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Mary M Flynn, Anjali N Parekh, Mehul R Parikh, Akhil Sood, Katherine M Shaffer, Thomas M Runge, Anna M Lipowska, Sebastian D Perez, Sonali S Sakaria, Ram M Subramanian
BACKGROUND: Intravenous contrast enhanced imaging is invaluable in diagnosing pathology following liver transplantation. Given the potential risk of contrast nephropathy associated with iodinated CT contrast, alternate contrast modalities need to be examined, especially in the setting of renal insufficiency. The purpose of this study was to examine the renal safety of MRI with gadolinium following liver transplantation. METHODS: The study involved a retrospective analysis of 549 cases of abdominal MRI with low dose gadobenate dimeglumine in liver transplant recipients at a single center...
February 19, 2019: Transplantation
Marianna Ranieri, Annarita Di Mise, Grazia Tamma, Giovanna Valenti
The alteration of water balance and related disorders has emerged as being strictly linked to the state of activation of the vasopressin-aquaporin-2 (vasopressin-AQP2) pathway. The lack of responsiveness of the kidney to the vasopressin action impairs its ability to concentrate the urine, resulting in polyuria, polydipsia, and risk of severe dehydration for patients. Conversely, non-osmotic release of vasopressin is associated with an increase in water permeability in the renal collecting duct, producing water retention and increasing the circulatory blood volume...
2019: F1000Research
Stephanie Holowka, Manohar Shroff, Govind B Chavhan
Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA) used for MR imaging are a valuable imaging resource that has benefited patient management over last three decades and largely have a high safety profile. However, recently, adverse effects related to GBCA like nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) and asymptomatic gadolinium deposition in tissues including brain are concerning. While NSF has largely stopped occurring due to precautions and guidelines to not use GBCA in patients with poor renal function, the long term effects of gadolinium deposition, especially in brain, are not known at this stage...
February 22, 2019: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Mazène Hochane, Patrick R van den Berg, Xueying Fan, Noémie Bérenger-Currias, Esmée Adegeest, Monika Bialecka, Maaike Nieveen, Maarten Menschaart, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Stefan Semrau
The current understanding of mammalian kidney development is largely based on mouse models. Recent landmark studies revealed pervasive differences in renal embryogenesis between mouse and human. The scarcity of detailed gene expression data in humans therefore hampers a thorough understanding of human kidney development and the possible developmental origin of kidney diseases. In this paper, we present a single-cell transcriptomics study of the human fetal kidney. We identified 22 cell types and a host of marker genes...
February 21, 2019: PLoS Biology
Ramón Peces, Rocío Mena, Carlos Peces, Fernando Santos-Simarro, Luis Fernández, Sara Afonso, Pablo Lapunzina, Rafael Selgas, Julián Nevado
BACKGROUND: Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare condition characterized by severe polyuria, due to the inability of the kidneys to concentrate urine in response to arginine vasopressin (AVP). In the majority of the cases, the disease shows an X-linked inherited pattern, although an autosomal recessive inheritance was also observed. METHODS: We report a patient with a severe NDI diagnosed during the neonatal period. Because the patient was female without a family history of congenital NDI, her disease was thought to exhibit an autosomal recessive form...
February 19, 2019: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Shiwei Guo, Xueyang Xiao, Xiaoming Wang, Qiang Luo, Hongyan Zhu, Hu Zhang, Haonan Li, Qiyong Gong, Kui Luo
Accumulation of nano-scale contrast agents in body tissues potentially induces adverse effects associated with free Gd(iii) ion release from the nano-scale system, such as nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and gadolinium deposition in the brain tissue. A novel formulation strategy was proposed herein for Gd-based macromolecular MRI contrast agents (Gd-mCAs), which may significantly reduce Gd(iii) retention but maintain sufficient imaging contrast. Biodegradable poly[N-(1,3-dihydroxypropyl)methacrylamide] copolymers (pDHPMA) were synthesized from N-(1,3-dihydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (DHPMA) as a monomer and enzyme-responsive short peptide (GFLG) as a chain transfer agent...
February 18, 2019: Biomaterials Science
Kelley Chuang, Casey Kaneshiro, Jaime Betancourt
The risk of developing nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with end stage renal disease may increase with exposure to gadolinium-based contrast dyes during magnetic resonance imaging.
