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Cannabinoid depression

Beniamino Palmieri, Carmen Laurino, Maria Vadalà
OBJECTIVES: Our main aim was to investigate the short-term therapeutic effects, safety/tolerability and potential side effects of the cannabis galenical preparation (Bedrocan) in patients with a range of chronic conditions unresponsive to other treatments. METHODS: In this retrospective, 'compassionate use', observational, open-label study, 20 patients (age 18-80 years) who had appealed to our 'Second Opinion Medical Consulting Network' (Modena, Italy), were instructed to take sublingually the galenical oil twice a day for 3 months of treatment...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Roberto Colangeli, Roberto Di Maio, Massimo Pierucci, Gabriele Deidda, Maurizio Casarrubea, Giuseppe Di Giovanni
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) and serotonin (5-HT) play a neuromodulatory role in the central nervous system. Both eCBs and 5-HT regulate neuronal excitability and their pharmacological potentiation has been shown to control seizures in pre-clinical and human studies. Compelling evidence indicates that eCB and 5-HT systems interact to modulate several physiological and pathological brain functions, such as food intake, pain, drug addiction, depression, and anxiety. Nevertheless, there is no evidence of an eCB/5-HT interaction in experimental and human epilepsies, including status epilepticus (SE)...
February 1, 2019: Neurobiology of Disease
C Kirkedal, B Elfving, H K Müller, F A Moreira, L Bindila, B Lutz, G Wegener, N Liebenberg
Altered endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling is suggested as an important contributor to the pathophysiology of depression. To further elucidate this, we conducted a study using a genetic rat model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL), and their controls, the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats. Plasma, right and left prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus were isolated from FSL and FRL rats. We analyzed each region for the eCB anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) levels by liquid chromatography/multiple reaction monitoring (LC/MRM), mRNA and protein levels of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1 R), fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacyl glycerol lipase (MAGL) by real time qPCR and Western blotting...
February 1, 2019: Neurochemistry International
José Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak, Antônio W Zuardi, Francisco S Guimarães, Vitor Tumas, Rafael G Dos Santos
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, rest tremor, postural disturbances, and rigidity. PD is also characterized by non-motor symptoms such as sleep disturbances, cognitive deficits, and psychiatric disorders such as psychosis, depression, and anxiety. The pharmacological treatment for these symptoms is limited in efficacy and induce significant adverse reactions, highlighting the need for better treatment options. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid devoid of the euphoriant and cognitive effects of tetrahydrocannabinol, and preclinical and preliminary clinical studies suggest that this compound has therapeutic effect in non-motor symptoms of PD...
January 31, 2019: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Chen-Jie Shen, Di Zheng, Ke-Xin Li, Jian-Ming Yang, Hao-Qi Pan, Xiao-Dan Yu, Jia-Yu Fu, Yi Zhu, Qi-Xin Sun, Meng-Yu Tang, Ying Zhang, Peng Sun, Yi Xie, Shumin Duan, Hailan Hu, Xiao-Ming Li
In the version of this article originally published, there were several errors in Fig. 4. In Fig. 4a, the title read '3D repeated optical inhibition after CSDS.' It should have read '3-day repeated optical inhibition after CSDS.' In Fig. 4c, two labels that should have been aligned with the time axis appeared in the wrong place in the figure. The ticks labeled 'SI' and 'Fiber implant' should have also been labeled with '10' and '14,' respectively. Additionally, in Fig. 4j, a label that should have been aligned with the time axis appeared in the wrong place in the figure...
January 30, 2019: Nature Medicine
Eike Blohm, Peter Sell, Mark Neavyn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The advent of legalized cannabis in multiple regions of the United States has rendered the drug more accessible to pediatric patients. Pediatricians and Pediatric Emergency Medicine Providers face new challenges in counseling both patients and their parents, diagnosing exploratory ingestions of cannabinoids in toddlers, and managing complications of prolonged, heavy cannabis use in adolescents. The purpose of this review article is to provide clinicians a succinct summary of recent literature regarding tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, impacts on development, as well as presentations of acute and chronic toxicity...
January 28, 2019: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Tomasz Dzierżanowski
There is an increased interest in the use of cannabinoids in the treatment of symptoms in cancer and palliative care patients. Their multimodal action, in spite of limited efficacy, may make them an attractive alternative, particularly in patients with multiple concomitant symptoms of mild and moderate intensity. There is evidence to indicate cannabis in the treatment of pain, spasticity, seizures, sleep disorders, nausea and vomiting, and Tourette syndrome. Although the effectiveness of cannabinoids is limited, it was confirmed in neuropathic pain management and combination with opioids...
