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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771715/an-ultrasensitive-aptasensor-based-on-self-enhanced-au-nanoclusters-as-highly-efficient-electrochemiluminescence-indicator-and-multi-site-landing-dna-walker-as-signal-amplification
#1
Fang Yang, Xia Zhong, Xinya Jiang, Ying Zhuo, Ruo Yuan, Shaping Wei
Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have been shown to be prospective nanoscale electrochemiluminescence (ECL) materials that are being extensively explored in bioanalysis. However, the low ECL efficiency of Au NCs has been a bottleneck barrier for their better bioapplications. To overcome this disadvantage, a low oxidation potential co-reactant N,N-diisopropylethylenediamine (DPEA) was first used to prepare self-enhanced Au NCs (Au-DPEA NCs) for drastically enhancing the ECL efficiency of Au NCs in this study. In addition, an efficient multi-site landing DNA walker with multidirectional motion track and rapid payloads release compared to directional DNA walker was constructed for converting target mucin 1 (MUC1) to intermediate DNA and achieving significant signal amplification...
February 1, 2019: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771535/advances-in-immunotherapy-delivery-from-implantable-and-injectable-biomaterials
#2
REVIEW
David G Leach, Simon Young, Jeffrey D Hartgerink
Macroscale biomaterials, such as preformed implantable scaffolds and injectable soft materials, possess powerful synergies with anti-cancer immunotherapies. Immunotherapies on their own typically have poor delivery properties, and often require repeated high-dose injections that result in serious off-tumor effects and/or limited efficacy. Rationally designed biomaterials allow for discrete localization and controlled release of immunotherapeutic agents, and have been shown in a large number of applications to improve outcomes in the treatment of cancers via immunotherapy...
February 13, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768648/cyclical-adaptation-of-measles-virus-quasispecies-to-epithelial-and-lymphocytic-cells-to-v-or-not-to-v
#3
Ryan C Donohue, Christian K Pfaller, Roberto Cattaneo
Measles virus (MeV) is dual-tropic: it replicates first in lymphatic tissues and then in epithelial cells. This switch in tropism raises the question of whether, and how, intra-host evolution occurs. Towards addressing this question, we adapted MeV either to lymphocytic (Granta-519) or epithelial (H358) cells. We also passaged it consecutively in both human cell lines. Since passaged MeV had different replication kinetics, we sought to investigate the underlying genetic mechanisms of growth differences by performing deep-sequencing analyses...
February 15, 2019: PLoS Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767506/facile-engineering-indomethacin-induced-paclitaxel-nanocrystal-aggregates-as-carrier-free-nanomedicine-with-improved-synergetic-antitumor-activity
#4
Chengyuan Zhang, Ling Long, Yao Xiong, Chenping Wang, Cuiping Peng, Yuchuan Yuan, Zhirui Liu, Yongyao Lin, Yi Jia, Xing Zhou, Xiaohui Li
Carrier-free nanomedicines mainly composed by nanocrystals of drug are considered as promising candidates for the next generation of nanodrug formulations. However, such nanomedicines still need to be stabilized by additive surfactants, synthetic polymers or biologically-based macromolecules. Contributed by the strong intermolecular interactions between indomethacin (IDM, a COX-2 inhibitor) and paclitaxel (PTX, a chemotherapy drug), we herein successfully engineered a novel kind of carrier-free nanomedicines that organized as IDM induced PTX nanocrystal aggregates via one-pot self-assembly without any non-active excipients...
February 15, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767271/age-estimation-based-on-visual-parameters-of-the-skin-of-cadavers
#5
Hajime Tsuboi, Isao Yokota, Daisuke Miyamori, Yoshihisa Akasaka, Ayumu Yamada, Hiroshi Ikegaya
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported relationships between various visual parameters of the skin and changes due to aging. Due to an increase in the discovery of unidentified bodies, the field of forensic medicine anticipates the development of a rapid method for estimating age. The present study measured various visual parameters of the skin in human remains and investigated the correlation between these parameters and age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Skin images were taken of four body parts (cheek, chin, brachium, and thigh) of 414 forensic cases...
