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Ocular HIV

Yiwen Qian, Xin Che, Jing Jiang, Zhiliang Wang
It has been found that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 RNA or antigens can be detected in the intraocular tissues of HIV-1 patients even under effective highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). In vivo, blood retinal barrier (BRB) establishes a critical, physiological guardian against microbial invasion of the eye, but may be compromised in the presence of HIV-1. Envelope glycoprotein gp120 is exposed on the surface of the HIV envelope, essential for virus entry into cells by attachment to specific cell surface receptors...
March 15, 2019: Current HIV Research
Mahsaw N Motlagh, Cameron G Javid
Purpose: The ocular sequelae of syphilis are devastating and may cause blindness. The ambiguous nature of its ocular manifestations makes syphilis difficult to detect. Though uncommon, the rise of syphilis in the United States requires a renewed understanding of its ophthalmic presentation to prevent devastating outcomes. We present this case to raise awareness for the increasing prevalence of ocular syphilis and appropriate serologic testing. Observations: We describe a 65-year-old HIV-positive male with worsening retinitis, uveitis, and rapid visual loss...
2019: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Bayaki Saka, Abla Séfako Akakpo, Julienne Noude Teclessou, Garba Mahamadou, Abas Mouhari-Toure, Kossi Dzidzinyo, Adam Nouhou Diori, Nidain Maneh, Sabin Prince-Agbodjan, Koussake Kombaté, Komi Balo, Kissem Tchangai-Walla, Palokinam Pitché
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess ocular and mucocutaneous sequelae among SJS/TEN survivors and identify risk factors of ocular sequelae. Patients and Method: Late complications among SJS/TEN survivors were assessed using 2 methods: a retrospective assessment of medical records only or a retrospective assessment of medical records and physical examination of survivors who were contacted by phone. Results: Between January 1995 and December 2017, 177 cases of SJS/TEN (138 cases of SJS, 29 cases of TEN, and 10 cases SJS/TEN overlap) were admitted into two university hospitals of Lomé (Togo)...
2019: Dermatology Research and Practice
Eshan B Henshaw, Affiong A Ibanga, Derima P Obaji
Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) is a rare, infective skin disease, predominantly but not exclusively caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa . It is often seen in individuals with immunosuppression, although it has also been reported among previously healthy individuals. It was initially thought to be pathognomonic of P. aeruginosa septicemia, but this assertion was discarded following several reports on EG without bacteremia and EG with varied bacterial and fungal etiologies. There are scant reports of its association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, while ocular involvement is extremely rare...
January 2019: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Yuslay Fernández Zamora, Luciana Peixoto Finamor, Luci Meire P Silva, Denise S Rodrigues, Ricardo P Casaroli-Marano, Cristina Muccioli
PURPOSE: To describe the approach of Brazilian specialists in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis-associated uveitis (TBU). METHODS: Members of the Brazilian Uveitis Society received an electronic invitation to participate in an online questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 169 invited specialists, 78 answered the questionnaire. Specialists evaluated 5.6 patients with TBU annually. Tuberculin skin test (TST, 81%) was primarily used for diagnosis...
February 26, 2019: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Harrison-Williams C M Lloyd, Simon Arunga, Amos Twinamasiko, Meier A Frederick, John Onyango
AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the predictors of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) and conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) among Ugandan patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients presenting for removal of ocular surface lesions received human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, completed questionnaires about demographic, behavioral, and historical potential risk factors for conjunctival neoplasia, and had lesions examined for interpalpebral versus other locations, rough versus smooth texture, and number of feeder vessels...
July 2018: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
Guntur Darmawan, Laniyati Hamijoyo, Amaylia Oehadian, Ria Bandiara, Lisda Amalia
A 38-year-old woman presented with general weakness and vaginal bleeding. One month prior, she had been diagnosed with Evans syndrome (haemolytic anemia with positive Coombs test and thrombocytopenia) and was given oral steroid as maintenance therapy. Her serology examination was negative for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Her obstetrical history was marked by miscarriage in second pregnancy and preeclampsia in third pregnancy. She used hormonal contraceptives until 5 months prior to admission...
October 2018: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Carole Khaw, Daniel Richardson, Gail Matthews, Tim Read
Patients who are HIV-positive and co-infected with other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are at risk of increased morbidity and mortality. This is of clinical significance. There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of STIs, particularly syphilis, gonorrhoea, Mycoplasma genitalium and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in HIV-positive patients. The reasons for this are multifactorial, but contributing factors may include effective treatment for HIV, increased STI testing, use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and use of social media to meet sexual partners...
December 21, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
Rama Rajagopal, Pratik V Kataria, Sudharshan Sridharan, Krishna Kumar, Kuzhanthai Lily Therese, Poongulali Selvamuthu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Aiemeeza Rajali, Yusnidar Tajul Ariffin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society
L De Simone, L Belloni, R Aldigeri, A Zerbini, V Mastrofilippo, A Sangiovanni, M Parmeggiani, L Fontana, Luca Cimino
PURPOSE: The diagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior uveitis in immunocompetent patients requires confirmation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and/or intraocular antibody index (AI) assay. In this study, we analyzed the different contributions of PCR and AI to CMV diagnosis by performing one single aqueous tap. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of HIV-negative patients attending the Ocular Immunology Unit of Azienda Unità Sanitaria Locale - IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy, from March 2015 to April 2018 with a diagnosis of hypertensive anterior granulomatous uveitis compatible with suspected CMV etiology...
