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Saulo de Freitas Araujo, Fernando Tavares Saraiva, Marcus Bentes de Carvalho Neto
In recent decades, various studies have challenged the traditional view that John Broadus Watson's Behaviorist Manifesto prompted a psychological revolution. However, methodological hindrances underlie all these attempts to evaluate the impact of Watson's study, such as the absence of comparative parameters. This article remedies this problem by conducting a comparative citation analysis involving Watson and eight other representative psychologists of the time: J. R. Angell, H. Carr, J. M. Cattell, J. Dewey, G...
February 20, 2019: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
Tomasz Urbaniak, Daniela Machová, Olga Janoušková, Witold Musiał
The past decade may be considered as revolutionary in the research field focused on the physiological function of macrophages. Unknown subtypes of these cells involved in pathological mechanisms were described recently, and they are considered as potential drug delivery targets. The innate ability to internalize foreign bodies exhibited by macrophages can be employed as a therapeutic strategy. The efficiency of this uptake depends on the size, shape and surface physiochemical properties of the phagocyted objects...
February 17, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Khuong P Ong, Shunnian Wu, Tien Hoa Nguyen, David J Singh, Zhen Fan, Michael B Sullivan, Cuong Dang
Organo-lead halide perovskite solar cells represent a revolutionary shift in solar photovoltaics, introducing relatively soft defect containing semiconductors as materials with excellent charge collection for both electrons and holes. Although they are based on the nominally simple cubic perovskite structure, these compounds are in fact very complex. For example, in (CH3 NH3 )PbI3 the dynamics and ensuing structural fluctuations associated with the (CH3 NH3 )+ ions and the interplay with the electronic properties are still not fully understood, despite extensive study...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Elifcan Aladağ, İbrahim Celalettin Haznedaroğlu
With an annual incidence of 1-2 in a million, Ph*(+) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disease that makes myeloid neoplastic cells breed out of control. This BCR-ABL(+) myeloproliferative disease makes up about 15%-20% of all leukemia cases in adults. CML is seen more in males than females, with a rate of three to two. However, it does not show differences in prevalence in terms of age. CML consists of three clinical phases. The first one is the chronic phase, defined by rising white blood cell levels and also by myeloid proliferation and bone marrow maturation...
February 11, 2019: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Aanchal Mongia, Debarka Sengupta, Angshul Majumdar
Motivation: Single-cell RNA sequencing has been proved to be revolutionary for its potential of zooming into complex biological systems. Genome-wide expression analysis at single-cell resolution provides a window into dynamics of cellular phenotypes. This facilitates the characterization of transcriptional heterogeneity in normal and diseased tissues under various conditions. It also sheds light on the development or emergence of specific cell populations and phenotypes. However, owing to the paucity of input RNA, a typical single cell RNA sequencing data features a high number of dropout events where transcripts fail to get amplified...
2019: Frontiers in Genetics
Bradley D Hunter, Caron A Jacobson
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is a revolutionary new form of immunotherapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. The two primary toxicities associated with CAR T-cell therapy include cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity (NT). CRS is generally self-limited but high-grade toxicities like hypotension and hypoxemia can be managed with agents that block the effects of IL-6, like tocilizumab, and/or corticosteroids. While CAR-T cell therapy-associated NT is a well-described clinical phenomenon, its pathophysiology remains inadequately understood; treatments and preventive strategies remain elusive...
February 11, 2019: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Don K Nakayama
The past medical history (PMH) of Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) reflects one of the emblematic nicknames in Americana, "Old Hickory." As a 14-year-old Rebel volunteer in the Revolutionary War, he survived a blow from a British saber and smallpox that he contacted in a prison camp epidemic. In 1806, Jackson challenged a rival who had made the mistake of maligning his beloved wife Rachel. He deliberately allowed his opponent to shoot him in the chest, and then killed him when he took his turn. A gunshot shattered his arm in an 1813 street fight that involved Thomas Hart Benton, who later became his ally in the United States Senate during his presidency...
November 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Scott E Crawford, Michael J Hartmann, Jill E Millstone
From size-dependent luminescence to localized surface plasmon resonances, the optical properties that emerge from common materials with nanoscale dimensions have been revolutionary. As nanomaterials get smaller, they approach molecular electronic structures, and this transition from bulk to molecular electronic properties is a subject of far-reaching impact. One class of nanomaterials that exhibit particularly interesting optoelectronic features at this size transition are coinage metal (i.e., group 11 elements copper, silver, and gold) nanoparticles with core diameters between approximately 1 to 3 nm (∼25-200 atoms)...
February 11, 2019: Accounts of Chemical Research
Toshiyuki Mori, Makoto Hirai, Toshihiro Mita
Although it is known that malaria parasites proliferate in the midgut of mosquito vector, their detailed behaviors, from gamete maturation to formation of next generation sporozoite, have not been fully understood at cellular or molecular level. This is mainly attributed to technical difficulties of dissection and whole-mount observation, of delicate and opaque mosquito body contents. In addition, blood pigment surrounding parasites immediately after blood meal also complicates tracing mosquito-stage parasites...
February 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Birthe Sandargo, Clara Chepkirui, Tian Cheng, Lillibeth Chaverra-Muñoz, Benjarong Thongbai, Marc Stadler, Stephan Hüttel
The Basidiomycota constitutes the second largest higher taxonomic group of the Fungi after the Ascomycota and comprises over 30.000 species. Mycelial cultures of Basidiomycota have already been studied since the 1950s for production of antibiotics and other beneficial secondary metabolites. Despite the fact that unique and selective compounds like pleuromutilin were obtained early on, it took several decades more until they were subjected to a systematic screening for antimicrobial and anticancer activities...
