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Tamaki Endoh, Tatsuya Ohyama, Naoki Sugimoto
RNA aptamers are useful building blocks for constructing functional nucleic acid-based nanoarchitectures. The abilities of aptamers to recognize specific ligands have also been utilized for various biotechnological applications. Solution conditions, which can differ depending on the application, impact the affinity of the aptamers, and thus it is important to optimize the aptamers for the solution conditions to be employed. To simplify the aptamer optimization process, an efficient method that enables re-selection of an aptamer from a partially randomized library is developed...
February 18, 2019: Small
Shintaro Sukegawa, Hotaka Kawai, Keisuke Nakano, Takahiro Kanno, Kiyofumi Takabatake, Hitoshi Nagatsuka, Yoshihiko Furuki
Purpose : We aimed to document the clinical usefulness of uncalcined and unsintered hydroxyapatite (u-HA) particles and poly-L-lactide (PLLA) composite materials and their advantageous properties. Methods : Between April 2016 and March 2018, five patients required anterior maxillary alveolar ridge augmentation using fixation with u-HA/PLLA screws for an onlay block bone graft harvested from the mandibular ramus at our institute. Bone biopsies were obtained from the dental implantation site following bone healing for histomorphometric and immunohistochemical (IHC) measurements...
2019: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Monalie V Bandulasena, Goran T Vladisavljević, Brahim Benyahia
Novel cost effective, versatile, reconfigurable, reusable and easy to assemble glass capillary microfluidic devices were developed and used to generate micro/nano-materials with controlled size and morphology. The devices are composed of coaxial assemblies of glass capillaries held between two interchangeable plastic blocks fabricated from chemically inert polyoxymethylene copolymer using computer numerical control (CNC) machining. Three different blocks were combined and locked together using Lego® inspired stud-and-hole coupling system to achieve different flow configurations...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Jose Cadena, David Falcone, Achla Marathe, Anil Vullikanti
BACKGROUND: Clusters of under-vaccinated children are emerging in a number of states in the United States due to rising rates of vaccine hesitancy and refusal. As the measles outbreaks in California and other states in 2015 and in Minnesota in 2017 showed, such clusters can pose a significant public health risk. Prior methods have used publicly-available school immunization data for analysis (except for a few, which use private healthcare patient records). School immunization data has limited demographic information-as a result, such analyses are not able to provide demographic characteristics of significant clusters...
February 4, 2019: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Peng Zhang, Wanjun Jiang, Na Luo, Wenbing Zhu, Liqing Fan
The acrosome is single, large, dense-core secretory granule overlying the nucleus of most mammalian spermatozoa. Its exocytosis, the acrosome reaction, is a crucial event during fertilisation. In this study we identified a new acrosome-associated gene, namely IQ motif containing D (IQCD), expressed nearly in multiple tissues with highest expression levels in the testis. In mouse testis, Iqcd transcript accumulated from Postnatal Day (PND) 1 to adulthood. However, expression of IQCD protein at the testicular development stage started primarily from PND 18 and increased in an age-dependent manner until plateauing in adulthood...
February 4, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Juliana F Germano, Savannah Sawaged, Hannaneh Saadaeijahromi, Allen M Andres, Ralph Feuer, Roberta A Gottlieb, Jon Sin
Coxsackievirus B is a significant human pathogen and is a leading cause of myocarditis. We and others have observed that certain enteroviruses including coxsackievirus B cause infected cells to shed extracellular vesicles containing infectious virus. Recent reports have shown that vesicle-bound virus can infect more efficiently than free virus. Though microRNAs are differentially regulated in cells following infection, few have been associated with the vesicles shed from infected cells. Here we report exclusive trafficking of specific microRNAs into viral vesicles compared to vesicles from non-infected cells...
January 30, 2019: Virology
Chimwemwe Tusekile Mula, Nicola Human, Lyn Middleton
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic stewardship, the proper management of antibiotics to ensure optimal patient outcomes, is based on quality improvement. Evidence-based guidelines and protocols have been developed to improve this process of care. Safe and timely patient care also requires optimal coordination of staff, resources, equipment, schedules and tasks. However, healthcare workers encounter barriers when implementing these standards and engage in workarounds to overcome these barriers. Workarounds bypass or temporarily 'fix' perceived workflow hindrances to achieve a goal more readily...
