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racial differences in cognition

Sneha Mantri, Chinwe Nwadiogbu, Whitney Fitts, Nabila Dahodwala
OBJECTIVES: Screening tests of global cognition detect racial differences in scores even after adjustment for educational attainment. Differential educational environments in adolescence may affect individual cognitive function. This study examines the impact of high school educational quality on late-life cognition among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS/DESIGN: Data were collected from community-dwelling individuals from the Philadelphia Healthy Brain Aging (PHBA) cohort at the University of Pennsylvania Health System...
February 3, 2019: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Xueyan Zhao, Xin Geng, Vinodh Srinivasasainagendra, Ninad Chaudhary, Suzanne Judd, Virginia Wadley, Orlando M Gutiérrez, Henry Wang, Ethan M Lange, Leslie A Lange, Daniel Woo, Frederick W Unverzagt, Monika Safford, Mary Cushman, Nita Limdi, Rakale Quarells, Donna K Arnett, Marguerite R Irvin, Degui Zhi
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and kidney disease are among the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. However, knowledge of genetic determinants of those diseases in African Americans remains limited. RESULTS: In our study, associations between 4956 GWAS catalog reported SNPs and 67 traits were examined among 7726 African Americans from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, which is focused on identifying factors that increase stroke risk...
January 31, 2019: BMC Medical Genomics
Richard E Kennedy, Gary R Cutter, Mackenzie E Fowler, Lon S Schneider
Importance: Clinical trials in Alzheimer disease (AD) generally allow participants to continue receiving concomitant medications, including cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) and memantine, if the dose is stable. Previous analysis of observational studies indicates such individuals experience greater rate of decline on cognitive testing than those not receiving such medications. Objective: To investigate whether concomitant use of ChEIs or memantine is associated with cognitive outcomes in AD clinical trials...
November 2, 2018: JAMA network open
Brian D Godcharles, Jordyn D J Rad, Kathleen M Heide, John K Cochran, Eldra P Solomon
Public opinion data indicate that the majority of US respondents support the death penalty. Research has consistently indicated, however, that Blacks and females are significantly less likely to support capital punishment than their White and male counterparts. Past research efforts attempting to account for these differences have, at best, only partially accounted for them: the racial divide and gender gap in death penalty support, while narrowed, remained evident. This study proposes that empathy, particularly ethnocultural empathy, may be a key explanatory correlate of death penalty support and that racial and gender differences in empathy may fully explain the observed racial and gender differences in death penalty support...
January 10, 2019: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Deborah A Levine, Andrzej T Galecki, Kenneth M Langa, Frederick W Unverzagt, Mohammed U Kabeto, Bruno Giordani, Mary Cushman, Leslie A McClure, Monika M Safford, Virginia G Wadley
Although the association between high blood pressure (BP), particularly in midlife, and late-life dementia is known, less is known about variations by race and sex. In a prospective national study of 22 164 blacks and whites ≥45 years without baseline cognitive impairment or stroke from the REGARDS cohort study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke), enrolled 2003 to 2007 and followed through September 2015, we measured changes in cognition associated with baseline systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP), as well as pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure, and we tested whether age, race, and sex modified the effects...
February 2019: Hypertension
John C Morris, Suzanne E Schindler, Lena M McCue, Krista L Moulder, Tammie L S Benzinger, Carlos Cruchaga, Anne M Fagan, Elizabeth Grant, Brian A Gordon, David M Holtzman, Chengjie Xiong
Importance: Racial differences in molecular biomarkers for Alzheimer disease may suggest race-dependent biological mechanisms. Objective: To ascertain whether there are racial disparities in molecular biomarkers for Alzheimer disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 1255 participants (173 African Americans) were enrolled from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2015, in longitudinal studies at the Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center at Washington University and completed a magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain and/or positron emission tomography of the brain with Pittsburgh compound B (radioligand for aggregated amyloid-β) and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) assays for the concentrations of amyloid-β42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau181...
