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Francisco Madrid-Gambin, Melanie Föcking, Sophie Sabherwal, Meike Heurich, Jane A English, Aoife O'Gorman, Tommi Suvitaival, Linda Ahonen, Mary Cannon, Glyn Lewis, Ismo Mattila, Caitriona Scaife, Sean Madden, Tuulia Hyötyläinen, Matej Orešič, Stanley Zammit, Gerard Cagney, David R Cotter, Lorraine Brennan
BACKGROUND: The identification of early biomarkers of psychotic experiences (PEs) is of interest because early diagnosis and treatment of those at risk of future disorder is associated with improved outcomes. The current study investigated early lipidomic and coagulation pathway protein signatures of later PEs in subjects from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort. METHODS: Plasma of 115 children (12 years of age) who were first identified as experiencing PEs at 18 years of age (48 cases and 67 controls) were assessed through integrated and targeted lipidomics and semitargeted proteomics approaches...
January 30, 2019: Biological Psychiatry
Dave L Dixon, Lauren G Pamulapati, John D Bucheit, Evan M Sisson, Shawn R Smith, Caroline J Kim, George F Wohlford, Jonah Pozen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is caused by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Although statins significantly reduce ASCVD risk, there remains a high degree of residual risk in statin-treated patients. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibition has emerged as a significant therapeutic target for further lowering of LDL-C when used in combination with statins. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent evidence supporting the use of PCSK9 inhibitors in patients with ASCVD...
March 16, 2019: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
I M Gaspar, A Gaspar
Familial hypercholesterolemia is an Mendelian dominant disorder characterized by defects of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) that result in a defective removal of LDL from plasma, which promotes deposition of cholesterol in the skin (xanthelasma), tendons (xanthomas), and arteries (atherosclerosis). Diagnosis severe clinical phenotype FH with Dutch Lipid Clinic Network Criteria, encompassing history of premature ASCVD, tendon xanthomas, and a family history of hypercholesterolemia and premature ASCVD in relatives is rare in the Portuguese FH patients...
March 2019: Atherosclerosis. Supplements
O S Lunegova, A E Mirrakhimov, E Hodzhiboboev, E E Bektasheva, K V Neronova, U M Toktomamatov, U Zakirov, A Asanbaev, R A Arapova, S S Abilova, A S Kerimkulova, E M Mirrakhimov
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is frequently underdiagnosed. Prevalence of the FH in Kyrgyzstan is unknown. AIM: to investigate the prevalence of FH amongst patients in the outpatient settings of the tertiary cardiologic center in Kyrgyzstan. METHODS: Retrospective observational study was conducted using the database of the laboratory of biochemistry and electronic database of outpatient department of the National Center of Cardiology and internal diseases...
March 2019: Atherosclerosis. Supplements
Sophie Pelegrin, Florence Galtier, Anne Chalançon, Jean-Pierre Gagnol, Anne-Marie Barbanel, Yves Pélissier, Michel Larroque, Samuel Lepape, Marie Faucanié, Isabelle Gabillaud, Pierre Petit, Hugues Chevassus
Nigella sativa seeds (NSS), also known as black cumin, have been claimed to have antidiabetic and lipid-lowering properties. Our pilot study investigated the effects of powdered NSS on insulin secretion and lipid profile in healthy male volunteers. We conducted a double blind randomized placebo-controlled 4-week trial in 30 subjects, receiving NSS powder (1 g/day) or placebo orally (15 subjects/group). Insulin secretion as determined by the hyperglycemic clamp technique, insulin sensitivity as well as cholesterol and triglycerides serum concentrations, were measured before and after treatment...
March 15, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Yuna Horiuchi, Ryunosuke Ohkawa, Shao-Jui Lai, Shitsuko Shimano, Michio Hagihara, Shuji Tohda, Takahiro Kameda, Minoru Tozuka
Cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) in atherosclerotic lesions is the main anti-atherosclerotic function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). In recent studies, apolipoprotein (apo) B-depleted serum (BDS) obtained with the polyethylene glycol precipitation method is used as a cholesterol acceptor (CA) substitution for HDL isolated by ultracentrifugation. However, the suitability of BDS as a CA is controversial. In the present study, CEC obtained from BDS was evaluated based on a parameter, defined as whole-CEC, which was calculated by multiplying CEC obtained using fixed amounts of HDL by cholesterol concentration to HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in the serum...