February 15, 2019: Skin Research and Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766679/disease-structured-n-mixture-models-a-practical-guide-to-model-disease-dynamics-using-count-data
#6
Graziella V DiRenzo, Christian Che-Castaldo, Sarah P Saunders, Evan H Campbell Grant, Elise F Zipkin
Obtaining inferences on disease dynamics (e.g., host population size, pathogen prevalence, transmission rate, host survival probability) typically requires marking and tracking individuals over time. While multistate mark-recapture models can produce high-quality inference, these techniques are difficult to employ at large spatial and long temporal scales or in small remnant host populations decimated by virulent pathogens, where low recapture rates may preclude the use of mark-recapture techniques. Recently developed N -mixture models offer a statistical framework for estimating wildlife disease dynamics from count data...
January 2019: Ecology and Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766516/study-of-complete-genome-sequences-of-rotavirus-a-epidemics-and-evolution-in-japan-in-2012-2014
#7
Yoshiki Fujii, Yen Hai Doan, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Toyoko Nakagomi, Osamu Nakagomi, Kazuhiko Katayama
A comprehensive molecular epidemiological study using next-generation sequencing technology was conducted on 333 rotavirus A (RVA)-positive specimens collected from six sentinel hospitals across Japan over three consecutive seasons (2012-2014). The majority of the RVA isolates were grouped into five genotype constellations: Wa-like G1P[8], DS-1-like G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8] and G9P[8]. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the distribution of strains varied by geographical locations and epidemic seasons. The VP7 genes of different G types were estimated to evolve at 7...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765716/a-surface-plasmon-resonance-based-assay-to-measure-serum-concentrations-of-therapeutic-antibodies-and-anti-drug-antibodies
#8
Marten Beeg, Alessandro Nobili, Barbara Orsini, Francesca Rogai, Daniela Gilardi, Gionata Fiorino, Silvio Danese, Mario Salmona, Silvio Garattini, Marco Gobbi
Therapeutic drug and immunogenicity monitoring (TDIM) is increasingly proposed to guide therapy with biologics, characterised by high inter-individual variability of their blood levels, to permit objective decisions for the management of non-responders and reduce unnecessary interventions with these expensive treatments. However, TDIM has not yet entered clinical practice partly because of uncertainties regarding the accuracy and precision of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Here we report the characterisation of a novel surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based TDIM, applied to the measurement of serum concentrations of infliximab, an antibody against tumour necrosis factor α (anti-TNFα), and anti-infliximab antibodies...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765420/twenty-seven-tamoxifen-inducible-icre-driver-mouse-strains-for-eye-and-brain-including-seventeen-carrying-a-new-inducible-first-constitutive-ready-allele
#9
Andrea J Korecki, Jack W Hickmott, Siu Ling Lam, Lisa Dreolini, Anthony Mathelier, Oliver Baker, Claudia Kuehne, Russell J Bonaguro, Jillian Smith, Chin-Vern Tan, Michelle Zhou, Daniel Goldowitz, Jan M Deussing, A Francis Stewart, Wyeth W Wasserman, Robert A Holt, Elizabeth M Simpson
To understand gene function, the cre/loxP conditional system is the most powerful available for temporal and spatial control of expression in mouse. However, the research community requires more cre recombinase expressing transgenic mouse strains (cre-drivers), which restrict expression to specific cell types. To address these problems, a high-throughput method for large-scale production that produces high-quality results is necessary. Further, endogenous promoters need to be chosen that drive cell type specific expression, or we need to further focus the expression by manipulating the promoter...
February 14, 2019: Genetics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30764941/synthesis-and-characterization-of-nitrogen-doped-reduced-graphene-oxide-n-rgo-supported-ptcu-anode-catalysts-for-direct-methanol-fuel-cell
#10
Richa Baronia, Jyoti Goel, Garima Gautam, Dinesh Singh, Sunil K Singhal
Incomplete methanol oxidation and rapid activity degradation of electro-catalysts are key barriers to successful commercialization of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). To address these problems, we report the synthesis of platinum-copper (PtCu) alloy nanoparticles supported on nitrogen doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) as the anode catalyst for the efficient electro-oxidation of methanol. Catalysts with varying molar ratios of PtCu were fabricated using impregnation reduction method and their electrochemical performance was compared with the commercially available Pt/C (20 wt%) anode catalyst...