January 7, 2019: JAMA Neurology
Laura C Hopkins, Christopher Holloman, Bernadette Melnyk, Mary Fristad, Jacqueline D Goodway, Julie A Kennel, Ihuoma Eneli, Carolyn Gunther
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the feasibility, fidelity and preliminary efficacy of Camp NERF to prevent unhealthy weight gain and promote healthy behaviours in children during the summer. DESIGN: Camp NERF was an 8-week, multicomponent, theory-based programme coupled with the US Department of Agriculture's Summer Food Service Program. Twelve eligible elementary-school sites were randomized to one of three treatment groups: (i) Active Control (non-nutrition, -physical activity (PA), -mental health); (ii) Standard Care (nutrition and PA); or (iii) Enhanced Care (nutrition and PA, plus cognitive behavioural techniques) programming...
January 3, 2019: Public Health Nutrition
Janice C Marceaux, Michelle A Prosje, Leslie A McClure, Bhumika Kana, Michael Crowe, Brett Kissela, Jennifer Manly, George Howard, Joyce W Tam, Frederick W Unverzagt, Virginia G Wadley
OBJECTIVES: Describe novel methods for ascertaining verbal fluency in a large national sample of adults, examine demographic factors influencing performance, and compare scores to studies using in-person assessment. METHODS/DESIGN: Participants were from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a national, population-based, longitudinal study of stroke in adults aged 45 years an older. Letter and semantic fluency were gathered, using Letter "F" and Animal Naming, via a telephone-based assessment with computer-assisted scoring of digital recordings...
December 26, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Madeline R Sterling, Deanna Jannat-Khah, Joanna Bryan, Samprit Banerjee, Leslie A McClure, Virginia G Wadley, Frederick W Unverzagt, Emily B Levitan, Parag Goyal, Janey C Peterson, Jennifer J Manly, Deborah A Levine, Monika M Safford
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment (CI) is estimated to be present in 25%-80% of heart failure (HF) patients, but its prevalence at diagnosis is unclear. To improve our understanding of cognition in HF, we determined the prevalence of CI among adults with incident HF in the REGARDS study. METHODS: REGARDS is a longitudinal cohort study of adults ≥45 years of age recruited from 2003-2007. Incident HF was expert-adjudicated. Cognitive function was assessed with the Six-Item-Screener...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Failure
A C Nutaitis, S D Tharwani, M C Serra, F C Goldstein, L Zhao, S S Sher, D D Verble, W Wharton
BACKGROUND: African Americans (AA) are more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) than Caucasians (CC). Dietary modification may have the potential to reduce the risk of developing AD. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between Southern and Prudent diet patterns and cognitive performance in individuals at risk for developing AD. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-six cognitively normal AA and CC individuals aged 46-77 years with a parental history of AD were enrolled...
2019: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
Stephanie L Garrett, Richard E Kennedy, Patricia Sawyer, Courtney P Williams, Cynthia J Brown, Richard M Allman
OBJECTIVE: Examining cultural differences in assessment of cognitive/functional disability among older Americans is needed. This analysis examined associations between day-to-day function, measured by activities of daily living (ADL), and cognition, measured by CLOX scores, among older African American (AA) and non-Hispanic White (nHW) community-dwelling women and men. METHODS: Design- Cross-sectional. SETTING: Homes of community-dwelling older adults...
December 4, 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Ceren Orhan, Eveline Van Looveren, Barbara Cagnie, Naziru Bashir Mukhtar, Dorine Lenoir, Mira Meeus
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain has been considered as a biopsychosocial condition in which cognitive and emotional factors as well as biological factors significantly affect perception of pain. Race, ethnicity and culture have a crucial impact on illness beliefs, health care preferences, help-seeking behaviors, and acceptance of medical interventions. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to systematically review the current evidence regarding the racial, ethnic and cultural alterations and differences in pain beliefs, cognitions, and behaviors in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (MSKP)...
November 2018: Pain Physician
Emily Kline, Victoria Hendel, Michelle Friedman-Yakoobian, Raquelle I Mesholam-Gately, Ann Findeisen, Suzanna Zimmet, Joanne D Wojcik, Tracey L Petryshen, Tsung-Ung W Woo, Jill M Goldstein, Martha E Shenton, Matcheri S Keshavan, Robert W McCarley, Larry J Seidman
PURPOSE: The current study evaluates the demographic, clinical, and neurocognitive characteristics of a recruited FEP research sample, a research control group, and a FEP clinic sample that were assessed and treated within the same center and time period. METHODS: This study utilized data collected through an observational study and a retrospective chart review. Samples were ascertained in the Longitudinal Assessment and Monitoring of Clinical Status and Brain Function in Adolescents and Adults study and the Prevention and Recovery in Early Psychosis clinic...