January 22, 2019: Cancers
Puspita Sahu, Jayesh Mudgal, Devinder Arora, Manas Kinra, Sanchari Basu Mallik, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao, K S R Pai, Madhavan Nampoothiri
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) signaling in the brain is associated with the pathophysiology of depression. Sickness behavior, characterized by lessened mobility, social interaction, and depressive behavior, is linked with neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and immune system. The present study was aimed at evaluating 1-phenylisatin (PI), a CB2R agonist, in sickness behavior. METHODS: Influence of acute and 7-day activation of CB2R using PI in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness behavior was assessed in mice...
January 22, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Chen-Jie Shen, Di Zheng, Ke-Xin Li, Jian-Ming Yang, Hao-Qi Pan, Xiao-Dan Yu, Jia-Yu Fu, Yi Zhu, Qi-Xin Sun, Meng-Yu Tang, Ying Zhang, Peng Sun, Yi Xie, Shumin Duan, Hailan Hu, Xiao-Ming Li
Major depressive disorder is a devastating psychiatric disease that afflicts up to 17% of the world's population. Postmortem brain analyses and imaging studies of patients with depression have implicated basal lateral amygdala (BLA) dysfunction in the pathophysiology of depression. However, the circuit and molecular mechanisms through which BLA neurons modulate depressive behavior are largely uncharacterized. Here, in mice, we identified that BLA cholecystokinin (CCK) glutamatergic neurons mediated negative reinforcement via D2 medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and that chronic social defeat selectively potentiated excitatory transmission of the CCKBLA -D2NAc circuit in susceptible mice via reduction of presynaptic cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1 R)...
January 14, 2019: Nature Medicine
Andrea Locci, Graziano Pinna
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition characterized by drastic alterations in mood, emotions, social abilities and cognition. Notably, one aspect of PTSD, particularly in veterans, is its comorbidity with suicide. Elevated aggressiveness predicts high-risk to suicide in humans and despite the difficulty in reproducing a complex human suicidal behavior in rodents, aggressive behavior is a well reproducible behavioral trait of suicide. PTSD animal models are based on a peculiar phenotype, including exaggerated fear memory, anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors associated with neurochemical dysregulations in emotional brain circuitry...
December 23, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Larissa Helena Torres, Natalia Trigo Balestrin, Lídia Emmanuela Wiazowski Spelta, Stephanie de Oliveira Duro, Marco Pistis, Tania Marcourakis
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during brain development has been associated with several disorders, such as depression, anxiety, sudden infant death syndrome, and the predisposition to addiction. The endocannabinoid system plays an essential role in neuronal development. We investigated the effects of early postnatal ETS exposure on the endocannabinoid system in different brain regions. C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to ETS that was generated from 3R4F cigarettes from postnatal day 3 (P3) to P14...
December 13, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Laurie-Anne Roeckel, Dominique Massotte, Mary C Olmstead, Katia Befort
Opioids are powerful analgesics but the clinical utility of these compounds is reduced by aversive outcomes, including the development of affective and substance use disorders. Opioid systems do not function in isolation so understanding how these interact with other neuropharmacological systems could lead to novel therapeutics that minimize withdrawal, tolerance, and emotional dysregulation. The cannabinoid system is an obvious candidate as anatomical, pharmacological, and behavioral studies point to opioid-cannabinoid interactions in the mediation of these processes...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Christopher W Liu, Anuj Bhatia, Arlene Buzon-Tan, Susan Walker, Dharini Ilangomaran, Jamal Kara, Lakshmikumar Venkatraghavan, Atul J Prabhu
BACKGROUND: The recreational and medical use of cannabinoids has been increasing. While most studies and reviews have focused on the role of cannabinoids in the management of acute pain, no study has examined the postoperative outcomes of surgical candidates who are on cannabinoids preoperatively. This retrospective cohort study examined the impact of preoperative cannabinoid use on postoperative pain scores and pain-related outcomes in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery. METHODS: Outcomes of patients who had major orthopedic surgery at our hospital between April 1, 2015 and June 30, 2017 were reviewed...