July 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30764784/clinical-and-imaging-manifestations-of-primary-cardiac-angiosarcoma
#11
Jin-Fen Yu, Hui Cui, Guo-Min Ji, Shu-Qi Li, Yong Huang, Ruo-Ning Wang, Wen-Feng Xiao
BACKGROUND: To investigate the CT manifestations of primary cardiac angiosarcoma. METHODS: The clinical and CT data for 9 patients with cardiac angiosarcoma were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The lesions in all nine cases were located in the right atrium. In two cases, the involved lesion led downward to the tricuspid valve and right ventricle, and the dynamic cine showed that the lesion affected the opening and closing of the tricuspid valve...
February 14, 2019: BMC Medical Imaging
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30764607/physical-plasma-membrane-perturbation-using-subcellular-optogenetics-drives-integrin-activated-cell-migration
#12
Xenia Meshik, Patrick O'Neill, Narasimhan Gautam
Cells experience physical deformations to the plasma membrane that can modulate cell behaviors like migration. Understanding the molecular basis for how physical cues affect dynamic cellular responses requires new approaches that can physically perturb the plasma membrane with rapid, reversible, subcellular control. Here we present an optogenetic approach based on light-inducible dimerization that alters plasma membrane properties by recruiting cytosolic proteins at high concentrations to a target site. Surprisingly, this polarized accumulation of proteins in a cell induces directional amoeboid migration in the opposite direction...
February 14, 2019: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763516/rapid-on-site-detection-of-illegal-drugs-in-complex-matrix-by-thermal-desorption-acetone-assisted-photoionization-miniature-ion-trap-mass-spectrometer
#13
Shuang Wang, Weimin Wang, Hong Li, Yuming Xing, Keyong Hou, Haiyang Li
Illegal drug smugglings and crimes have long been a global concern, and an apparatus which can identify drugs on-the-spot is urgently demanded by law enforcement. A thermal desorption acetone-assisted photoionization miniature ion trap mass spectrometer (TD-AAPI-ITMS) was developed for on-site and rapid identification of illegal drugs at checkpoints. Acetone was chosen for dopant assisted photoionization and the sensitivity of selected drugs was further enhanced with protonated analyte molecular ions [M+H]+...
February 14, 2019: Analytical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761651/structural-prediction-of-antibody-april-complexes-by-computational-docking-constrained-by-antigen-saturation-mutagenesis-library-data
#14
Andrew M Wollacott, Luke N Robinson, Boopathy Ramakrishnan, Hamid Tissire, Karthik Viswanathan, Zachary Shriver, Gregory J Babcock
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most prevalent cause of primary glomerular disease worldwide, and the cytokine A PRoliferation-Inducing Ligand (APRIL) is emerging as a key player in IgAN pathogenesis and disease progression. For a panel of anti-human APRIL antibodies with known antagonistic activity, we sought to define their structural mode of engagement to understand molecular mechanisms of action and aid rational antibody engineering. Reliable computational prediction of antibody-antigen complexes remains challenging, and experimental methods such as X-ray co-crystallography and cryoEM have considerable technical, resource, and throughput barriers...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761151/neutrophils-which-migrate-to-lymph-nodes-modulate-cd4-t-cell-response-by-a-pd-l1-dependent-mechanism
#15
Sofía D Castell, María F Harman, Gabriel Morón, Belkys A Maletto, María C Pistoresi-Palencia
It is well known that neutrophils are rapidly recruited to a site of injury or infection and perform a critical role in pathogen clearance and inflammation. However, they are also able to interact with and regulate innate and adaptive immune cells and some stimuli induce the migration of neutrophils to lymph nodes (LNs). Previously, we demonstrated that the immune complex (IC) generated by injecting OVA into the footpad of OVA/CFA immunized mice induced the migration of OVA+ neutrophils to draining LNs (dLNs)...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761119/sugar-sensing-and-signaling-in-candida-albicans-and-candida-glabrata
#16
REVIEW
Mieke Van Ende, Stefanie Wijnants, Patrick Van Dijck