March 13, 2019: Bioscience Reports
Brian A Ference, Kausik K Ray, Alberico L Catapano, Thatcher B Ference, Stephen Burgess, David R Neff, Clare Oliver-Williams, Angela M Wood, Adam S Butterworth, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, John Danesh, John J P Kastelein, Stephen J Nicholls
BACKGROUND: ATP citrate lyase is an enzyme in the cholesterol-biosynthesis pathway upstream of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), the target of statins. Whether the genetic inhibition of ATP citrate lyase is associated with deleterious outcomes and whether it has the same effect, per unit decrease in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level, as the genetic inhibition of HMGCR is unclear. METHODS: We constructed genetic scores composed of independently inherited variants in the genes encoding ATP citrate lyase ( ACLY ) and HMGCR to create instruments that mimic the effect of ATP citrate lyase inhibitors and HMGCR inhibitors (statins), respectively...
March 14, 2019: New England Journal of Medicine
Kausik K Ray, Harold E Bays, Alberico L Catapano, Narendra D Lalwani, LeAnne T Bloedon, Lulu R Sterling, Paula L Robinson, Christie M Ballantyne
BACKGROUND: Short-term studies have shown that bempedoic acid, an inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase, reduces levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Data are limited regarding the safety and efficacy of bempedoic acid treatment in long-term studies involving patients with hypercholesterolemia who are receiving guideline-recommended statin therapy. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial involving patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, or both...
March 14, 2019: New England Journal of Medicine
Xin Geng, Marguerite R Irvin, Bertha Hidalgo, Stella Aslibekyan, Vinodh Srinivasasainagendra, Ping An, Alexis C Frazier-Wood, Hemant K Tiwari, Tushar Dave, Kathleen Ryan, Jose M Ordovas, Robert J Straka, Mary F Feitosa, Paul N Hopkins, Ingrid Borecki, Michael A Province, Braxton D Mitchell, Donna K Arnett, Degui Zhi
Background: Associations of both common and rare genetic variants with fasting blood lipids have been extensively studied. However, most of the rare coding variants associated with lipids are population-specific, and exploration of genetic data from diverse population samples may enhance the identification of novel associations with rare variants. Results: We searched for novel coding genetic variants associated with fasting lipid levels in 894 samples from the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) with exome-wide sequencing-based genotype data...
2019: Frontiers in Genetics
Umut Mousa, Cuneyd Anil, Canan Demir, Yusuf Bozkus, Kubra Ozturk, Neslihan Bascil Tutuncu, Alptekin Gursoy
OBJECTIVE: Colorectal polyps and thyroid nodules are common disorders linked to hyperinsulinemia and metabolic syndrome (Mets). The direct association between these two diseases is not clear. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of thyroid nodules in subjects with and without colorectal polyps. The secondary aim was to establish the prevalence of Mets and its parameters in both disorders, and determine if insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia is a common underlying pathophysiological mechanism...
March 13, 2019: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
N Grigorova, Zh Ivanova, B Bjorndal, E Vachkova, G Penchev, R Berge, S Ribarski, T Mircheva Georgieva, P Yonkova, I Penchev Georgiev
This study investigates the effect of fish oil supplementation and restricted feeding on body fat distribution and blood lipid profile in experimentally induced obesity in rabbits. The trial was carried out with 30 male rabbits, divided into 5 groups of 6 animals each (NC - non-castrated, non-treated, full-diet fed; C100 - castrated, non-treated, full-diet fed; FO100 - castrated, treated with fish oil, full-diet fed; C50 - castrated, non-treated, 50% restricted fed; FO50 - castrated, treated with fish oil, 50% restricted fed)...
March 1, 2019: Research in Veterinary Science
Ryuta Kinno, Yukiko Mori, Satomi Kubota, Shohei Nomoto, Akinori Futamura, Azusa Shiromaru, Takeshi Kuroda, Satoshi Yano, Seiichiro Ishigaki, Hidetomo Murakami, Yasuhiko Baba, Kenjiro Ono
The issue of whether serum lipid marker values are cognitively and neurologically significant for elderly individuals attending a memory clinic has been controversial. We investigated the associations of serum lipid markers with the memory function and cortical structure in 52 patients aged ≥75 years who had attended our memory clinic based on their subjective memory complaints. None had a history of medication for hyperlipidemia. The Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) was administered to all patients for the assessment of their memory function...
March 5, 2019: NeuroImage: Clinical
Ma Elena Moreno-Godínez, Claudia Galarce-Sosa, José Ángel Cahua-Pablo, Aurora Elizabeth Rojas-García, Gerardo Huerta-Beristain, Luz Del Carmen Alarcón-Romero, Miguel Cruz, Adán Valladares-Salgado, Verónica Antonio-Véjar, Marco Antonio Ramírez-Vargas, Eugenia Flores-Alfaro
BACKGROUND: Paraoxonase-1(PON1) exhibits hydrolytic activity and prevents the oxidation of high and low-density lipoproteins. Polymorphisms in the PON1 gene have been associated with variations in paraoxonase activity and with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). AIM OF THE STUDY: This study analyzed the association between the frequencies of genotypes of the L55 M and Q192 R SNPs in the PON1 gene with the PON1 activity and with CAD risk factors. METHODS: Women, determined by body composition, biochemical markers, and arylesterase (AREase) and paraoxonase (CMPase) activities were studied...
