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disparities in cognition

Mathilde Calvez, George Hseeh, Simon Benzer, Amanda M Brown
Despite the fact that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) does not enter or replicate in neurons, its infection of a subset of resident brain glia cells (microglia and astrocytes) induces via disparate mechanisms, dysregulation of glutamate metabolism, neurotoxicity, and inflammation. Antiretroviral therapies suppress viral load, but cellular activation and release of proinflammatory factors, some of which is likely related to viral reservoirs, continue to promote a microenvironment that is injurious to neurons...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
I Fuelscher, K Caeyenberghs, P G Enticott, M Kirkovski, S Farquharson, J Lum, C Hyde
Mirror neurons (MN) have been proposed as the neural substrate for a wide range of clinical, social and cognitive phenomena. Over the last decade, a commonly used tool for investigating MN activity in the human brain has been functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) repetition suppression (RS) paradigms. However, the available evidence is mixed, largely owing to inconsistent application of the methodological criteria necessary to infer MN properties. This raises concerns about the degree to which one can infer the presence (or absence) of MN activity from earlier accounts that adopted RS paradigms...
February 13, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Shaohai Jiang, Y Alicia Hong, Piper Liping Liu
PURPOSE: In the past decade, online patient-provider communication (OPPC) has emerged as a viable avenue for cancer survivors to communicate with their providers. However, little is known about the patterns of OPPC among cancer survivors. Thus, the current study aims to explore the trend of OPPC used by cancer survivors, and the influence of digital divide on OPPC in the past decade. METHODS: Data from the 2008, 2011, 2013, and 2017 iterations of the nationally representative survey of Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were analyzed...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Mark B Schure, Meredith Howard, Sandra J Bailey, Bill Bryan, John Greist
Computerized mental health interventions have the potential to address existing mental health care disparities in rural communities. The aim of this study was to conduct an exploratory examination on the acceptability of an interactive computerized cognitive behavior therapy program to reduce depressive symptoms for adults in a rural Western state. Partnering with the land-grant university Extension system and a state non-profit organization, we identified and interviewed 18 key informants and conducted 19 focus groups in 15 rural communities to ascertain attitudes and perspectives about the program...
July 2018: Rural Mental Health
Daniel Fürstenau, Claudia Spies, Martin Gersch, Amyn Vogel, Rudolf Mörgeli, Akira-Sebastian Poncette, Ursula Müller-Werdan, Felix Balzer
BACKGROUND: Especially patients older than 65 years undergoing surgery are prone to develop frailty-related complications that may go far beyond the index hospitalization (e.g., cognitive impairment following postoperative delirium). However, aging-relevant information are currently not fully integrated into hospitals' perioperative processes. METHODS: We introduce a temporal perspective, which focuses on the social construction of time, to better understand existing barriers to the exchange of frailty-related data, targeting complexity research...
February 7, 2019: BMC Health Services Research
Anne C Laurita, Cindy Hazan, R Nathan Spreng
Recent investigations in neuroscience elucidate the neural basis of close other cognitive representations, which serve functions central to our health and happiness. Yet, there are persistent barriers to this research, including disparate research methods and the absence of a common theoretical background. The present review connects neuroimaging and attachment theory within a novel social, cognitive, and affective framework. We apply attachment theory to understand why we would expect cognitive representations of close others to be different from other social neural representations...
February 1, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Jorge I Ramírez García
OBJECTIVES: Social determinants of health (SDOH) such as environmental conditions and the nature of social settings have become highly influential in public health policy-making circles worldwide, yet they may not address clearly the role of ethnicity in health processes. METHOD: Drawing from the National Institutes of Health's disparity research frameworks, this papers illustrates a set of variables that are advanced as having a unique role in disparities experienced by ethnic populations and Latina/os, in particular...