Candida species, such as Candida albicans and Candida glabrata , cause infections at different host sites because they adapt their metabolism depending on the available nutrients. They are able to proliferate under both nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor conditions. This adaptation is what makes these fungi successful pathogens. For both species, sugars are very important nutrients and as the sugar level differs depending on the host niche, different sugar sensing systems must be present. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used as a model for the identification of these sugar sensing systems...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760706/longitudinal-hiv-sequencing-reveals-reservoir-expression-leading-to-decay-which-is-obscured-by-clonal-expansion
#17
Marilia Rita Pinzone, D Jake VanBelzen, Sam Weissman, Maria Paola Bertuccio, LaMont Cannon, Emmanuele Venanzi-Rullo, Stephen Migueles, R Brad Jones, Talia Mota, Sarah B Joseph, Kevin Groen, Alexander O Pasternak, Wei-Ting Hwang, Brad Sherman, Anastasios Vourekas, Giuseppe Nunnari, Una O'Doherty
After initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), a rapid decline in HIV viral load is followed by a long period of undetectable viremia. Viral outgrowth assay suggests the reservoir continues to decline slowly. Here, we use full-length sequencing to longitudinally study the proviral landscape of four subjects on ART to investigate the selective pressures influencing the dynamics of the treatment-resistant HIV reservoir. We find intact and defective proviruses that contain genetic elements favoring efficient protein expression decrease over time...
February 13, 2019: Nature Communications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760562/evolutionary-origins-of-pseudogenes-and-their-association-with-regulatory-sequences-in-plants
#18
Jianbo Xie, Ying Li, Xiaomin Liu, Yiyang Zhao, Bailian Li, Pär K Ingvarsson, Deqiang Zhang
Pseudogenes (Ψs), non-functional relatives of functional genes, form by duplication or retrotransposition, and loss of gene function by disabling mutations. Evolutionary analysis provides clues to Ψ origins and effects on gene regulation. However, few systematic studies of plant Ψs have been conducted, hampering comparative analyses. Here, we examined the origin, evolution and expression patterns of Ψs and their relationships with noncoding sequences in seven plant species. We identified approximately 250,000 Ψs, most of which are more lineage specific than protein-coding genes...
February 13, 2019: Plant Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760415/2019-canadian-cardiovascular-society-canadian-association-of-interventional-cardiology-guidelines-on-the-acute-management-of-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-focused-update-on-regionalization-and-reperfusion
#19
Graham C Wong, Michelle Welsford, Craig Ainsworth, Wael Abuzeid, Christopher B Fordyce, Jennifer Greene, Thao Huynh, Laurie Lambert, Michel Le May, Sohrab Lutchmedial, Shamir R Mehta, Madhu Natarajan, Colleen M Norris, Christopher B Overgaard, Michele Perry Arnesen, Ata Quraishi, Jean François Tanguay, Mouheiddin Traboulsi, Sean van Diepen, Robert Welsh, David A Wood, Warren J Cantor
Rapid reperfusion of the infarct-related artery is the cornerstone of therapy for the management of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Canada's geography presents unique challenges for timely delivery of reperfusion therapy for STEMI patients. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiology STEMI guideline was developed to provide advice regarding the optimal acute management of STEMI patients irrespective of where they are initially identified: in the field, at a non-percutaneous coronary intervention-capable centre or at a percutaneous coronary intervention-capable centre...
February 2019: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760305/how-can-we-successfully-recruit-depressed-people-lessons-learned-in-recruiting-depressed-participants-to-a-multi-site-trial-of-a-brief-depression-intervention-the-classic-trial
#20
June S L Brown, Caroline Murphy, Joanna Kelly, Kimberley Goldsmith
BACKGROUND: There are enormous problems in recruiting depressed people into randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with numerous studies consistently failing to recruit to target (Sully et al., Trials 14:166, 2013). Given the high prevalence of-and disability associated with-depression, it is important to find ways of effectively recruiting to RCTs evaluating interventions. This study aimed to test the feasibility of using a self-referral system to recruit to a brief intervention in a multi-site trial, the CLASSIC trial of self-confidence workshops for depression...
February 13, 2019: Trials
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