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2D Analysis

Anna Kurpińska, Joanna Suraj, Emilia Bonar, Agnieszka Zakrzewska, Marta Stojak, Magdalena Sternak, Agnieszka Jasztal, Maria Walczak
INTRODUCTION: The tumor-promoting rearrangement of the lungs facilitates the process of cancer cell survival in a foreign microenvironment and enables their protection against immune defense. The study aimed to define the fingerprint of the early rearrangement of the lungs via the proteomic profiling of the lung tissue in the experimental model of tumor metastasis in a murine 4 T1 mammary adenocarcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The studies were performed on 7-8-week-old BALB/c female mice...
February 11, 2019: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Giuseppe Passucci, Megan E Brasch, James H Henderson, Vasily Zaburdaev, M Lisa Manning
We seek to characterize the motility of mouse fibroblasts on 2D substrates. Utilizing automated tracking techniques, we find that cell trajectories are super-diffusive, where displacements scale faster than t1/2 in all directions. Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain such statistics in other cell types: run and tumble behavior with Lévy-distributed run times, and ensembles of cells with heterogeneous speed and rotational noise. We develop an automated toolkit that directly compares cell trajectories to the predictions of each model and demonstrate that ensemble-averaged quantities such as the mean-squared displacements and velocity autocorrelation functions are equally well-fit by either model...
February 14, 2019: PLoS Computational Biology
Shaobo Tu, Fangwang Ming, Junwei Zhang, Xixiang Zhang, Husam N Alshareef
This study demonstrates the first synthesis of MXene-derived ferroelectric crystals. Specifically, high-aspect-ratio potassium niobate (KNbO3 ) ferroelectric crystals is successfully synthesized using 2D Nb2 C, MXene, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the niobium and potassium source, respectively. Material analysis confirms that a KNbO3 orthorhombic phase with Amm2 symmetry is obtained. Additionally, ferroelectricity in KNbO3 is confirmed using standard ferroelectric, dielectric, and piezoresponse force microscopy measurements...
February 14, 2019: Advanced Materials
Riccardo Scott, Anatol V Prudnikau, Artsiom Antanovich, Sotirios Christodoulou, Thomas Riedl, Guillaume H V Bertrand, Nina Owschimikow, Jörg K N Lindner, Zeger Hens, Iwan Moreels, Mikhail Artemyev, Ulrike Woggon, Alexander W Achtstein
In a comparative study we investigate the carrier-phonon coupling in CdSe based core-only and hetero 2D as well as 0D nanoparticles. We demonstrate that the coupling can be strongly tuned by the lateral size of nanoplatelets, while, due to the weak lateral confinement, the transition energies are only altered by tens of meV. Our analysis shows that an increase in the lateral platelet area results in a strong decrease in the phonon coupling to acoustic modes due to deformation potential interaction, yielding an exciton deformation potential of 3...
February 14, 2019: Nanoscale
Jorge Ariel Rasmussen, Federico Landriel, Santiago Hem, Sebastián Kornfeld, Claudio Yampolsky
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and descriptive data meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to appropriately establish the accuracy in the percutaneous transpedicular screws (PTS) placement using biplane radioscopy (Rx-2D). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The Rx-2D is a widely-used technique for PTS as it is practical, ubiquitous, and cost-effective. However, the reported "acceptable" accuracy attained by this method is widely variable ranging between 76% and 100%...
February 12, 2019: Clinical Spine Surgery
Shubham Tulsiani, Tinghui Zhou, Alyosha Efros, Jitendra Malik
We study the notion of consistency between a 3D shape and a 2D observation and propose a differentiable formulation which allows computing gradients of the 3D shape given an observation from an arbitrary view. We do so by reformulating view consistency using a differentiable ray consistency (DRC) term. We show that this formulation can be incorporated in a learning framework to leverage different types of multi-view observations e.g. foreground masks, depth, color images, semantics etc. as supervision for learning single-view 3D prediction...
February 12, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Ming W Shi, Sajesh P Thomas, Venkatesha R Hathwar, Alison J Edwards, Ross O Piltz, Dylan Jayatilaka, George A Koutsantonis, Jacob Overgaard, Eiji Nishibori, Bo B Iversen, Mark A Spackman
High resolution synchrotron and neutron single crystal diffraction data of 18-crown-6:(pentakis)urea measured at 30 K are combined, with the aim to better appreciate the electrostatics associated with intermolecular interactions in condensed matter. With two 18-crown-6 molecules and five different urea molecules in the crystal, this represents the most ambitious combined X-ray/synchrotron and neu-tron experimental charge density analysis to date on a co-crystal or host-guest system incorporating such a large number of unique mole-cules...