January 2019: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Megbaru Alemu, Abay Anley, Kiros Tedla
Background: Intestinal parasitoses are among the most commonly encountered infections among school children in poor regions of the world. Up to 600 million school children are living in areas where there is high transmission of parasitic worms. Intestinal parasitic infection has been found to have a great effect on nutritional and cognitive status, school absenteeism and dropouts among school age children. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasites infections and associated factors among children in a rural primary school, Northwest Ethiopia...
January 2019: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Natalie E Adams, Catarina Teige, Giovanna Mollo, Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Piers L Cornelissen, Jonathan Smallwood, Roger D Traub, Elizabeth Jefferies, Miles A Whittington
Rhythmic activity in populations of neurons is associated with cognitive and motor function. Our understanding of the neuronal mechanisms underlying these core brain functions has benefitted from demonstrations of cellular, synaptic and network phenomena underiying the generation of discrete rhythms at the local network level. However, discrete frequencies of rhythmic activity rarely occur alone. Despite this, little is known about why multiple rhythms are generated together or what mechanisms underlie their interaction to promote brain function...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Neurophysiology
Courtney L McMickens, Ashley Clayton, Marjorie S Rosenthal, Lori Wallace, Heather B Howell, Gweniver Bell, Megan V Smith
Objectives Innovative mental health care delivery models have been proposed as a method to address disparities in access and utilization. The aim of this study is to characterize patients' perspectives and experiences of participating in one such innovative delivery model, group cognitive behavioral therapy within a supermarket setting. Methods In this qualitative study, 16 mothers were interviewed to explore their experiences and perspectives of receiving group-based cognitive behavioral therapy in a supermarket setting, as part of their participation in an academic-community research collaborative whose mission is to address mental health needs within low-resourced communities...
January 29, 2019: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Daisy Le, Linda Aldoory, Mary A Garza, Craig S Fryer, Robin Sawyer, Cheryl L Holt
BACKGROUND: Although Hispanic women have the highest cervical cancer incidence rate, African American women account for a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer incidence and mortality when compared with non-Hispanic white women. Given that religion occupies an essential place in African American lives, delivering health messages through a popular communication delivery channel and framing them with important spiritual themes may allow for a more accessible and culturally appropriate approach to promoting cervical cancer educational content to African American women...
March 29, 2018: JMIR formative research
Shervin Assari, Pegah Khoshpouri, Hamid Chalian
AIM: To determine whether socioeconomic status (SES; educational attainment and income) explains the racial gap in cancer beliefs, cognitions, and emotions in a national sample of American adults. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, data came from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2017, which included a nationally representative sample of American adults. The study enrolled 2277 adults who were either non-Hispanic Black ( n = 409) or non-Hispanic White ( n = 1868)...
January 24, 2019: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Shuang Peng, Bo Yang, Meng Yun Duan, Zi Wei Liu, Wei Feng Wang, Xiang Zhi Zhang, Bo Xu Ren, Feng Ru Tang
The effect of acute X-ray irradiation with 2 Gy or fractionated exposure with 0.2 Gy continuously for 10 days (0.2 Gy × 10 = 2 Gy) was evaluated in the postnatal day 21 (P21) BALB/c mouse model. Both acute and fractionated irradiation induced impairment of cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus labeled by Ki67 and doublecortin, respectively. Parvalbumin immunopositive interneurons in the subgranular zone were also reduced significantly. However, the 2 patterns of irradiation did not affect animal weight gain when measured at ages of P90 and P180 or 69 and 159 days after irradiation...
January 2019: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
Michael J Zvolensky, Jasper A J Smits, Lorra Garey
The field of behavioral medicine continues to have a major impact on psychological science and public health. Presently, the field of behavioral medicine is undergoing rapid development and continues to evolve as a sub-discipline in allied disciplines. This Special Issue highlights emerging work that contributes to the evolution of behavioral medicine as pertaining to behavioral, psychosocial, and biomedical science integration to prevent, diagnose, and treat illness and disease. The present introductory article calls attention to research in behavioral medicine in the larger context of behavioral health research and practice and encourages continued research in this area...