November 28, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Julene K Johnson, Anita L Stewart, Michael Acree, Anna M Nápoles, Jason D Flatt, Wendy B Max, Steven E Gregorich
Objectives: To test effects of the Community of Voices choir intervention on the health, well-being, and healthcare costs of racial/ethnically diverse older adults. Method: Twelve Administration-on-Aging-supported senior centers were cluster randomized into two groups: the intervention group started the choir immediately and a wait-list control group began the choir 6 months later. The 12-month choir program was designed for community-dwelling adults aged 60 and over...
November 9, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Shaheen Nageeb, Milkie Vu, Sana Malik, Michael T Quinn, John Cursio, Aasim I Padela
OBJECTIVE: Fatalism has been shown to influence health behaviors and outcomes among different populations. Our study reports on the adaptation of the Religious Health Fatalism Questionnaire for a Muslim population (RHFQ-M). DESIGN: The original RHFQ wording was modified for a Muslim context and cognitively tested in 6 focus groups (FG). Items were revised by Muslim and non-Muslim healthcare researchers based on FG responses regarding the theological "accurateness" of the questions...
2018: PloS One
Manisha Udhnani, Moshe Maiman, Jonathan D Blumenthal, Liv S Clasen, Gregory L Wallace, Jay N Giedd, Armin Raznahan, Nancy Raitano Lee
OBJECTIVES: Past research suggests that youth with sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) present with verbal fluency deficits. However, most studies have focused on sex chromosome trisomies. Far less is known about sex chromosome tetrasomies and pentasomies. Thus, the current research sought to characterize verbal fluency performance among youth with sex chromosome trisomies, tetrasomies, and pentasomies by contrasting how performance varies as a function of extra X number and X versus Y status...
October 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Monique R Pappadis, Shilpa Krishnan, Catherine C Hay, Beata Jones, Angelle M Sander, Susan C Weller, Timothy A Reistetter
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have explored the lived experiences of chronic cognitive and mood symptoms following stroke using a racially/ethnically diverse sample. Therefore, we aimed to explore the perceptions of chronic post-stroke cognition and mood symptoms and goals among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of community-dwelling adults aging with stroke. METHOD: This qualitative study using mixed-methods analysis included semi-structured interviews regarding perceived post-stroke cognitive and mood symptoms among community-dwelling stroke survivors at least one-year post stroke...
October 27, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Cynthia Chen, Julie M Zissimopoulos
Introduction: Disparities in dementia prevalence across racial/ethnic groups in the United States may not be narrowing over time. Methods: Data from Health and Retirement Study (2000 to 2012) were analyzed. Dementia was ascertained based on cognitive, functional measures. Logistic regression was used to quantify association between dementia and risk factors, including chronic conditions, use of drug treatment for them, separately for whites, blacks, and Hispanics...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
Mora A Reinka, Colin Wayne Leach
As race acts as a social frame of reference, it should guide individual's appraisal of visual representations of social events and issues. Thus, grounded in Scherer's (2009) model of appraisal as a sequential process, in 2 experiments (N = 133, 166) we used early event-related potentials (ERPs) of brain activity (the N100, P200, P300) to examine Black and White participants' appraisals of the novelty of images of police force against Black (and White) targets, as well as of Black-led protest. We used a later ERP (the late positive potential, LPP) as well as blood pressure to assess their appraisal of motivational relevance, and self-reported affect and emotion to assess conscious experience...
November 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
DeAnnah R Byrd, Gilbert C Gee, Wassim Tarraf
Objectives: Studies of older U.S. adults have consistently found that African Americans perform worse on cognitive measures than whites, but there are inconsistencies as to whether these findings hold over time. Moreover, studies have focused on adults 51 and older, without considering younger ages; thus it is unclear the age at which these disparities surface. The present study examines black-white disparities in mental status trajectories among adults as young as 25 years over a 25-year period...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
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