December 7, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Luana Gilio, Pierpaolo Maffei, Ettore Dolcetti, Antonio Bruno, Fabio Buttari, Diego Centonze, Ennio Iezzi
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been recently recognized as a prominent promoter of the emotional homeostasis, mediating the effects of different environmental signals including rewarding and stressing stimuli. The ECS modulates the rewarding effects of environmental stimuli, influencing synaptic transmission in the dopaminergic projections to the limbic system, and mediates the neurophysiological and behavioral consequences of stress. Notably, the individual psychosocial context is another key element modulating the activity of the ECS...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Natasha E Wade, Alexander L Wallace, Ann M Swartz, Krista M Lisdahl
OBJECTIVES: The high rate of cannabis (CAN) use in emerging adults is concerning given prior research suggesting neurocognitive deficits associated with CAN use in youth. Regular CAN use downregulates endocannabinoid activity, while aerobic exercise upregulates cannabinoid receptor 1 activity and releases endocannabinoids. Here we investigate the influence of regular CAN use on neuropsychological performance, and whether aerobic fitness moderates these effects. METHODS: Seventy-nine young adults (37 CAN users) aged 16-26 participated...
November 26, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Dareen A Youssef, Hassan M El-Fayoumi, Mona F Mahmoud
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Insulin resistance (IR) and obesity predispose diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Beta-caryophyllene (BCP), a natural sesquiterpene, exerts neuroprotective, anxiolytic and antidepressant effects via its selective agonism to cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R). BCP was shown to have an anti-diabetic effect, however, the implication of CB2R is yet to be elucidated. A link between CB2R agonism and PPAR-γ activation has been discussed, but the exact mechanism is not well-defined...
November 20, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jeremy D Hill, Viviana Zuluaga-Ramirez, Sachin Gajghate, Malika Winfield, Uma Sriram, Slava Rom, Yuri Persidsky
New neurons are continuously produced by neural stem cells (NSCs) within the adult hippocampus. Numerous diseases, including major depressive disorder and HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorder, are associated with decreased rates of adult neurogenesis. A hallmark of these conditions is a chronic release of neuroinflammatory mediators by activated resident glia. Recent studies have shown a neuroprotective role on NSCs of cannabinoid receptor activation. Yet, little is known about the effects of GPR55, a candidate cannabinoid receptor, activation on reductions of neurogenesis in response to inflammatory insult...
November 19, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Hye-Hyun Kim, Joo Min Park, Suk-Ho Lee, Won-Kyung Ho
The input-output relationships in neural circuits are determined not only by synaptic efficacy but also by neuronal excitability. Activity-dependent alterations of synaptic efficacy have been extensively investigated, but relatively less is known about how the neuronal output is modulated when synaptic efficacy changes are associated with neuronal excitability changes. In this study, we demonstrate that paired pulses of low-frequency stimulation (PP-LFS) induced metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD) at Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapses in Sprague-Dawley rats (both sexes), and this LTD was associated with excitatory postsynaptic potential to spike (E-S) potentiation, leading to the increase in action potential (AP) outputs...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Michael B Gatch, Michael J Forster
A new generation of novel cannabinoid compounds have been developed as marijuana substitutes to avoid drug control laws and cannabinoid blood tests. 5F-MDMB-PINACA (also known as 5F-ADB, 5F-ADB-PINACA), MDMB-CHIMICA, MDMB-FUBINACA, ADB-FUBINACA, and AMB-FUBINACA (also known as FUB-AMB, MMB-FUBINACA) were tested for in vivo cannabinoid-like effects to assess their abuse liability. Locomotor activity in mice was tested to screen for locomotor depressant effects and to identify behaviorally-active dose ranges and times of peak effect...
November 12, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Waguih William IsHak, Raymond Y Wen, Lancer Naghdechi, Brigitte Vanle, Jonathan Dang, Michelle Knosp, Julieta Dascal, Lobsang Marcia, Yasmine Gohar, Lidia Eskander, Justin Yadegar, Sophia Hanna, Antonious Sadek, Leslie Aguilar-Hernandez, Itai Danovitch, Charles Louy
BACKGROUND: Pain comorbid with depression is frequently encountered in clinical settings and often leads to significant impaired functioning. Given the complexity of comorbidities, it is important to address both pain and depressive symptoms when evaluating treatment options. AIM: To review studies addressing pain comorbid with depression, and to report the impact of current treatments. METHOD: A systematic search of the literature databases was conducted according to predefined criteria...
November 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
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