February 14, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Aaryani Tipirneni-Sajja, Axel J Krafft, Ralf B Loeffler, Ruitian Song, Armita Bahrami, Jane S Hankins, Claudia M Hillenbrand
BACKGROUND: Measuring hepatic R2* by fitting a monoexponential model to the signal decay of a multigradient-echo (mGRE) sequence noninvasively determines hepatic iron content (HIC). Concurrent hepatic steatosis introduces signal oscillations and confounds R2* quantification with standard monoexponential models. PURPOSE: To evaluate an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model for accurate quantification of HIC in the presence of fat using biopsy as the reference...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Daniel Stocker, Herman P Marquez, Matthias W Wagner, Dimitri A Raptis, Pierre-Alain Clavien, Andreas Boss, Michael A Fischer, Moritz C Wurnig
Purpose: To find potentially diagnostic texture analysis (TA) features and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of two-dimensional (2D) magnetic resonance (MR) TA for differentiation between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and benign hepatocellular tumors in the non-cirrhotic liver in an exploratory MR-study. Materials and methods: 108 non-cirrhotic patients (62 female; 41.5 ± 18.3 years) undergoing preoperative contrast-enhanced MRI were retrospectively included in this multi-center-study...
November 2018: Heliyon
Tingting Fu, Emeline Houël, Nadine Amusant, David Touboul, Grégory Genta-Jouve, Serge Della-Negra, Gregory L Fisher, Alain Brunelle, Christophe Duplais
Molecular analysis by parallel tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging contributes to the in situ characterization of biosynthetic intermediates which is crucial for deciphering the metabolic pathways in living organisms. We report the first use of TOF-SIMS MS/MS imaging for the cellular localization and characterization of biosynthetic intermediates of bioactive γ-lactones rubrynolide and rubrenolide in the Amazonian tree Sextonia rubra (Lauraceae). Five γ-lactones, including previously reported rubrynolide and rubrenolide, were isolated using a conventional approach and their structural characterization and localization at a lateral resolution of ~400 nm was later achieved using TOF-SIMS MS/MS imaging analysis...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Miki Tsujiuchi, Takenori Yamauchi, Mio Ebato, Hideyuki Maezawa, Ayaka Nogi, Naoko Ikeda, Takuya Mizukami, Sakura Nagumo, Yoshitaka Iso, Toshio Nakadate, Akatsuki Kokaze, Hiroshi Suzuki
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of indices for left atrial volumes (LAV) and reservoir function measured by 3D speckle-tracking analysis (3DSTA) has not been determined. Methods and Results: LA maximal and minimal volume indices (LAVImax, LAVImin), and LA emptying fraction (LAEmpF) were measured via 2D echocardiography (2DE) and 3DSTA in 514 patients (62% male, mean age: 66±15 years) with various cardiovascular diseases. Two cutoff values using normal±2SD (cutoff criterion 1) and receiver-operating characteristic analysis (cutoff criterion 2) were evaluated...
February 13, 2019: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Ping Ding, Xin Wang
Conventional sensor structure design and related fracture mechanics analysis are based on the single J -integral parameter approach of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM). Under low crack constraint cases, the EPFM one-parameter approach generally gives a stress overestimate, which results in a great cost waste of labor and sensor components. The J-A two-parameter approach overcomes this limitation. To enable the extensive application of the J-A approach on theoretical research and sensor engineering problem, under small scale yielding (SSY) conditions, the authors developed an estimate method to conveniently and quickly obtain the constraint (second) parameter A values directly from T -stress...
February 12, 2019: Sensors
Yuanfeng Xu, Ke Xu, Hao Zhang
Group IV monochalcogenides M X ( M = Ge, Sn; X = S, Se)-semiconductor isostructure to black phosphorene-have recently emerged as promising two-dimensional materials for ultrathin-film photovoltaic applications owing to the fascinating electronic and optical properties. Herein, using first-principles calculations, we systematically investigate the orbital contribution electronic properties, angular and strain dependence on the carrier effective masses of monolayer M X . Based on analysis on the orbital-projected band structure, the VBMs are found to be dominantly contributed from the p z orbital of X atom, while the CBM is mainly dominated by p x or p y orbital of M atom...