November 3, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
J A Shaw, D P Smit, S Griffith-Richards, C F N Koegelenberg
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) and sarcoidosis commonly present with pulmonary and ocular involvement. Routine chest radiography (CXR) is recommended in the workup for suspected intraocular TB (IOTB) or intraocular sarcoidosis (IOS); however, data on the utility of CXR in this setting are lacking. METHODS: A post-hoc analysis was performed of a prospectively collected data set comprising 104 patients with uveitis of unknown cause. A pulmonologist and thoracic radiologist, blinded to the final diagnosis, independently reported these CXRs as being in keeping with TB or sarcoidosis...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Rachel R Atherton, Jayne Ellis, Fiona V Cresswell, Joshua Rhein, David R Boulware
Cryptococcal meningitis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected persons, accounting for 15% of AIDS-related deaths. Visual disturbance is commonly reported, and a wide range of ophthalmic signs may be present on examination. There is limited published literature to date describing the range and incidence of ophthalmic signs in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. Nested within the Adjunctive Sertraline for the Treatment of HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis (ASTRO-CM) trial (ClinicalTrials...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Ainat Klein, Naomi Fischer, Michaella Goldstein, Shiri Shulman, Zohar Habot-Wilner
PURPOSE: Ocular manifestations of syphilis have been reported in 2-10% of systemic infection. The purpose of this study was to report the incidence of ocular syphilis and various ocular manifestations, particularly optic nerve involvement, in newly diagnosed cases. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. Medical records of newly diagnosed syphilis patients between January 2009 and January 2017 in a tertiary medical centre were reviewed. RESULTS: There were 123 new systemic syphilis cases out of 569,222 (0...
October 17, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Elizabeth R Duvall, Jennifer Pan, Kim Tien T Dinh, Majd Al Shaarani, Golden Pan, Marlyn P Langford, William A Byrd
Purpose: To show the utility of MRI and histology in diagnosing rare cases of trigeminal hypertrophic interstitial neuropathy (HIN). Observations: A 57-year-old African-American woman presented with a 4-year history of right eye proptosis with tearing, headaches, and worsening right-sided trigeminal neuralgia symptoms and jaw pain. HIV and diabetes tests were negative and thyroid function was normal. MRI identified abnormal thickening of all trigeminal nerve divisions and proptosis secondary to right trigeminal nerve V1 division enlargement...
December 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Ashlin Joye, John A Gonzales
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights recent studies that have increasingly implicated cytomegalovirus (CMV) as a significant cause of keratouveitis and retinitis in immunocompetent hosts. RECENT FINDINGS: Molecular testing has identified that CMV infection is frequently present in cases of Posner-Schlossman and Fuchs, keratouveitis syndromes previously presumed to be idiopathic conditions. Ocular hypertension and endothelial cell loss are important complications of CMV keratouveitis and are likely mediated by viral invasion of the trabecular meshwork and corneal endothelium...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Aniki Rothova, Anass Hajjaj, Joeri de Hoog, Alberta A H J Thiadens, Virgil A S H Dalm
PURPOSE: The advances in medicine have led to an increased number of people living with some form of immunodeficiency. Most ocular infections in immunocompromised patients may lead to irreversible blindness. We identify the causes of uveitis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 1354 consecutive patients. All patients underwent a standard work-up for uveitis. RESULTS: An immunocompromised state was identified in 171/1354 patients (13%), of whom 40 had Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, 52 received immunosuppressive medications, 28 had concurrent malignant disorder and 20 had other causes for their immunosuppression...
September 21, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Mohammed Saadulla, Anass Hajjaj, Aniki Rothova, Sylvie R Steenmeijer
A 29-year-old male presented at the ER with a red and painful left eye with sudden and progressive loss of vision within a week. His visual acuity was 1/60. Slit lamp investigation showed inflammatory cells throughout the anterior chamber and vitreous body, and a hyperaemic and swollen optic disc with retinal lesions, indicating a panuveitis combined with multifocal chorioretinitis. Due to the progressive nature, an infectious cause was suspected: positive syphilis serology and HIV serology confirmed this. The diagnosis of ocular syphilis was a first manifestation of a syphilis infection...
August 30, 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Chongfei Jin, Hamza Minhas, Amandeep Kaur, Sreenath Kodali, Vladimir Gotlieb
BACKGROUND Ocular Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) involving the conjunctiva and ocular adnexa is uncommon and is usually treated with cryotherapy or surgical excision. We report a case of ocular KS successfully treated with HAART combined with 8 cycles of weekly docetaxel. CASE REPORT Our patient was a 24-year-old, treatment-naïve, HIV-positive (CD4 cell count 198 cells/mm3), homosexual man treated as having atypical hordeolum and subconjunctival hemorrhage, and later confirmed with pathology to have ocular KS with immunohistochemistry study showing KS with positive HHV8, CD34, CD31, and focal positive staining with Factor VIIIRA...
September 10, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Chui-Lien Tsen, Yao-Shen Chen, Kuan-Sheng Wu, Hung-Chin Tsai, Ya-Hsin Chen, Ying-Yen Lee, Shwu-Jiuan Sheu
PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of ocular manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in patients treated at a tertiary referral center in Taiwan during a time of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study in Taiwan was performed between January 2006 and July 2016. Ocular examination and systemic information were recorded from the HIV-infected patients. RESULTS: 1242 patients with HIV/AIDS were identified...
September 6, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
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