectiveness of arm strength training in subacute stroke patients...
March 15, 2019: Trials
Ruidong Lv, Zhendong Chen, Sicong Liu, Jiang Wang, Yongfang Li, Yonggang Wang, Yishan Wang
We investigate a new type of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 )-doped sol-gel glass saturable absorber (SA) fabricated by sol-gel technique. The reagents used for the sol-gel glass contain Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), ethanol, water, and hydrochloric acid. Different from the traditional ways of fabricating SAs, the MoS2 in our method is encapsulated by inorganic sol-gel glass instead of polymer compound with low laser damage resistance, which greatly increases the optical damage threshold of MoS2 SA. The MoS2 -doped sol-gel glass as an SA is experimentally demonstrated in a passively mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser (YDFL)...
March 4, 2019: Optics Express
Xuehan Li, Zemin Li, Minghua Zhao, Yingxi Nie, Pingsheng Liu, Yili Zhu, Xuelin Zhang
The lipid droplet (LD) is an organelle enveloped by a monolayer phospholipid membrane with a core of neutral lipids, which is conserved from bacteria to humans. The available evidence suggests that the LD is essential to maintaining lipid homeostasis in almost all organisms. As a consequence, LDs also play an important role in pathological metabolic processes involving the ectopic storage of neutral lipids, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), atherosclerosis, steatosis, and obesity. The degree of insulin resistance in T2DM patients is positively correlated with the size of skeletal muscle LDs...
March 15, 2019: Cells
David Michael Langelier, Adrijana D'Silva, Jena Shank, Christopher Grant, William Bridel, S Nicole Culos-Reed
OBJECTIVE: Men with prostate cancer face various body composition and psychosocial challenges following diagnosis. Movement-based interventions such as exercise may represent novel strategies to improve these important biopsychosocial changes. This systematic qualitative review aimed to examine the various exercise interventions and their effect on male perception of masculinity, body image and personal identity. METHODS: A systematic search across nine electronic databases was conducted in July 2017 and repeated in August 2018...
March 15, 2019: Psycho-oncology
Garrett M Hester, Mitchel A Magrini, Ryan J Colquhoun, Alejandra Barrera-Curiel, Carlos A Estrada, Alex A Olmos, Alyssa R Bailly, Phuong L Ha, Jason M DeFreitas
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of age on the cross-education of rapid and maximal contractile properties for the knee extensors. METHODS: Young (n = 10; age = 21.1 ± 1.7 years) and older (n = 10; age = 65.3 ± 8.3 years) males performed unilateral isokinetic resistance training (RT) of the knee extensors for 4 weeks. Maximal voluntary isokinetic (45° s-1 and 300° s-1 ) and isometric testing was conducted for the trained and untrained leg before and after RT...
March 14, 2019: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Nils Eckardt, Noah J Rosenblatt
Locomotor stability is challenged by internal perturbations, e.g., motor noise, and external perturbations, e.g., changes in surface compliance. One means to compensate for such perturbations is to employ motor synergies, defined here as co-variation among a set of elements that acts to stabilize, or provide similar trial-to-trial (or step-to-step) output, even in the presence of small variations in initial conditions. Whereas evidence exists that synergies related to the upper extremities can be trained, the extent to which lower limb synergies, such as those which may be needed to successfully locomote in complex environments, remains unknown...
2019: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
J Lai, Z Dememew, D Jerene, A Abashawl, B Feleke, A M Teklu, A Ruff
SETTING: Sixty-seven government health facilities providing tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services across Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To examine clinician barriers to implementing isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) among people living with HIV. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study to evaluate the provider-related factors associated with high IPT coverage at the facility level. RESULTS: On bivariate analysis, the odds of high IPT implementation were lower when clinicians felt patients were negatively affected by the side effects of IPT (OR 0...
March 1, 2019: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Ditte Søgaard, Marcin Baranowski, Steen Larsen, Michael Taulo Lund, Cathrine Munk Scheuer, Carina Vestergaard Abildskov, Sofie Greve Dideriksen, Flemming Dela, Jørn Wulff Helge
Ceramide and diacylglycerol are linked to insulin resistance in rodents, but in humans the data are inconsistent. Insulin resistance is frequently observed with aging, but the role of ceramide and diacylglycerol is not clarified. Training improves metabolic health and, therefore, we aimed to elucidate the influence of age and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on ceramide and diacylglycerol content in muscle. Fourteen young (33 ± 1) and 22 older (63 ± 1) overweight to obese subjects performed 6 weeks HIIT three times a week...
March 12, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hellen C G Nabuco, Crisieli M Tomeleri, Paulo Sugihara, Rodrigo R Fernandes, Edilaine F Cavalcante, Leandro Dos Santos, Analiza M Silva, Luís B Sardinha, Edilson S Cyrino
AIM: The purpose of study was to analyze the effects of a combined whey protein (WP) and RT intervention on cellular health in pre-conditioned older women. METHODS: The protocol is a randomized controlled clinical trial with a sample of seventy older women, divided into 3 groups: WP-placebo (WP-PLA, n = 24), placebo-WP (PLA-WP, n = 23), and placebo-placebo (PLA-PLA, n = 23). Each group drank 35 g of product (placebo or WP) pre- and post- training...
March 7, 2019: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Isabel Roth, Linda Highfield, Paula Cuccaro, Rebecca Wells, Sanghamitra Misra, Joan Engebretson
BACKGROUND: Complementary and Integrative Medicine (CIM) shows positive clinical benefit with minimal side effects, yet, challenges to effective integration of CIM providers in biomedical health care settings remain. This study aimed to better understand the role evidence played in the process of integration of complementary therapies into a large urban pediatric hospital from the perspective of patients, caregivers, providers, and administrators through applied medical ethnography. METHODS: An ethnography was conducted over the course of 6 months in a large urban pediatric hospital in the Southern United States...
March 2019: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Se Hwan Park, Jin Hwan Yoon, Dae Yun Seo, Tae Nyun Kim, Jeong Rim Ko, Jin Han
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hypothalamic GLP-1R levels and its related signaling mechanisms in T2DM. The animals were separated into three groups: a non-diabetic control (CON), diabetic control (DM), and diabetic with resistance exercise (DM + EXE) group. The resistance exercise training group performed ladder climbing (eight repetitions, three days per week for 12 weeks). Body weight was slightly lower in the DM + EXE group than the DM group, but difference between the groups was not significant...
March 7, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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