January 23, 2019: BMC Health Services Research
Rustelle Janse van Vuuren, Mandie Botes, Tamarin Jurgens, Anna Margaretha Joubert, Iman van den Bout
Background: The estrogen metabolite 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) and a number of synthesised derivatives have been shown to bind to microtubules thereby arresting cancer cells in mitosis which leads to apoptosis. In interphase cells, microtubules play an important role in the delivery of proteins to subcellular locations including the focal adhesions. In fact, focal adhesion dynamics and cell migration are in part regulated by microtubules. We hypothesised that novel 2ME2 derivatives can alter cell migration by influencing microtubule dynamics in interphase cells...
2019: Cancer Cell International
Minsuk Kwon, Young Joon Choi, Moa Sa, Su-Hyung Park, Eui-Cheol Shin
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), such as anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 Abs, have shown efficacy for the treatment of various cancers. Although research has actively sought to develop new ICIs and immunomodulators, no efficient in vitro assay system is available to evaluate their functional activities. In the present study, we established a two-round MLR with human PBMCs for evaluation of the T cell-activating capacity of anti-PD-1 and other immunomodulators. We initially performed conventional MLR for this purpose...
December 2018: Immune Network
Joshua A Manchester, Kwok-Hung Chung, James S Brudvik, Van Ramos, Yen-Wei Chen
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The prevalent use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) for tooth-colored ceramic materials has led to several case reports and retrospective clinical studies of surveyed crowns used to support removable partial dentures. How the specific contour of a cingulum rest seat affects the fracture resistance of these CAD-CAM tooth-colored materials is unknown. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the fracture resistance of monolithic CAD-CAM tooth-colored mandibular canine-surveyed ceramic crowns with cingulum rest seats of different designs...
December 28, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Jiaxiang Hu, Xiaoxue Wang, Yanling Xing, Enguang Rong, Mengfei Ning, Jacqueline Smith, Yinhua Huang
BACKGROUND: Oligoadenylate synthetases (OASs) are widely distributed in Metazoa including sponges, fish, reptiles, birds and mammals and show large variation, with one to twelve members in any given species. Upon double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding, avian and mammalian OASs generate the second messenger 2'-5'-linked oligoadenylate (2-5A), which activates ribonuclease L (RNaseL) and blocks viral replication. However, how Metazoa shape their OAS repertoires to keep evolutionary balance to virus infection is largely unknown...
December 27, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
József Szalma, Ole Klein, Bálint Viktor Lovász, Edina Lempel, Sára Jeges, Lajos Olasz
Background: High temperatures during drilling can cause thermal osteonecrosis and abnormal wound healing. According to our best knowledge, a widely accepted recommendation for optimal drilling parameters in routine oral surgery bone removals does not exist. Purpose: Our aim was to investigate the correlations of different drilling parameters, including axial load and revolution speed on drilling temperatures and preparation times. Materials and Methods: Standard, 5 mm deep cavities were drilled in 20 PCF (lb/ft3 ) dens polyurethane blocks with 3 mm (50PCF) cortical layer using new and worn, 3...
2018: BioMed Research International
Xiaoyue Xu, Xiaoyu Tang, Xiaoxu Wu, Xiufang Feng
Sorafenib (SRF) is a well-known tyrosine kinase inhibiting anticancer drug which iseffectual against multiple carcinomas especially gastric cancers by targeting the Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk cascade pathway and blocking the tumor cell proliferation. In the present work, we have reduced graphene oxide (GO) in presence of sorafenib using ascorbic as green reducing agent for the treatment of gastric cancers. Sorafenib reduced graphene oxide (SRGO) were obtained with a transparent and smoothmorphology. The drug loaded SRGO has presented significant cytotoxic effect against SGC7901 cancer cells when compared to that of the free SRF and blank NPs in the equivalent concentrations...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Lei Wang, Meijuan Yuan, Jianting Zheng
The highly reducing iterative polyketide synthases responsible for lovastatin biosynthesis contains a section homologous to condensation (CON) domain observed in nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). In the present study, we expressed the isolated lovastatin CON domain and solved the crystal structure to 1.79 Å resolution. The overall structure shows similarity to canonical condensation domains of NRPSs, containing the N-terminal and C-terminal subdomains that resemble enzymes of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase family, whereas distinct structural features are observed at the active site...