February 12, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Zhan-Ning Xu, Guo-Dong Zheng, Cheng-Bin Wu, Xia-Yun Jiang, Shu-Ming Zou
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify the differential proteomics of grass carp gills after hypoxic stress to better understand the roles of proteins in the hypoxic response and to explore the possible molecular mechanisms. Protein spots were obtained from a hypoxia-stressed group (372 ± 11 individuals) and a control group (406 ± 14 individuals) using the lmage Master 2D Platinum 7.0 analysis software. Fifteen protein spots were expressed differentially in the hypoxia-stressed group and varied significantly after exposure to the hypoxic conditions...
February 13, 2019: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Cai Li Song, Sergei G Kazarian
The depth of penetration and effective thickness in ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging are dependent on the wavelength and angle of incidence of the incoming light beam. We have demonstrated, for the first time, that variable angle micro ATR-FTIR, which is created via the insertion of circular apertures, is intrinsic at examining embedded components within a prostate tissue specimen. This is done by constructing a 3D model from the stacks of 2D chemical images obtained, each of which represents the spatial distribution of a chosen spectral band assigned to the component of interest at a different probing depth...
February 13, 2019: Analyst
Zoltán-István Szabó, Róbert Ludmerczki, Béla Fiser, Béla Noszál, Gergő Tóth
Pressure-assisted stereospecific capillary electrophoresis method was developed for the determination of enantiomeric purity of the antiparkinsonian agent (R)-rasagiline. The optimized method, 50 mM glycine-HCl buffer pH 2.0, supplied with 30 mM sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin, at 35°C, applying 12 kV in reversed polarity, and - 8 mbar pressure (vacuum), short-end injection with -25 mbar x 2 seconds, was successful for baseline separation of rasagiline enantiomers (Rs = 3.5 ± 0.1) in a short analysis time...
February 13, 2019: Electrophoresis
Leonardo A Rivera-Rivera, Kevin M Johnson, Patrick A Turski, Oliver Wieben, Tilman Schubert
PURPOSE: This feasibility study investigates the non-invasive measurement of microvascular cerebral blood volume (BV) changes over the cardiac cycle using cardiac-gated, ferumoxytol-enhanced <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:msubsup> <mml:mi>T</mml:mi> <mml:mrow> <mml:mn>2</mml:mn> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mrow/> <mml:mo>∗</mml:mo> </mml:mrow> </mml:msubsup> </mml:math> MRI...
February 12, 2019: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Nikolay Lasunin, Denis A Golbin
Background The aim of the project was to show the peculiarities of manipulations in two-dimensional (2D) visualization and to enlighten young neurosurgical residents for further independent training of their manual skills in the anatomic lab. The course followed a step-by-step training program starting with artificial models in a static 2D exoscopic view field with subsequent transition to cadaveric animal models and the use of dynamic four-hand techniques and endoscopy. Materials and methods Since 2015, two 2-day workshops and four 1-day workshops have been organized...
November 30, 2018: Curēus
V Sureshkumar, Bipratip Dutta, Vishesh Kumar, G Prakash, Dwijesh C Mishra, K K Chaturvedi, Anil Rai, Amitha Mithra Sevanthi, Amolkumar U Solanke
Nearly two decades of revolution in the area of genomics serves as the basis of present-day molecular breeding in major food crops such as rice. Here we report an open source database on two major biotic stresses of rice, named RiceMetaSysB, which provides detailed information about rice blast and bacterial blight (BB) responsive genes (RGs). Meta-analysis of microarray data from different blast- and BB-related experiments across 241 and 186 samples identified 15135 unique genes for blast and 7475 for BB. A total of 9365 and 5375 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in blast and BB RGs were identified for marker development...
January 1, 2019: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Yulei Cui, Yun Shao, Qilan Wang, Lijuan Mei, Yanduo Tao
Herbal plants are significant for the reason that they have a great potential in discovering drug precursors. However, how to purify compounds with higher purity from them is a question which needs to be discussed. In present study, an offline 2D reversed-phase (RP) preparative liquid chromatography coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was successfully developed for the separation of flavonolignan diastereoisomers from Arenaria kansuensis. Based on the analysis of results, the major conclusion that we have drawn from it is a RP-SPE was selected for enriching target flavonolignan sample from A...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Chromatographic Science
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