June 2018: Federal Practitioner
David Ad Munro, Yishay Wineberg, Julia Tarnick, Chris S Vink, Zhuan Li, Clare Pridans, Elaine Dzierzak, Tomer Kalisky, Peter Hohenstein, Jamie A Davies
The origins and functions of kidney macrophages in the adult have been explored, but their roles during development remain largely unknown. Here we characterise macrophage arrival, localisation, heterogeneity, and functions during kidney organogenesis. Using genetic approaches to ablate macrophages, we identify a role for macrophages in nephron progenitor cell clearance as mouse kidney development begins. Throughout renal organogenesis, most kidney macrophages are perivascular and express F4/80 and CD206. These macrophages are enriched for mRNAs linked to developmental processes, such as blood vessel morphogenesis...
February 13, 2019: ELife
Zhijin Lu, Xia Wu, Renyuan Zhou, Kai Kai, Jie Wen, Qian Xiong
OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic basis for pedigree affected with hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (HNDI). METHODS: Next generation sequencing (NGS) with an osteology system gene panel was carried out for the proband. Suspected mutation was validated by Sanger sequencing of two relatives with similar symptoms and two unaffected relatives from the pedigree. RESULTS: The proband was found to carry a c.856C>T mutation of the AVPR2 gene...
February 10, 2019: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
I Doroshkevych, L Vozniuk, N Voloshchuk, O Klekot, O Kyrychenko
The article reveals the efficacy and safety aspects of a new class of antidiabetic drugs - SGLT2 inhibitors. The results of clinical and experimental studies of the principle of renal glucose reabsorption inhibition usage in the treatment of type 2 diabetes are presented in the article. Drugs of this class offer a new, non-insulin-dependent mechanism of action, lack of negative effect on body weight, favorable pharmacokinetic properties and good tolerance. However, data, requiring further more detailed analysis, were found, namely: a glucosuria as a risk factor for genitourinary system infections, increased levels of blood creatinine, increased urinary calcium excretion, ketogenesis...
December 2018: Georgian Medical News
Illja J Diets, Juliane Hoyer, Arif B Ekici, Bernt Popp, Nicoline Hoogerbrugge, Simon V van Reijmersdal, Rajith Bhaskaran, Michel Hadjihannas, Georgia Vasileiou, Christian T Thiel, Didem Seven, Steffen Uebe, Denisa Ilencikova, Esmé Waanders, Annelies M C Mavinkurve-Groothuis, Nel Roeleveld, Ronald R de Krijger, Jenny Wegert, Norbert Graf, Christian Vokuhl, Abbas Agaimy, Manfred Gessler, André Reis, Roland P Kuiper, Marjolijn C J Jongmans, Markus Metzler
Two percent of patients with Wilms tumors have a positive family history. In many of these cases the genetic cause remains unresolved. By applying germline exome sequencing in two families with two affected individuals with Wilms tumors, we identified truncating mutations in TRIM28. Subsequent mutational screening of germline and tumor DNA of 269 children affected by Wilms tumor was performed, and revealed seven additional individuals with germline truncating mutations, and one individual with a somatic truncating mutation in TRIM28...
January 29, 2019: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Kynan T Lawlor, Luke Zappia, James Lefevre, Joo-Seop Park, Nicholas A Hamilton, Alicia Oshlack, Melissa H Little, Alexander Nicholas Combes
Progenitor self-renewal and differentiation is often regulated by spatially restricted cues within a tissue microenvironment. Here we examine how progenitor cell migration impacts regionally induced commitment within the nephrogenic niche in mice. We identify a subset of cells that express Wnt4 , an early marker of nephron commitment, but migrate back into the progenitor population where they accumulate over time. Single cell RNA-seq and computational modelling of returning cells reveals that nephron progenitors can traverse the transcriptional hierarchy between self-renewal and commitment in either direction...
January 24, 2019: ELife
Jinzhao He, Baoxue Yang
Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of highly selective transmembrane channels that mainly transport water across the cell and some facilitate low-molecular-weight solutes. Eight AQPs, including AQP1, AQP2, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP6, AQP7, and AQP11, are expressed in different segments and various cells in the kidney to maintain normal urine concentration function. AQP2 is critical in regulating urine concentrating ability. The expression and function of AQP2 are regulated by a series of transcriptional factors and post-transcriptional phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and glycosylation...