March 2019: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Sebastiaan Zijl, Aliaksei S Vasilevich, Priyalakshmi Viswanathan, Ayelen Luna Helling, Nick R M Beijer, Gernot Walko, Ciro Chiappini, Jan de Boer, Fiona M Watt
Human epidermal stem cells initiate terminal differentiation when spreading is restricted on ECM-coated micropatterned islands, soft hydrogels or hydrogel-nanoparticle composites with high nanoparticle spacing. The effect of substrate topography, however, is incompletely understood. To explore this, primary human keratinocytes enriched for stem cells were seeded on a topographical library with over 2000 different topographies in the micrometre range. Twenty-four hours later the proportion of cells expressing the differentiation marker Transglutaminase-1 was determined by high content imaging...
December 5, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
F Gueneau, U Ravn, N Fischer
The assembly of bispecific antibodies (bsAb) that retain the structure of a standard IgG can be challenging as the correct pairing of the different heavy and light chains has to be ensured while unwanted side products kept to a minimum. The use of antibodies sharing a common chain facilitates assembly of such bsAb formats but requires additional efforts during the initial discovery phase. We have developed a native bsAb format called κλ body based on antibodies that, while being specific for different antigens, share the same heavy chain...
February 1, 2019: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Ruijun Li, Chen Chen, Kuangchao Fan, Zhiwei Wang, Fangfang Liu, Qiangxian Huang
Micro ball tips with high precision, small diameter, and high stiffness stems are required to measure microstructures with high aspect ratio. Existing ball tips cannot meet such demands because of their weak qualities. This study used an arc-discharge melting method to fabricate a micro monolithic tungsten ball tip on a tungsten stylus. The principles of arc discharge and surface tension phenomenon were introduced. The experimental setup was designed and established. Appropriate process parameters, such as impulse voltage, electro discharge time, and discharge gap were determined...
March 19, 2018: Micromachines
Qiong Li, Danhua Zhou, Jiafeng Pan, Zhi Liu, Junhua Chen
In this work, a label-free fluorescence biosensor for ultrasensitive and simple detection of the mecA gene of Staphylococcus aureus was proposed by using an exonuclease III (Exo III)-assisted cascade signal amplification strategy. The 3' end-extruding hairpin probe (HP) acted as the target recognition element and the caged G-quadruplex was used as the signal reporter. Without the mecA gene, the HP probe cannot be digested by Exo III, as the G-rich sequences are blocked in the stem of the HP probe. In the presence of the mecA gene, the hybridization of the mecA gene with the 3' end-extruding HP probe triggers the digestion reaction of Exo III, liberating the mecA gene and the mecA gene analogue...
November 7, 2018: Analyst
Eleanor Russell-Goldman, Jason L Hornick, Xiaohua Qian, Vickie Y Jo
BACKGROUND: Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a round cell sarcoma that can be challenging to diagnose on cytologic material given its significant overlap with numerous mesenchymal, epithelial, and lymphoid cytomorphologic mimics. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of a novel marker, NKX2.2, in the diagnosis of ES in cytologic material and its ability to distinguish ES from its mimics. METHODS: NKX2.2 immunohistochemistry was performed on cell blocks from 107 fine-needle aspirations, and nuclear expression was scored semiquantitatively for extent and intensity...
November 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Adam Ciezarek, Owen Osborne, Oliver N Shipley, Edward J Brooks, Sean Tracey, Jaime McAllister, Luke Gardner, Michael J E Sternberg, Barbara Block, Vincent Savolainen
Birds, mammals, and certain fishes, including tunas, opahs and lamnid sharks, are endothermic, conserving internally generated, metabolic heat to maintain body or tissue temperatures above that of the environment. Bluefin tunas are commercially important fishes worldwide and some populations are threatened. They are renowned for their endothermy, maintaining elevated temperatures of the oxidative locomotor muscle, viscera, brain and eyes, and occupying cold, productive high-latitude waters. Less cold-tolerant tunas, such as yellowfin tuna, by contrast, remain in warm-temperate to tropical waters year-round, reproducing more rapidly than most temperate bluefin tuna populations, providing resiliency in the face of large scale industrial fisheries...
October 26, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
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