January 11, 2019: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Mark Wade, Nathan A Fox, Charles H Zeanah, Charles A Nelson
Children experiencing psychosocial deprivation as a result of early institutional rearing demonstrate many difficulties with memory and executive functioning (EF). To date, there is scant evidence that foster care placement remediates these difficulties during childhood. The current study examined longitudinal trajectories of memory and EF from childhood to adolescence in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of foster care for institutionally reared children. We demonstrate that both ever- and never-institutionalized children show age-related improvements on several measures of memory and EF from age 8 to 16...
January 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nicole L Varga, Trent Gaugler, Jennifer Talarico
Theories of reconstructive memory have long been influenced by investigations of false recognition errors, in which old/new judgements are compromised by spontaneous activation of associated but nonpresented concepts. Recent evidence similarly suggests that reconstructive memory processes (so-called memory integration) also support positive learning behaviors, such as inferential reasoning. Despite prevailing hypotheses, the question of whether a common integration process underlies these seemingly disparate mnemonic outcomes is not well understood...
January 7, 2019: Memory & Cognition
John C Morris, Suzanne E Schindler, Lena M McCue, Krista L Moulder, Tammie L S Benzinger, Carlos Cruchaga, Anne M Fagan, Elizabeth Grant, Brian A Gordon, David M Holtzman, Chengjie Xiong
Importance: Racial differences in molecular biomarkers for Alzheimer disease may suggest race-dependent biological mechanisms. Objective: To ascertain whether there are racial disparities in molecular biomarkers for Alzheimer disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 1255 participants (173 African Americans) were enrolled from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2015, in longitudinal studies at the Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center at Washington University and completed a magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain and/or positron emission tomography of the brain with Pittsburgh compound B (radioligand for aggregated amyloid-β) and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) assays for the concentrations of amyloid-β42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau181...
January 7, 2019: JAMA Neurology
Hylton E Molzof, Aoyjai Prapanjaroensin, Vivek H Patel, Mugdha V Mokashi, Karen L Gamble, Patricia A Patrician
Circadian rhythms greatly influence 24-h variation in cognition in nearly all organisms, including humans. Circadian clock impairment and sleep disruption are detrimental to hippocampus-dependent memory and negatively influence the acquisition and recall of learned behaviors. The circadian clock can become out of sync with the environment during circadian misalignment. Shift work represents a real-world model of circadian misalignment that can be studied for its physiological implications. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that circadian misalignment disrupts vigilance and cognitive performance on occupationally relevant tasks using shift work as a model...
January 3, 2019: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Spela Mirosevic, Booil Jo, Helena C Kraemer, Mona Ershadi, Eric Neri, David Spiegel
BACKGROUND: Currently, there are eight meta-analyses that address the question whether psychosocial intervention can prolong survival with widely disparate conclusions. One reason for inconsistent findings may be the methods by which previous meta-analyses were conducted. METHODS: Databases were searched to identify valid randomized controlled trials that compared psychosocial intervention with usual care. Hazard ratios (HRs) and their confidence intervals were pooled to estimate the strength of the treatment effect on survival time, and z-tests were performed to assess possible heterogeneity of effect sizes associated with different patient and treatment characteristics...
January 1, 2019: Cancer Medicine
Sim K Singhrao, Ingar Olsen
Our research into Alzheimer's disease (AD) focuses on the oral cavity and the brain, from which key evaluations of prospective and retrospective population-based data have shown that chronic periodontal disease existing for ten-years or over doubles the risk for the sporadic form of AD. Furthermore, Porphyromonas gingivalis ( P. gingivalis ) mono-infections in established periodontal lesions, or introducing its lipopolysachharide (LPS), as demonstrated in in vivo studies, show hallmark pathology inclusive of extracellular amyloid plaques and phospho-tau bound neurofibrillary tangles with AD-like phenotype...
December 20, 2018: JAD Reports
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