January 16, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Gerardo García-Maldonado, Rubén de Jesús Castro-García
The prescribing of Lithium is common in psychiatric clinical practice. The aim of this study was to identify the most common endocrine side effects associated with this drug and to clarify the pathophysiological basis. A systematic review was conducted in Psycinfo, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus. A computerised search for information was performed using a PICO (patient, intervention, comparative, outcomes) strategy. The main neuroendocrine alterations were reported in kidneys, thyroid and parathyroid glands, pancreas, and the communication pathways between the pituitary and adrenal glands...
January 2019: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
Alena V Yermalovich, Jihan K Osborne, Patricia Sousa, Areum Han, Melissa A Kinney, Michael J Chen, Daisy A Robinton, Helen Montie, Dan S Pearson, Sean B Wilson, Alexander N Combes, Melissa H Little, George Q Daley
In humans and in mice the formation of nephrons during embryonic development reaches completion near the end of gestation, after which no new nephrons are formed. The final nephron complement can vary 10-fold, with reduced nephron number predisposing individuals to hypertension, renal, and cardiovascular diseases in later life. While the heterochronic genes lin28 and let-7 are well-established regulators of developmental timing in invertebrates, their role in mammalian organogenesis is not fully understood...
January 11, 2019: Nature Communications
Jin Woo Choi, Won-Jin Moon
Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are commonly used for enhancement in MR imaging and have long been considered safe when administered at recommended doses. However, since the report that nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is linked to the use of GBCAs in subjects with severe renal diseases, accumulating evidence has suggested that GBCAs are not cleared entirely from our bodies; some GBCAs are deposited in our tissues, including the brain. GBCA deposition in the brain is mostly linked to the specific chelate structure of the GBCA: linear GBCAs were responsible for brain deposition in almost all reported studies...
January 2019: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Ingrid F Dos Santos, Sulaiman Sheriff, Sihame Amlal, Rafeeq Ph Ahmed, Charuhas V Thakar, Hassane Amlal
Chronic adenine feeding is extensively used to develop animal models of chronic renal failure with metabolic features resembling those observed in humans. However, the mechanism by which adenine induces renal failure is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the early effects of adenine on water metabolism and salt balance in rats placed in metabolic cages and fed control or adenine-containing diets for 7 days. Molecular and functional studies demonstrated that adenine-fed rats exhibited a significant reduction in food intake, polyuria, polydipsia, decreased urine osmolality and increased salt wasting...
January 9, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Yiwen Koh, Mui Teng Chua, Weng Hoe Ho, Chengjie Lee, Gene Wai Han Chan, Win Sen Kuan
Background: Lung ultrasonography is increasingly used in the emergency department (ED) as a standard adjunct in the evaluation of the breathless patient. The study objective was to ascertain the diagnostic accuracy of lung and cardiac ultrasound in undifferentiated dyspneic ED patients. Methods: We conducted this prospective observational study on patients presenting with dyspnea in the ED of a tertiary hospital. The sonographers who performed lung and cardiac ultrasound according to a locally-designed protocol were blinded to clinical and radiologic results...
November 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Seshadri Sekhar Chatterjee, Sutanuka Ghosal, Soumitra Das, Guru S Gowda
Polydipsia has always been an intriguing entity in clinical psychiatry, since long. Other than being commonly associated with patients of chronic schizophrenia, as described in past, it can also mimic and present in other psychiatric disorders; and thus may be elusive for diagnosis and treatment. Here we describe a patient having polydipsia with prominent obsessive compulsive symptoms, which, after detailed investigations, was found to be secondary to herpes encephalitis. The organic nature of the illness was ascertained by distinct signal changes in right uncus, hippocampus and cingulate cortex; whereas conventional workup for polydipsia ruled out both central and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Aman Saini, Alex Wallace, Hassan Albadawi, Sailendra Naidu, Sadeer Alzubaidi, M Grace Knuttinen, Anshuman Panda, Rahmi Oklu
Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a chronic, debilitating disease with a significant global burden. A number of diagnostic imaging techniques exist, including computed tomography angiography (CTA) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA), to aid in PAD diagnosis and subsequent treatment planning. Due to concerns of renal toxicity or nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) for iodinated and gadolinium-based contrasts, respectively, a number of non-enhanced MRA (NEMRA) protocols are being increasingly used in PAD diagnosis...
December 18, 2018: Diagnostics
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