March 7, 2019: Archives of Medical Research
Monika Czaplińska, Agnieszka Ćwiklińska, Monika Sakowicz-Burkiewicz, Ewa Wieczorek, Agnieszka Kuchta, Robert Kowalski, Barbara Kortas-Stempak, Alicja Dębska-Ślizień, Maciej Jankowski, Ewa Król
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) associates with complex lipoprotein disturbances resulting in high cardiovascular risk. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a polymorphic protein with three common isoforms (E2; E3; E4) that plays a crucial role in lipoprotein metabolism, including hepatic clearance of chylomicrons and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnants, and reverse cholesterol transport. It demonstrates anti-atherogenic properties but data concerning the link between polymorphism and level of APOE in CKD patients are inconclusive...
March 9, 2019: Lipids in Health and Disease
Brian Spencer, Ivy Trinh, Edward Rockenstein, Michael Mante, Jazmin Florio, Anthony Adame, Omar M A El-Agnaf, Changyoun Kim, Eliezer Masliah, Robert A Rissman
Neurodegenerative disorders of the aging population are characterized by progressive accumulation of neuronal proteins such as α-synuclein (α-syn) in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Amyloid ß (Aß) and Tau in Alzheimer's disease (AD) for which no treatments are currently available. The ability to regulate the expression at the gene transcription level would be beneficial for reducing the accumulation of these proteins or regulating expression levels of other genes in the CNS. Short interfering RNA molecules can bind specifically to target RNAs and deliver them for degradation...
March 5, 2019: Neurobiology of Disease
Ramy El Jalbout, Guy Cloutier, Marie-Hélène Roy-Cardinal, Mélanie Henderson, Emile Levy, Chantale Lapierre, Gilles Soulez, Josée Dubois
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate non-invasive vascular elastography (NIVE) in detecting vascular changes associated with obese children. METHODS: Case-control study to evaluate NIVE in 120 children, 60 with elevated body mass index (BMI) (≥ 85th percentile for age and sex). Participants were randomly selected from a longitudinal cohort, evaluating consequences of obesity in healthy children with one obese parent. Radiofrequency ultrasound videos of the common carotid artery were obtained...
March 7, 2019: European Radiology
Shobini Jayaraman, Clive Baveghems, Olivia R Chavez, Andrea Rivas-Urbina, Jose Luis Sánchez-Quesada, Olga Gursky
Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is the main plasma carrier of triacylglycerol that is elevated in pathological conditions such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity and dyslipidemia. How variations in triacylglycerol levels influence structural stability and remodeling of VLDL and its metabolic product, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), is unknown. We applied a biochemical and biophysical approach using lipoprotein remodeling by lipoprotein lipase and cholesterol ester transfer protein, along with thermal denaturation that mimics key aspects of lipoprotein remodeling in vivo...
March 4, 2019: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids
U Julius, S Tselmin, U Schatz, S Fischer, S R Bornstein
Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is an internationally recognized atherogenic risk factor which is inherited and not changed by nutrition or physical activity. At present, only proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors may modestly decrease its concentration (but not in all patients)-leading to a certain decrease in cardiovascular events (CVE) in controlled studies. However, at present an elevation of Lp(a) is not a generally accepted indication for their use. More effective is lipoprotein apheresis (LA) therapy with respect to both lowering Lp(a) levels and reduction of CVE...
March 5, 2019: Clinical Research in Cardiology Supplements
U Julius, S Tselmin, U Schatz, S Fischer, S R Bornstein
Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is an internationally accepted independent atherogenic risk factor. Details about its synthesis, many aspects of composition and clearance from the bloodstream are still unknown. LDL receptor (LDLR) (and probably other receptors) play a role in the elimination of Lp(a) particles. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors increase the number of available LDLRs and in this way very effectively reduce the LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. As shown in controlled studies using PCSK9 inhibitors, Lp(a) levels are decreased by 20 to 30%, though in some patients no effect was observed...
March 5, 2019: Clinical Research in Cardiology Supplements
V J J Schettler, C L Neumann, C Peter, T Zimmermann, U Julius, B Hohenstein, E Roeseler, F Heigl, P Grützmacher, H Blume, R Klingel, A Vogt
Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is associated with the induction and sustaining of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD). Since 2008 Lp(a) along with progressive CVD has been approved as an indication for regular lipoprotein apheresis (LA) in Germany. The German Lipoprotein Apheresis Registry (GLAR) has been initiated to provide statistical evidence for the assessment of extracorporeal procedures to treat dyslipidemia for both LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and Lp(a)...
March 5, 2019: Clinical Research in Cardiology Supplements
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