February 7, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
Duncan MacCannell
In the decade and a half since the introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS), the technical feasibility, cost, and overall utility of sequencing have changed dramatically, including applications for infectious disease epidemiology. Massively parallel sequencing technologies have decreased the cost of sequencing by more than 6 orders or magnitude over this time, with a corresponding increase in data generation and complexity. This review provides an overview of the basic principles, chemistry, and operational mechanics of current sequencing technologies, including both conventional Sanger and NGS approaches...
January 2019: Microbiology Spectrum
Yuta Ando, Elizabeth L Siegler, Hoang P Ta, Gunce E Cinay, Hao Zhou, Kimberly A Gorrell, Hannah Au, Bethany M Jarvis, Pin Wang, Keyue Shen
Despite its revolutionary success in hematological malignancies, chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy faces disappointing clinical results in solid tumors. The poor efficacy has been partially attributed to the lack of understanding in how CAR-T cells function in a solid tumor microenvironment. Hypoxia plays a critical role in cancer progression and immune editing, which potentially results in solid tumors escaping immunosurveillance and CAR-T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Mechanistic studies of CAR-T cell biology in a physiological environment has been limited by the complexity of tumor-immune interactions in clinical and animal models, as well as by a lack of reliable in vitro models...
February 8, 2019: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Tommy Andersson, Martin Wiesmann, Omid Nikoubashman, Anil Gopinathan, Pervinder Bhogal, Leonard L L Yeo
The treatment of acute ischemic stroke by mechanical thrombectomy has been revolutionary, however most of the clinical trials were done with the use a stent retriever. At the same time, an alternative technique of thrombectomy through direct aspiration with a large bore distal access catheter at the face of the clot is rapidly gaining popularity. Nonetheless, the data supporting this new technique is not yet as mature as that available on stent retrievers. This review is a critical analysis of the evidence supporting the principle of direct aspiration thrombectomy and a discussion of its potential strengths and weaknesses in comparison to the available studies on stent retrievers...
January 2019: Journal of Stroke
Ruiling Chen, Gangyang Wang, Ying Zheng, Yingqi Hua, Zhengdong Cai
Although the application of multiple chemotherapy brought revolutionary changes to improve overall survival of osteosarcoma patients, the existence of multidrug resistance (MDR) has become a great challenge for successful osteosarcoma treatment in recent decades. Substantial studies have revealed various underlying mechanisms of MDR in cancers. As for osteosarcoma, evidence has highlighted that microRNAs (miRNAs) can mediate in the processes of DNA damage response, apoptosis avoidance, autophagy induction, activation of cancer stem cells, and signal transduction...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Barry Edward Monk, Anna Elizabeth Monk
Walter Swann was an engineer and steel-maker, who established the firm WR Swann and Co. Ltd in Sheffield and who created the renowned Swann-Morton® brand of surgical blades. The company has defied the trend in the decline of the manufacture of Sheffield steel and is a testimony to his remarkable and enlightened employment practices, which were revolutionary in their day.
February 5, 2019: Journal of Medical Biography
Zarrin Basharat, Luís A B Novo, Azra Yasmin
The arrival of sequence-specific endonucleases that allow genome editing has shaken the pillars of basic and applied plant biology. Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) is a revolutionary genome-engineering tool that enables the enhancement of targeted traits in plants. Numerous plants, including energy crops, known for their potential to tolerate, immobilize, and stabilize inorganic and organic pollutants, have already been edited using different CRISPR systems. Moreover, a large array of genes responsible for increased metal tolerance, metal uptake and hyperaccumulation have already been identified...
June 28, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Ming Fang, Nian-Hai Shen, Wei E I Sha, Zhixiang Huang, Thomas Koschny, Costas M Soukoulis
Plasmonic metamaterials and metasurfaces offer new opportunities in developing high performance terahertz emitters and detectors beyond the limitations of conventional nonlinear materials. However, simple meta-atoms for second-order nonlinear applications encounter fundamental trade-offs in the necessary symmetry breaking and local-field enhancement due to radiation damping that is inherent to the operating resonant mode and cannot be controlled separately. Here we present a novel concept that eliminates this restriction obstructing the improvement of terahertz generation efficiency in nonlinear metasurfaces based on metallic nanoresonators...
January 18, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Tsuyoshi Matsumura
Patients with muscular dystrophy repeatedly experience loss of motor function and the ability to perform activities of daily living throughout the progression of their disease. These experiences can seriously decrease their self-esteem. Although multidisciplinary care has improved the life expectancy of these patients greatly, it can be hard for them to engage in social activities. Para-sports can bring about a sense of independence in such patients. They can join para-sports as players, because para-sports are modified or originally designed to adapt to their functional abilities...
February 2019: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Nilgun Gurbuz, Bulent Ozpolat
The discovery during the last decade of microRNAs (miRs, miRNA) and their role in regulating normal physiological processes as well as in the pathogenesis of human tumors has been a revolutionary development in molecular oncology. miRNAs activating or inhibiting oncogenic molecular pathways that are involved in tumorigenesis, cell progression, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis are now considered of major impact in many cancer types. miRNA-based therapeutics that inhibit the levels of oncogenic miRNAs (oncomiRs) or elevate tumor suppressor miRs have enormous potential as molecular therapeutic targets...
February 2019: Anticancer Research
Dan Wang, Phillip W L Tai, Guangping Gao
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are the leading platform for gene delivery for the treatment of a variety of human diseases. Recent advances in developing clinically desirable AAV capsids, optimizing genome designs and harnessing revolutionary biotechnologies have contributed substantially to the growth of the gene therapy field. Preclinical and clinical successes in AAV-mediated gene replacement, gene silencing and gene editing have helped AAV gain popularity as the ideal therapeutic vector, with two AAV-based therapeutics gaining regulatory approval in Europe or the United States...
February 1, 2019: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
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